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Pre-Columbian Civilizations in the Americas

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Title: Pre-Columbian Civilizations in the Americas


1
Pre-Columbian Civilizations In the Americas
2
First Settlers
  • Came from Asia and Europe
  • Archeology the study of ancient peoples
  • Artifacts things left behind by early people
    like stone tools, weapons, baskets and carvings

3
Early Human Migrations
4
Journey from Asia
  • Ice Age periods of extremely cold temperatures
    when part of the planets surface was covered by
    massive ice sheets
  • Most recent Ice Age began 100,000 years ago and
    ended about 12,000 years ago

5
Nomads
  • Nomads people who moved from place to place
  • Nomadic people primarily hunted and gathered wild
    grains and fruits
  • Migration a movement of a large number of people
    into a new homeland

6
Migration to North and South America
  • Beringia an Ice Bridge that formed over the
    Bering Strait that connected Siberia and Alaska
  • Historians believe that nomads crossed the Ice
    Bridge on a hunting expedition

7
Sedentary Life
  • Maize early form of corn discovered about 9,000
    years ago in Mexico
  • Settlements
  • Provided steady source of food
  • Experimented with other seeds
  • Population grew as societies lived off of the land

8
Ancient Civilizations
  • Society a body of individuals living as members
    of a community
  • Civilizations a highly developed society
  • Major civilizations in Central and South America
  • Aztec
  • Maya
  • Inca

9
The Mayans
10
Lands of the Mayans
The Yucatan Peninsula
11
Maya
  • Height was from AD 300 900
  • Pyramids were at the heart of Mayan cities
  • Theocracy society ruled by religious leaders

12
Chichen-Itza - Pyramid
13
Pioneers in Astronomy and Math
  • Astronomy the science that deals with the
    material universe beyond the earths atmosphere
  • Gods were visible in the stars, moon, and sun
  • Developed a 365 day calendar

14
Mayan Writing
  • Hieroglyphics pictures or symbols used to
    represent words, sounds or concepts

15
Mayan Glyphs
sky king house child city
Mayan Mathematics
16
The Aztecs
17
Aztec
  • Settled in 1325 at Lake Texcoco (Mexico City) and
    built Tenochtitlan
  • By AD 1500 this city became the largest city in
    the Americas with a population of 200,000
  • Military Empire
  • Conquered rivaling communities

18
Lands of the Aztecs
19
Aztec View of Tenochtitlan
20
Tenochtitlan The Venice of the Americas
21
Aztec Chi Nampa or Floating Garden15ft. to
30ft. wide
22
Tenochtitlan Chi Nampas
23
The Aztecs WereFierce Warriors
24
Aztecs Sacrifice Neighboring Tribes to the Sun God
25
The Incas
26
Lands of the Incas
27
Incas
  • Developed around modern-day Ecuador, Chile, and
    Peru (S. America)
  • Capital was Cuzco
  • Had a highly developed road system
  • Believed the emperor was a descendant of the
    sun-god

28
Example of Inca City
29
Over 100 Different Types of Potatoes Cultivated
by the Incans
30
Ancient North America
31
Hohokam
  • Flourished around 300 AD to 1200 AD
  • Built a vast irrigation system
  • Located around central Arizona
  • Known as canal builders by other ancient
    civilizations

32
Anasazi
  • Flourished around AD 300 - AD 1300 around the
    Four Corners Region
  • Built pueblos and cliff dwellings
  • Skilled basket makers

33
Cahokia
  • Flourished around AD 900 - AD 1200
  • Monks Mound largest man-made mound in North
    America
  • Civilization most likely declined as a result of
    deforestation and over-hunting

34
Inuit
  • Most commonly known as the Eskimos
  • Civilization developed around the Arctic Ocean
    and are believed to be one of the last groups to
    cross the Land Bridge
  • Around 150,000 Inuit still survive today
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