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Georgia Kindergarten Inventory of Developing Skills

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Title: Georgia Kindergarten Inventory of Developing Skills


1
Georgia Kindergarten Inventory of Developing
Skills
  • Assessment and
  • Instructional Guide

2
A Special Note to Georgias Kindergarten Teachers
  • GKIDS will replace GKAP-R beginning with the
    2008-09 school year
  • You will be the first to see, interpret and use
    the results of GKIDS. You will conference with
    parents about GKIDS results and the next
    educational steps for their children.
  • By using the Georgia Performance Standards (GPS)
    and a continuous cycle of planning, teaching, and
    assessing, you have the potential to increase
    student achievement.
  • The Georgia Department of Education values what
    you and your school district do to make
    kindergarten a sound educational foundation for
    every Georgia student.

3
Table of Contents
4
Part I. Development and Research
  • GKIDS Development Timeline
  • Why are kindergarten students assessed in
    Georgia?
  • GKIDS Focus Group Questions
  • Focus Group Recommendations
  • National Recommendations for Early Childhood
    Assessments
  • GKIDS Field Testing 2007-2008
  • Field Test Teachers Comments On GKIDS

5
GKIDS Development Timeline
  • Focus Groups (Dec 2006)
  • Core Development Team (Jan 2007)
  • Advisory Committee 1 2 (Feb-March 2007)
  • Teacher Training Prior to Field Test (summer
    2007)
  • Field Testing (2007-08 School Year)
  • Development of Data Entry and Reporting
    Technology
  • 23 Schools Participating
  • Advisory Committee 3 (March 2008)
  • Assessment and Instructional Guide (summer 2008)
  • Professional Development (summer 2008)
  • Operational Assessment (2008-09)
  • Standard Setting (May/June 2009)

6
Why are kindergarten students assessed in Georgia?
  • Georgia Law 20-2-151 and 20-2-281
  • Requires an instrument, procedures, and policies
    necessary to assess the first grade readiness of
    children enrolled in Georgia public school
    kindergarten programs.
  • Requires development of guidelines for the
    utilization of the instrument in grade placement
    decisions.
  • Requires an annual summary report.

6
7
GKIDS Focus Group Questions
  • Regarding the GKAP-R, what should be continued
    and what should be revised?
  • What areas of learning should be the focus of the
    new kindergarten assessment?
  • Print literacy, math, social/emotional
    development, science, social studies, art, other.
  • What should be the purpose of the new
    kindergarten assessment?
  • Providing diagnostic information to the first
    grade teacher?
  • Measuring how well students have learned the GPS
    for kindergarten?
  • Both of the above? Other purposes?

8
Focus Group Recommendations Purpose of GKIDS
  • GKIDS should provide diagnostic information to
    the kindergarten teacher throughout the year.
  • GKIDS should pinpoint a students strengths and
    areas of challenge.
  • GKIDS should provide diagnostic information to
    the first grade teacher and measure how well
    kindergarteners have learned the GPS.

9
Focus Group Recommendations Content and Scoring
of GKIDS
  • GKIDS content should be more rigorous
    academically than the current GKAP-R.
  • Assessment activities should be project based
    not just pointing to a right answer but including
    discussion.
  • GKIDS should test a wider range of skill levels
    to provide diagnostics about students who perform
    above and below grade level.

10
Focus Group Recommendations Content of GKIDS
  • Reading
  • Reading passages should be included in the
    kindergarten assessment
  • Math
  • Numeral recognition for this assessment should be
    higher than the number 10.
  • Writing
  • Writing skills should be evaluated in
    kindergarten.
  • Students should be able to write both their first
    and last names, not just their first names.
  • Social Emotional
  • Indicators for scoring the social/emotional
    domain should be clarified.

11
Focus Group Recommendations Data Collection
  • Data Collection Provide electronic, parent
    friendly reports that can be generated locally.
  • Data Collection The GKIDS script, if there is
    one, should be flexible.
  • Data Collection Clarify the intermediate steps
    of learning GPS skills (i.e., In Progress).
  • Data Collection Supply clear benchmarks for each
    learning domain assessed.

12
Focus Group Recommendations Reporting Diagnostic
Information
  • Each domain of learning should be reported
    separately to paint a more specific picture that
    can inform instruction.
  • A checklist that can be kept in the permanent
    record would be useful.
  • The new GKIDS should provide a profile of each
    kindergarten student for parents and teachers.
  • Report information in a format useful to the
    first grade teacher currently first grade
    teachers tend not to look at GKAP-R information.

13
National Recommendations for Early Childhood
Assessments
  • Assessments should. . .
  • bring about benefits for children
  • be tailored to a specific purpose and should be
    reliable, valid, and fair for that purpose.
  • be designed recognizing that ability and validity
    of assessments increase with childrens age.
  • be age-appropriate in both content and the method
    of data collection.
  • be linguistically appropriate, recognizing that
    to some extent all assessments are measures of
    language.

14
GKIDS Field Testing 2007-2008 School Year
  • 23 Georgia Schools
  • 185 teachers/classrooms
  • A member of the Core Development Team or Advisory
    Committee at each school/system
  • Represented the diversity of Georgias student
    population and each geographic area of the state
  • Purpose To try out the performance level
    descriptors for all areas of learning

15
Field Test Teachers Comments
  • Clarifying the GPS Standards for Kindergarten
  • By participating in this field test, it has made
    us more aware of the GPS standards and elements,
    since we are constantly looking at them and
    recording information. We can also match lessons
    with standards more easily.
  • We are much more focused on "standards driven"
    instruction. It seems like it is easier for us
    to see exactly where our children are therefore,
    we are modifying instruction and meeting their
    needs accordingly. We have really gotten to know
    the standards and are better able to include them
    in our instruction on an age appropriate level.
  • It has given me a clearer view of what the
    language of the standards mean. When we first
    started working with GPS, they sometimes seemed
    obscure. The rubrics helped clarify the
    expectations for learning and mastery. Therefore,
    I think I am becoming more efficient in designing
    student work that will meet learning needs with
    more precision and accuracy.

16
Field Test Teachers Comments
  • Instructional Planning
  • We feel that participating in the GKIDS Field
    Test has provided us with a variety of techniques
    for assessing students. Documentations,
    anecdotal notes, portfolios, strategies, and
    modifications have helped with instructional
    planning.
  • Increased awareness of standards, helped with
    planning (prioritizing and the weeding out of
    units and activities that are not relevant to
    GPS), and curriculum mapping (across all
    subjects).
  • I am staying more on top of the standards and
    trying to put lots of meat into every activity.
    Due to the lack of time, teachers can not do an
    activity because it is cute or fun. All
    activities must have a learning focus. I am
    planning an assessment with each standard and
    trying to plan assessments into the instructional
    activities.

17
Field Test Teachers Comments
  • Flexibility
  • GKIDS has provided great flexibility in how we
    assess students. There are great ideas on how to
    deliver the standards. We have gotten to know
    our standards better for having done GKIDS this
    year. The sample worksheets have been great!
  • We love the greater flexibility in assessing
    students. The GKIDS manual offers many good ideas
    for assessing, instruction, and expectations.
    This has been a tremendous asset to us.

18
Field Test Teachers Comments
  • Beyond Reading and Math
  • It has encouraged us to pay attention to
    non-academic indicators of student progress and
    development.
  • We are doing a better job of incorporating
    Science and Social Studies standards into our
    lessons. We are realizing the effectiveness of
    assessing during large group instead of spending
    so much time with one-on-one assessments. The
    children don't even realize that we are
    completing assessments which is less stressful
    for the "little ones."
  • I am more aware of student progress through
    continuing, frequent assessments. I am more
    observant of the whole child. I have been keeping
    great records and portfolios since starting
    GKIDS. It has totally helped me with being more
    organized. My instruction has not changed. I just
    have to begin observations/testing a lot earlier.
    I have been focused on helping students move
    through progress levels instead of just getting
    it or not It broadens my instruction.

19
Part II. Overview of GKIDS
  • GKIDS Purpose
  • A Flexible Model of Assessment
  • GKIDS Two Assessment Purposes
  • What is Assessed?
  • GPS Structure
  • Assessing at Element Level
  • Assessing with Performance Levels
  • Format and Activity Options
  • Assessing Non-Academic Dimensions of Learning
  • Testing Materials
  • Data Entry and Reporting Website
  • Required End-of-the-Year Reporting
  • GKAP-R v. GKIDS

20
GKIDS Purpose
  • Provides teachers with ongoing diagnostic
    information about kindergarten students
    developing skills in language arts, math,
    science, social studies, personal/social
    development, approaches to learning and motor
    skills.
  • Provides a summary of individual student
    performance at the end of the kindergarten school
    year as an indicator of first grade readiness.

21
A Flexible Model of Assessment
  • Teacher decides when to assess each GPS element
    (unless system elects to implement curriculum
    maps or determines which elements will be
    assessed).
  • Teacher decides how to assess each GPS element
    and how frequently to assess.
  • Teacher may use assessment activities that cover
    multiple elements at one time and/or assess
    multiple children at a single setting.
  • Teacher may assess by observing student
    performance during the course of regular
    classroom instruction or by an assessment
    activity of the teachers choice.
  • No accommodations information is collected.

22
GKIDS Two Assessment Purposes
  • Formative Assessment
  • Tool to assist Kindergarten teachers as they
    assess student learning and plan instruction
    throughout the year.
  • GKIDS website will allow teachers to generate
    reports at any time during the year for
  • Instructional planning
  • Parent Conferencing
  • Report Cards
  • EIP referrals
  • Summative Assessment
  • Diagnostic information will be reported for the
    GPS standards that are indicators of first grade
    readiness.
  • Individual student reports and school/system
    summary reports
  • No overall scale score or performance level will
    be reported.
  • GKIDS should only serve as one component among
    many indicators of first grade readiness.

23
What is Assessed?
  • GPS Content Areas
  • ELA
  • Math
  • Social Studies (optional)
  • Science (optional)
  • Non-Academic Dimensions of Learning
  • Personal/Social Development
  • Approaches to Learning
  • Motor Skills (optional)

24
GPS Structure
  • The Georgia Performance Standards are arranged by
    domain, strand, standard, and element. Some GPS
    standards have multiple elements.
  • Domain ELA
  • Strand Reading
  • Standard Concepts of Print
  • Element Tracks text from left to right and top
    to bottom.
  • Diagram of GPS for English Language Arts
  • Diagram of GPS for Mathematics

25
Assessing at Element Level
  • In GKIDS, students are assessed at the element
    level of the GPS.
  • Example ELAKR1-a
  • ELA English Language Arts
  • K Kindergarten
  • R1 Reading Standard 1
  • a Element a of R1
  • Some elements are specific skills, others are
    general knowledge or activities students should
    engage in throughout the school year.

26
Assessing with Performance Levels
  • ELA, Math, Social Studies, and Science standards
    will be assessed using 2-5 performance levels for
    each element. The number of performance levels
    was determined by the GKIDS Advisory Committee
    and is based on the range of student performance
    that can be observed for each element.
  • Performance Levels
  • Not Yet Demonstrated
  • Emerging
  • Progressing
  • Meets the Standard
  • Exceeds the Standard

27
Format and Activity Options
  • Activities Options
  • Teacher may assess by observing student
    performance during the course of regular
    classroom instruction or by an assessment
    activity of the teachers choice.
  • Sample activities have been developed for each
    GPS standard by the advisory committee
  • No required sets of manipulatives
  • Suggested list of classroom objects or
    downloadable resource page provided for each
    suggested activity
  • Format Options (selected by teacher)
  • Large Group
  • Small Group
  • One-on-one

28
Assessing Non-Academic Domains of Learning
  • Approaches to Learning
  • Personal and Social Development
  • Motor Skills (optional)
  • Students are assessed using the following
    performance levels
  • Area of Concern
  • Developing
  • Consistently Demonstrating

29
Testing Materials
  • Pre-printed test booklets and activity kits will
    not be provided with GKIDS.
  • Some assessment resource pages are available with
    the sample activities.
  • Word lists
  • Extending patterns
  • Teachers can use common classroom materials for
    assessment activities.

30
Data Entry and Reporting Website
  • Web-based electronic data entry and reporting
    system available 24 hours a day, 7 days a week
    https//gkids.tsars.uga.edu/start
  • Allows teachers to enter and manage data
    throughout the school year.
  • Teacher can enter data by student or by element
    for the entire class.
  • Teachers can generate student or class reports at
    any time during the year (on-screen and pdf
    options)
  • Instructional planning
  • Report cards, Progress Reports, and SST
  • Parent conferences

31
Required End-of-the-Year Reporting
  • Individual Student Report
  • ELA
  • Math
  • Approaches to Learning
  • Social/Emotional Development
  • School/System/State Summary Report
  • ELA
  • Mathematics

32
GKAP-R v. GKIDS Similarities
33
GKAP-R v. GKIDS Differences
34
Part III. Planning for GKIDS Throughout the
School Year
  • Using the GPS in Instructional Planning
  • Backward Design
  • Preparing for GKIDS As the School Year Begins
  • Creating an Assessment Plan
  • Sample Curriculum Maps
  • Baseline Assessments
  • Assessment is Ongoing
  • Classroom Contexts for Assessment
  • During the Year Determining GKIDS Sequence
  • How many assessments of a skill are enough?
  • GKIDS Reporting Deadlines

35
Using the GPS in Instructional Planning
  • The Georgia Performance Standards represent the
    knowledge and/or skills students should have by
    the end of the year.
  • Some GPS Standards/elements represent activities
    students should be involved in throughout the
    school year (i.e., listening to a variety of
    literature) and some GPS elements represent
    knowledge students should be learning (reading,
    counting)
  • For children to master the GPS standards for
    kindergarten, they have to be taught the
    prerequisite skills and conceptual understandings
    not directly stated in each standard. (i.e.,
    number recognition)
  • Because students entering kindergarten may have
    from 0-3 years experience in a preschool setting,
    instruction and assessment must be paced to fit
    the needs of each individual child.

36
Backward Design
  • Definition
  • To begin with the end in mind means to start
    with a clear understanding of your destination.
    It means to know where youre going so that you
    better understand where you are now so that the
    steps you take are always in the right
    direction.
  • --Stephen R. Covey, The Seven Habits of Highly
    Effective People
  • Examples
  • 1.  Identify desired results first.
  • 2.  Determine acceptable evidence.
  • 3.  Plan learning experiences.

37
Preparing for GKIDS As the School Year Begins
  • Read the GKIDS Assessment and Instructional Guide
  • Familiarize yourself with Performance Level
    Descriptors for the content areas of GKIDS that
    you will be teaching early in the school year.
  • If you have not previously assessed Approaches to
    Learning, please read the background materials.
  • Familiarize yourself with options for recording
    data on the GKIDS Data Entry and Reporting
    website (see your school test coordinator for
    your login name and password).
  • Develop a general assessment plan or timeline.
  • Determine which GPS elements/content areas to
    assess in the first six to nine weeks of the
    school year
  • Contact school P.E. Teacher to plan formal or
    informal assessment of motor skills.
  • If the local system requires administering other
    kindergarten screenings and assessments early in
    the year, use this data for GKIDS when applicable.

38
Creating an Assessment Plan
  • Because GKIDS does not have prescribed assessment
    windows for the GPS standards in each domain of
    learning, local systems will need to establish
    guidelines based on their system curriculum maps
    for kindergarten.
  • Sample kindergarten curriculum maps (suggested
    year long pacing guides) for language arts, math,
    social studies, and science are available at
    www.georgiastandards.org

39
Curriculum Map - ELA
40
Curriculum Map - Math
41
Curriculum Map Social Studies
42
(No Transcript)
43
Curriculum Map Science
44
Baseline Assessments
  • The state does not require systems to do a
    baseline assessment by a specified date at the
    beginning of the school year.
  • Baseline assessments may be developed by local
    districts.
  • Examples of baselines created by systems using
    GKIDS performance levels are available on the
    GaDOE website.
  • Go to http//www.gadoe.org/ci_testing.aspx and
    then click on the link for Kindergarten
    Assessment.

45
Assessment is Ongoing
  • Teachers assess students throughout the school
    day (and year) to inform instruction.
  • Before Instruction
  • To plan learning experiences
  • During Instruction
  • By observing and asking questions
  • After Instruction
  • To see what children have learned
  • To plan the next instructional step
  • GKIDS was designed to allow teachers to assess
    students through ongoing, naturalistic
    observations that take place daily in the
    classroom.

46
Classroom Contexts for Assessment
  • Center Time and Work Stations
  • Outdoor Activities
  • Classroom Routines
  • Calendar Time
  • Attendance
  • Transitions
  • Lunch Room
  • Teacher Directed Instruction
  • Directed Reading Time
  • Directed Math Time
  • Language Arts Time
  • Independent Reading Time
  • Playing Games
  • Singing Songs
  • Reading Books Aloud

47
During the Year Determining GKIDS Sequence
  • Decide which GPS elements would be most helpful
    to diagnose the instructional starting point of
    each student
  • Your judgment of the most critical skills
    students need in Kindergarten
  • Some GPS elements are more complex and build on
    the skills taught earlier in the year
  • Plan Multiple Observations
  • Experiment with varied methods of documenting
    student learning.
  • Adjust scope/sequence of assessment as the
    instructional needs of students change throughout
    the year.
  • Plan assessment sequence throughout the year to
    match system level requirements (report cards,
    parent conferences, instructional interventions)

48
How many assessments of a skill are enough?
  • All of the GKIDS Performance Levels for Meets the
    Standard include the word consistently.
  • Therefore, one assessment is rarely enough to
    demonstrate a full grasp of any GPS element in
    ELA or Math.
  • Several assessments over a period of time are the
    best way for a teacher to get a true picture of
    what a student can do.
  • Teachers are not required by the GaDOE to enter
    data in the GKIDS Data Entry Website every time a
    skill is assessed or every time a student moves
    from one performance level to the next.

49
GKIDS Reporting Deadlines
  • There is no reporting window at the beginning of
    the school year or in the middle of the school
    year unless required by the local system.
  • Deadline for entering GKIDS Data for the 2008-09
    school year April 24, 2009 Data received after
    the deadline will not be included in Summary
    Reports.
  • Student data will be entered at the GKIDS Data
    Entry Website https//gkids.tsars.uga.edu/start
  • Required Domains Language Arts, Math, Approaches
    to Learning, and Personal/Social Development.
  • There are no scannable forms to fill out or ship.

50
Part IV. Working with Performance Levels
  • Why Use Performance Levels?
  • Range of Performance v. True Performance
  • Using the GKIDS Performance Level Descriptors
    During the School Year
  • Sources of Error in Observational Assessments
  • Challenges of Assessing Children Younger than Age
    8
  • Communicating with the Student During an
    Assessment

51
Why Use Performance Levels?
  • Children dont accomplish a learning standard or
    element all at once. They typically go through a
    series of levels that teachers can anticipate.
  • Performance levels describe the phases children
    experience as they move toward meeting the GPS
    standards.
  • When an assessment system provides performance
    levels, teachers can more easily locate the range
    of what a child knows and is able to do.
  • The essence of developmentally appropriate
    (teaching) practice is knowing where children are
    on the continuum of learning and then offering
    them challenging yet achievable experiences to
    gently nudge them along the way.

52
Range of Performance v. True Performance
  • A childs performance on any one assessment
    should be seen as an indicator of that childs
    range of functioning rather than as an indicator
    of true performance.
  • In fact, it is not necessary and usually is not
    possible-to identify a childs level of
    functioning precisely.
  • Thinking in terms of range makes sense in view of
    the difficulty in assessing young children and
    the variable nature of their development and
    learning.
  • Interpret cautiously, conclude tentatively, and
    recheck.

53
Using the GKIDS Performance Level Descriptors
During the School Year
  • The GKIDS performance level descriptors can be
    used informally every day of the school year,
    even though teachers may not record information
    about student performance daily.
  • The more the GKIDS descriptions are used, the
    more familiar teachers will become with each GPS
    element in ELA, Math, Social Studies, and
    Science. This can serve to make kindergarten
    instruction more relevant to the GPS standards.
  • Regularly reviewing the menus for Approaches to
    Learning, Personal/Social Development, and Motor
    Skills will serve as a reminder to incorporate
    classroom activities that promote the development
    of these qualities and skills.

54
Sources of Error in Observational Assessments
  • You bring to the observation/assessment what you
    already believe about learning.
  • The more important the decision, the more
    observations you should make to decrease the risk
    that you will make errors.
  • Focusing on only one type of documentation (such
    as written worksheets) may cause you to
    incorrectly assess a students knowledge.
  • Dont assume that a child doesnt have a skill
    just because it has not been observed yet.
  • An undocumented skill should be a warning to the
    teacher to try another way to assess, since the
    child may not have had an opportunity to reveal a
    skill or knowledge.

55
Challenges of Assessing Children Younger than
Age 8
  • Assessing young children accurately is much more
    difficult than for older students because of the
    nature of early learning and because the language
    skills needed to participate in formal
    assessments are still developing.
  • Young childrens achievements at any point are
    the result of a complex mix of their ability to
    learn (potential) and past learning opportunities
    (experience), so it is a mistake to interpret
    measures of past learning as evidence of what
    could be learned. (making predictions)

56
Challenges of Assessing Children Younger than
Age 8
  • Childrens Growth Patterns
  • Because children develop and learn so fast, tests
    given at one point in time may not give a
    complete picture of learning.
  • Children vary tremendously in their responses
    from one day to the next or in different
    contexts.
  • Young childrens capabilities cannot be discerned
    through a single test. Securing valid and
    reliable information about young childrens
    development and learning requires multiple
    measures applied at multiple points over time.
  • -NEGP

57
Challenges of Assessing Children Younger than
Age 8
  • Childrens Understanding of the Assessment
    Process
  • Young children may or may not fully engage in a
    structured assessment task, and their
    understandings may look very different from week
    to week.
  • Early versions of a skill may look very different
    from later versions.
  • Young children represent their knowledge better
    by showing than by talking or writing.
  • Young children do not have the experience to
    understand what the goals of formal testing are
    which makes testing interactions difficult or
    impossible to structure
  • Young children are notoriously poor test takers
    perhaps because they are sometimes confused by
    being asked questions that they think the tester
    must already know the answers to. (NAECS/SDE)
  • Direct questioning may cause some young children
    to become uneasy and unresponsive.
  • Children should be introduced to and become
    comfortable with the idea that adults ask
    questions and check on understanding as a natural
    part of the learning. (NEGP)

58
Communicating with the Student During an
Assessment
  • Let the child know you will be writing down his
    or her answers so that you will not forget what
    he or she says.
  • Provide neutral praise to support the child.
  • Use the childs name in a natural way.
  • Be aware of the childs body language and other
    nonverbal cues, because a kindergarten age child
    may not verbalize or express his or her needs.

59
Part V. English Language Arts
  • Research on Assessing English Language Arts
  • Assessing English Language Arts in GKIDS
  • GPS Standards and Elements
  • Performance Level Descriptors
  • Assessment Activities

60
Research on Assessing English Language Arts
  • Guidelines for Observing in ELA
  • Assessing Reader Strategies
  • Observing and Assessing Early Reading Skills
  • Observing and Assessing Early Writing Skills
  • Directionality in Student Writing
  • Letter and Word Formation
  • Making Meaning

61
Guidelines for Observing in ELA
  • In the beginning of formal literacy instruction,
    children will differ
  • In their awareness of the detail in print
  • In what they find confusing about print
  • In the ways they choose to work with print
  • Reading intervention plans should be tailored to
    each childs needs.
  • -Marie Clay

62
Assessing Reader Strategies
  • Effective Reader
  • Finds and uses information from many sources
  • Focuses on the meaning of the text.
  • Hunts for sight words he already knows.
  • Shifts to slower analysis of words and letter
    clusters when necessary.
  • Uses multiple strategies (such as picture clues)
    to decode unfamiliar words.
  • Ineffective Reader
  • Uses a narrow range of weak processes
  • May pay only slight attention to visual details
  • May disregard discrepancies between his response
    and words on the page
  • May guess words from first letters
  • May be looking so hard for words he knows that he
    forgets what the message is about.

63
Observing and Assessing Early Reading Skills
  • What strategies does the student demonstrate that
    indicate some understanding of concepts of print?
  • Holding the book right side up
  • Moving from front to back of book in pretend
    reading.
  • What word decoding strategies does the student
    demonstrate?
  • Looking at the first letter of a word.
  • What kinds of reading errors does the student
    demonstrate?
  • Substitutions
  • Repetitions
  • Mispronunciations

64
Observing and Assessing Early Writing Skills
  • There are many resources and continuums available
    that track the development of emerging writing
    skills.
  • Most continuums look at three areas of the
    writing process
  • Directionality
  • Letter and Word Formation
  • Stages Of Writing
  • Meaning/Comprehension

65
Directionality in Student Writing
  • The writing sample
  • May not start at the top of the page
  • May not print left to right or top to bottom of
    the page

66
Letter and Word Formation
  • The writing sample may consist of
  • Pictures
  • Random shapes not recognizable
  • Scribble writing
  • Loopy letters or vertical and horizontal lines
  • Mock letters only recognizable if student
    explains
  • Actual letters a mixture of upper and lower
    case
  • Upper and lower case letters
  • One letter to represent a word or just beginning
    consonant
  • Letter strings
  • Mock words
  • Beginning and ending consonant to make words
  • Phonetic words
  • Erratic spacing between words
  • Word groups
  • Sentences

67
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68
Making Meaning
  • The writer
  • Understands that print and pictures can convey
    messages
  • Begins to label and add words to pictures
  • Assigns a message to marks or scribbles or
    pretends to read
  • Begins to notice the difference between pictures
    and writing
  • Can almost read what has been written
  • Copies or constructs a message and knows what it
    means
  • Can tell about his or her own writing

69
Assessing English Language Arts in GKIDS
  • Diagram of the GPS for English Language Arts
  • Reading Standards, Performance Levels, and
    Activities
  • Writing Standards, Performance Levels, and
    Activities
  • Speaking/Listening/Viewing Standards, Performance
    Levels, and Activities

70
Diagram of the GPS for English Language Arts
71
Reading Standards, Performance Levels, and
Activities
  • ELAKR1 Concepts of Print
  • ELAKR2 Phonological Awareness
  • ELAKR3 Phonics
  • ELAKR4 Reading Fluency
  • ELAKR5 - Vocabulary
  • ELAKR6 Reading Comprehension

72
ELAKR1. The student demonstrates knowledge of
concepts of print. a. recognizes that print and
pictures (signs and labels, newspapers, and
informational books) can inform, entertain, and
persuade.
Note the underlying objective is that students
understand that all letters, pictures, words,
numbers and symbols have meaning/carry messages.
73
ELAKR1-a. recognizes that print and pictures
(signs and labels, newspapers, and informational
books) can inform, entertain, and persuade.
  • Assessment Activities
  • (1) As a class, discuss that books and newspapers
    both have text/print and pictures. Discuss signs
    that are used in school, on the road, or any
    other place they might see signs. Ask students
    why signs are important. Ask why people read
    books and newspapers and look at the pictures in
    books and newspapers.
  • (2) Display examples of common signs, word
    puzzles, newspaper ads (i.e. toy ads), and
    non-fiction books (perhaps about animals,
    dinosaurs, etc.).
  • Sample questions teacher could ask
  • Which of these would you choose if you were
    reading for fun? (puzzles, books -entertain)
  • Where would you look if you wanted to learn more
    about …….? (books -information)
  • Which one of these would help you find the way
    to………..? (signs)
  • Which one would you show your parents if you
    wanted them to buy you something? (ads
    persuade)
  • (3) Use signs in the classroom and the school
    building to determine whether students recognize
    that print (signs) can inform. Common signs may
    include Stop, Exit, Bathrooms (male/female),
    Rooms in the school (office, cafeteria, media
    center), Handicap, Do Not Enter. Discuss other
    signs that students may see outside of school.
  • (4) Observe students as they select books from
    the media center in the classroom. Ask them how
    they make their choices of what to read in their
    free time.

74
ELAKR1. The student demonstrates knowledge of
concepts of print. b. Demonstrates that print
has meaning and represents spoken language in
written form.
75
ELAKR1-b. Demonstrates that print has meaning and
represents spoken language in written form.
  • Assessment Activities
  • (1) Show a page containing a picture and text to
    the student. Ask the student where the teacher
    should begin reading the story. The student will
    point to the area of the words if he/she
    understands that print has meaning and represents
    spoken language.
  • 2) Have the child draw a picture. The teacher
    will ask the student to tell about the drawing.
    The teacher records the dictation beneath the
    childs picture. The teacher then asks, If I
    wanted to read this story, where should I begin
    reading? Student will point to the area of the
    words if he/she understands that the print
    contains meaning and represents spoken language.
  • (3) Provide stapled pages for individual student
    journals and time for free writing each day. Text
    may be added by the student or teacher. Observe
    and discuss journal entries with students as a
    whole group and as individuals.

76
ELAKR1. The student demonstrates knowledge of
concepts of print. c. Tracks text read from left
to right and top to bottom.
77
ELAKR1-c. Tracks text read from left to right and
top to bottom.
  • Assessment Activities
  • (1) Observe daily while students, in small or
    large groups, are reading or looking at books,
    text on a computer, or other areas of the
    classroom.
  • (2) Provide the student with a reading passage
    and ask the student to track the sentences, left
    to right and top to bottom, as you read aloud.
  • Script If I am going to read these sentences,
    where should I start?
  • Where would I go next?
  • Where would I go after that?
  • Student will point to indicate top to bottom and
    left to right directionality with return sweep.

78
ELAKR1. The student demonstrates knowledge of
concepts of print. d. Distinguishes among
written letters, words, and sentences. e.
Recognizes that sentences in print are made up of
separate words.
79
ELAKR1-d. Distinguishes among written letters,
words, and sentences. e. Recognizes that
sentences in print are made up of separate words.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Have students follow these directions using a
    teacher-selected text
  • Using your yellow highlighter, highlight a
    sentence.
  • Using your blue highlighter, highlight a word.
  • Circle letters or highlight letters.
  • Other options that dont require a highlighter
  • Point to letters, words, or sentence.
  • Tell how many words are in sample sentences.

80
ELAKR1. The student demonstrates knowledge of
concepts of print. f. Begins to understand that
punctuation and capitalization are used in all
written sentences.
81
ELAKR1-f. Begins to understand that punctuation
and capitalization are used in all written
sentences.
  • Assessment Activities
  • (1) Using teacher-selected text, ask students to
  • Point to the capital letter at the beginning of a
    sentence.
  • Point to a punctuation mark at the end of a
    sentence.
  • (2) Given a paragraph on paper, a newspaper
    article, chart story, etc. have students put
    rectangles around all first letters of sentences
    and circle all punctuation marks at the ends of
    the sentences.

82
ELAKR2. The student demonstrates the ability to
identify and orally manipulate words and
individual sounds within those spoken words. a.
Identifies and produces rhyming words in response
to an oral prompt and distinguishes rhyming and
non-rhyming words.
83
ELAKR2-a. Identifies and produces rhyming words
in response to an oral prompt and distinguishes
rhyming and non-rhyming words.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Note Teachers may substitute their own rhyming
    words for any of the word lists contained in
    these suggested activities.
  • (1) Teacher says Words can rhyme when they
    end with the same sound. Listen to these words
    run, sun, and bun. They rhyme because they end
    with the same sound /un/. Lets practice Listen
    to this word hot. Tell me a word that rhymes
    with hot. Discuss possibilities. Practice with
    king and bed. Lets begin. I am going to say
    two words. Tell me if they rhyme yes or no.
    (Student may need to repeat the pair of words
    before responding.)
  • 1. pat/sat 4. tug/rug
  • 2. rat/ring 5. sit/hit
  • 3. log/like
  • (2) Teacher says Tell me a word that rhymes
    with __________.
  • 1. sad 4. bake
  • 2. fox 5. look
  • 3. wet

84
ELAKR2. The student demonstrates the ability to
identify and orally manipulate words and
individual sounds within those spoken words. b.
Identifies component sounds (phonemes and
combination of phonemes) in spoken words. d.
Segments the phonemes in high frequency words.
85
ELAKR2-b. Identifies component sounds (phonemes
and combination of phonemes) in spoken words. d.
Segments the phonemes in high frequency words.
  • Assessment Activities for GKIDS
  • Note Teachers may use their own word lists for
    this activity.
  • (1) Teacher says I am going to say a word.
    (Say the word slowly, emphasizing sounds.)
    After I say it, you tell me all the sounds you
    hear in the word. So if I say top, you would say
    /t/, /o/, /p/. You try it What sound did you
    hear first, next, and last in the word cat?
    (Practice with other words, such as sit, beg, or
    hot.)
  • Lets begin.
  • Tell me all the sounds you hear.
  • 1. pig 6. fish
  • 2. bed 7. book
  • 3. sock 8. lake
  • 4. fun 9. jog
  • 5. sad 10. web

Other words that could be used 1. run 6.
can 2. not 7. six 3. make 8. that 4. red 9.
like 5. big 10. must
86
ELAKR2. The student demonstrates the ability to
identify and orally manipulate words and
individual sounds within those spoken words. c.
Blends and segments syllables in spoken words.
87
ELAKR2-c. Blends and segments syllables in spoken
words.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Note Teachers may use their own word lists for
    these activities.
  • (1) Blending Syllables
  • Teacher says I am going to say a word in
    parts. Listen carefully and see if you can put
    the parts together and tell me the whole word.
    Lets practice. If I say pen-cil you will put
    the word parts together and say pencil. Lets
    try another one cow-boy. What is the word?
    (Practice with ti-ger and yes-ter-day.) Lets
    begin. (Say words slowly pause between
    syllables)
  • popcorn
  • rabbit
  • paper
  • alphabet
  • computer
  • (2) Segmenting Syllables
  • Teacher says This time Im going to say the
    whole word. I want you to clap the parts or
    syllables you hear. (Students may clap, snap, or
    tap their foot). Lets practice. Listen to this
    word happy. Demonstrate clapping the parts in
    this word. Practice with hamburger and monkey
    (Teacher should provide practice with
    one-syllable words also if these are to be
    included in the assessment). Then have students
    clap the parts or syllables as you read the
    following words Lets begin. (Teacher
    pronounces words normally, not pausing between
    syllables)
  • butterfly
  • pig
  • zebra
  • eraser
  • napkin

88
ELAKR2. The student demonstrates the ability to
identify and orally manipulate words and
individual sounds within those spoken words. e.
Blends spoken phonemes to make high frequency
words.
89
ELAKR2-e. Blends spoken phonemes to make high
frequency words.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Note Teachers may use their own word lists for
    this activity.
  • Teacher says I am going to say the sounds
    (phonemes) of a word. Listen carefully and see
    if you can put the sounds together and tell me
    the whole word. Lets practice. (Say words
    slowly, deliberately segmenting sounds.) b-i-g,
    w-e, h-e-l-p
  • Lets begin. (Teacher produces individual
    phoneme sounds.)
  • 1. did 6. yes
  • 2. got 7. green
  • 3. five 8. up
  • 4. put 9. find
  • 5. make 10. ran

90
ELAKR3. The student demonstrates the relationship
between letters and letter combinations of
written words and the sounds of spoken words. a.
Demonstrates an understanding that there are
systematic and predictable relationships between
print and spoken words. c. Matches all consonant
and short-vowel sounds to appropriate letters.
91
ELAKR3-a. Demonstrates an understanding that
there are systematic and predictable
relationships between print and spoken words. c.
Matches all consonant and short-vowel sounds to
appropriate letters.
  • Assessment Activities
  • When presented with letter cards in random order,
    the student will verbally produce the
    corresponding sounds.
  • The teacher will record student responses on a
    recording sheet.
  • The teacher says I am going to show you some
    letters. Please tell me the sound of each letter
    as I show it to you.

92
ELAKR3. The student demonstrates the
relationship between letters and letter
combinations of written words and the sounds of
spoken words. b. Recognizes and names all
uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
Note Letters should be presented in a random
order (not in alphabetical order).
93
ELAKR3-b. Recognizes and names all uppercase and
lowercase letters of the alphabet.
  • Assessment Activities
  • When presented with letter cards in random order,
    the student will recognize and name upper and
    lower case letters. The teacher will record
    student responses on recording sheet.
  • The teacher says I am going to show you some
    letters. Please tell me the name of each letter
    as I show it to you.

Note Letters should be presented in a random
order (not in alphabetical order).
94
ELAKR3. The student demonstrates the
relationship between letters and letter
combinations of written words and the sounds of
spoken words. d. Blends individual sounds to
read one-syllable decodable words.
95
ELAKR3-d. Blends individual sounds to read
one-syllable decodable words.
  • Assessment Activities
  • The student will blend individual sounds to read
    one syllable c-v-c (consonant-vowel-consonant)
    words. Practice pronouncing words by separating
    each word into three sounds. Use Word Cards
    (cat, bag). Teacher reads the card by separating
    the word into three sounds, /c/-/a/-/t/, and then
    says cat. The student responds by saying
    /c/-/a/-/t/, cat. Repeat practice with the word
    bag.
  • The teacher says Please read each word to me.
    You can read the words or you may separate the
    words into sounds and then read them. The
    student may sound out or read the word.
  • 1. sad 6. tag 11. wet
  • 2. red 7. him 12. bug
  • 3. pig 8. log 13. man
  • 4. rub 9. beg 14. fun
  • 5. sit 10. hop 15. pot
  • Note Teacher may use his/her own list of words.
    The list need not contain 15 words.

96
ELAKR3. The student demonstrates the
relationship between letters and letter
combinations of written words and the sounds of
spoken words. e. Applies learned phonics skills
when reading words and sentences in stories.
Note All words do not have to be read correctly
or accurately in order to meet this standard.
The student must demonstrate the ability to apply
learned phonics skills.
97
ELAKR3-e. Applies learned phonics skills when
reading words and sentences in stories.
  • Assessment Activities
  • (1) The student will apply learned phonics skills
    to read words and sentences in a story. The
    teacher will provide a text for the student to
    read.
  • Example A Please read these sentences to me.
  • I see a cat.
  • It is big and yellow.
  • The cat can jump and play.
  • Example B Please read this story to me.

  • Sam the Pig
  • I have a pig. His name is Sam. Sam likes to
    play with me. I can run. Sam can run, too. I
    can hop. Sam cannot hop.
  • (2) Observe during guided reading.

Note All words do not have to be read correctly
or accurately in order to meet this standard.
The student must demonstrate the ability to apply
learned phonics skills.
98
ELAKR4. The student demonstrates the ability to
read orally with speed, accuracy, and expression.
a. Reads previously taught high frequency words
at the rate of 30 words correct per minute.
99
ELAKR4-a. Reads previously taught high frequency
words at the rate of 30 words correct per minute.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Student reads from a list of 50 100 previously
    taught high frequency words. Teacher marks or
    tallies words read correctly in one minute.
  • The teacher says Please read as many words as
    you can from this list. Skip the words you do
    not know.

Note A resource page with 100 high frequency
words is included in the GKIDS Administration
Manual, p.34
100
ELAKR4. The student demonstrates the ability to
read orally with speed, accuracy, and expression.
b. Reads previously taught grade-level text with
appropriate expression.
101
ELAKR4-b. Reads previously taught grade-level
text with appropriate expression.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Use a familiar grade-level text that lends itself
    to expressive reading
  • The teacher says Read this book for me and
    make your reading sound like talking.
  • Teacher may need to read a passage, from another
    book, fluently and expressively for the child as
    an example.

102
ELAKR5. The student acquires and uses
grade-level words to communicate effectively. a.
Listens to a variety of texts and uses new
vocabulary in oral language.
103
ELAKR5-a. Listens to a variety of texts and uses
new vocabulary in oral language.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Observe children through daily conversations for
    use of newly learned vocabulary. During daily
    read aloud sessions, students will listen to a
    variety of text and broaden their oral language.
    The teacher can use pre-reading strategies to
    target new vocabulary prior to reading
    selections.
  • Instructional Suggestions for Teachers
  • Model new vocabulary in conversation.
  • Introduce new vocabulary during Daily News or
    Circle Time.
  • Read aloud from a variety of texts daily and
    introduce new vocabulary.
  • Provide materials, props, and books to support
    the development of vocabulary in natural
    settings.
  • Introduce and target vocabulary through content
    areas - mathematics, social studies, and science

104
ELAKR5. The student acquires and uses
grade-level words to communicate effectively. b.
Discusses the meaning of words and understands
that some words have multiple meanings.
105
ELAKR5-b. Discusses the meaning of words and
understands that some words have multiple
meanings.
  • Assessment Activities for GKIDS
  • Observe children through daily conversations for
    discussions of word meanings.
  • During read aloud sessions, the teacher can read
    books that focus on words with multiple meanings
    (i.e. Cook A Doodle Doo, by Janet Stevens, The
    Monster Sandwich, by Joy Cowley).
  • Provide students with a piece of paper folded in
    half. Ask student to draw a picture of a bat
    that flies. Have students draw an example of
    another kind of bat in the second box. (Use
    words such as fall, fly, fair, etc.)

106
ELAKR6. The student gains meaning from orally
presented text. a. Listens to and reads a
variety of literature (e.g. short stories, poems)
and informational texts and materials to gain
knowledge or for pleasure.
107
ELAKR6-a. Listens to and reads a variety of
literature (e.g. short stories, poems) and
informational texts and materials to gain
knowledge or for pleasure.
  • Assessment Activities for GKIDS
  • Observe students daily during reading time,
    centers, story time, etc. to make sure each child
    uses opportunities to hear or read a variety of
    literature (for knowledge and pleasure).
  • Reading Logs could be kept for each child,
    indicating books or stories they have listened to
    or read.
  • Teachers may set a goal of how many books
    students should read (or listen to) by a
    particular time. Book It Program or 600
    Minutes Club could also be used to keep track of
    books read. (Note It is more important to assess
    whether students gain knowledge from or
    appreciate the books they have read than to
    simply count the number of books students have
    read. )

108
ELAKR6. The student gains meaning from orally
presented text. b. Makes predictions from
pictures and titles.
109
ELAKR6-b. Makes predictions from pictures and
titles.
  • Assessment Activities for GKIDS
  • Introduce book to student. Say Were going to
    read this book together. The title of this book
    is ______________________. What do you think
    this book will be about?
  • After child makes prediction, say Lets go
    through the book and look at the pictures. Can
    you tell me about each picture? What do you
    think is happening in the picture? What do you
    think will happen next?
  • After a picture walk, read story to child.

110
ELAKR6. The student gains meaning from orally
presented text. c. Asks and answers questions
about essential narrative elements (e.g.,
beginning-middle-end, setting, characters,
problems, events, resolution) f. Uses prior
knowledge, graphic features (illustrations), and
graphic organizers to understand text. g.
Connects life experiences to read-aloud text
111
ELAKR6-c. Asks and answers questions about
essential narrative elements (e.g.,
beginning-middle-end, setting, characters,
problems, events, resolution) f. Uses prior
knowledge, graphic features (illustrations), and
graphic organizers to understand text. g.
Connects life experiences to read-aloud text
  • Assessment Activities
  • During daily reading time, elicit prior knowledge
    while building background for the story by asking
    comprehension questions.
  • Example
  • Today we are going to read a book about
    ______________. Or Look at the title/front of
    this book. What do you think it is about?
  • Have you ever seen/been/heard…etc.
  • Encourage students to use pictures to help with
    understanding the story.
  • Provide opportunities for students to ask
    questions about the story, and check
    comprehension by asking questions related to
    essential narrative elements.
  • Help students connect the story to their own life
    experiences.
  • Observe students daily to ensure they are
    responding to orally presented text. Keep
    anecdotal records.

112
Example Questions for ELAKR6 elements c, f, g
  • Who or what was this story about?
  • Where did the story take place?
  • What happened at the beginning of the story?
  • What did ____________do?
  • Did ____________ have a problem?
  • What did he/she do about the problem?
  • What happened in the end?
  • Have you ever had an experience like this?
  • What happened?

113
ELAKR6. The student gains meaning from orally
presented text. d. Begins to distinguish fact
from fiction in a read-aloud text.
Note It is typical for children of Kindergarten
age not to be totally clear on the distinction
between real and make-believe (e.g., Santa Claus,
cartoon characters, Tooth Fairy, etc.).
Therefore, the element reads, begins to
distinguish.
114
ELAKR6-d. Begins to distinguish fact from fiction
in a read-aloud text.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Introduce book to be used for read-aloud.
    Explain that some parts of the book are real and
    some are make-believe. Discuss the difference in
    real and make-believe characters. Help
    students use prior knowledge of stories and
    television programs that have real and
    make-believe characters and/or events. Discuss
    examples from previously read stories. Read
    story to students.
  • After reading, ask questions about the characters
    and events in the story.
  • Is ___________ a real person?
  • Could a real person _____________? or Could
    that really happen?
  • Was that real or make-believe?
  • Why is it real?
  • Why is it make-believe.

115
ELAKR6. The student gains meaning from orally
presented text. e. Retells familiar events and
stories to include beginning, middle, and end.
h. Retells important facts in the students own
words.
116
ELAKR6-e. Retells familiar events and stories to
include beginning, middle, and end. h. Retells
important facts in the students own words.
  • Assessment Activities
  • (1) After the teacher has read many stories to
    the class, ask students to tell a familiar story
    in their own words. The story could be one that
    has been read aloud to the class or any story the
    student is familiar with.
  • (2) Have the class act out a story. Review what
    happened in the story and have students retell
    important facts. Use questions to prompt the
    students (e.g., What happened? How did Sally
    feel at the beginning of the story/end of story?
    Describe the main characters. What did Sally
    learn? Did she change her mind?)
  • (3) After reading an informational text to the
    class, ask students to retell important facts in
    their own words.

117
Writing Standards, Performance Levels, and
Activities
  • ELAKW1 Principles of Writing

118
ELAKW1. The student begins to understand the
principles of writing. a. Writes or dictates to
describe familiar persons, places, objects, or
experiences. b. Uses drawing, letters, and
phonetically spelled words to create meaning.
119
ELAKW1-a. Writes or dictates to describe familiar
persons, places, objects, or experiences. b. Uses
drawing, letters, and phonetically spelled words
to create meaning.
  • Assessment Activities
  • During Journal Writing
  • the student draws a picture and dictates a
    description or explanation of the picture.
  • the student uses drawing/phonetically spelled
    words and is able to tell the teacher about the
    story (Teacher-selected or student-selected
    topic)
  • Ask students to write a story. Encourage
    students to use guess spelling.
  • Teacher asks each student to tell her/him about
    her/his story.
  • Teacher writes as student dictates.
  • If the student added own script to drawing,
    teacher checks for left-to-right progression,
    word spacing and sentences that begin with a
    capital and end with punctuation. Teacher writes
    correct spelling of words under the students
    spelling.

120
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121
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122
ELAKW1. The student begins to understand the
principles of writing. c. Accurately prints
name, all uppercase and lowercase letters of the
alphabet, and teacher-selected words.
123
ELAKW1-c. Accurately prints name, all uppercase
and lowercase letters of the alphabet, and
teacher-selected words.
  • Assessment Activities
  • Because students write their names on papers
    daily, teachers can
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