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Global civil society

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Title: Global civil society


1
Global civil society a Western INGO phenomenon
or a force instigating new direction to
globalisation? Part I An Agency-centred
Account of Globalisation
2
What is globalisation?
3
Four aspects/definitions (Scholte,
2000)   Globalisation as westernisation or
modernisation the social structures of modernity
(capitalism, rationalism, bureaucratism, etc.)
are spread the world over, normally destroying
pre-existent cultures and local
self-determination Globalisation as
liberalisation Removing government-imposed
restrictions in order to create an open,
borderless world economy   Globalisation as
universalisation Spreading various objects and
experiences to people at all corners of the
earth. Internet, Sushi, Baywatch, human
rights   Globalisation as deterritorialisation
reconfiguration of geography, so that social
space is no longer wholly mapped in terms of
territorial places, territorial distances and
territorial borders
4
  • Globalisation of what?
  • Economy
  • Technology
  • Politics
  • Culture
  • Law
  • People

5
  • Early debates on globalisation
  • Globalisation isnt happening Weve seen all
    this before, not so revolutionary, states still
    in charge (Hirst and Thompson, 1996)
  • Globalisation is good for you Global trade
    benefits all, global norms defeat local bullies,
    global contacts breed nice people (The Economist)
  • Globalisation is bad for you Globalisation
    increases inequalities, destroys local cultures,
    destroys the environment, undermines democratic
    accountability (Hines, 2000)

6
What kind of globalisation are we talking
about? What kind do we want?
7
Globalisation of Supporters Rejecters Reformers Regressives
Economy Yes As part of economic liberalism No Greater protection of national economies Mixed If leading to greater social equality Mixed If beneficial to own country or group.
Technology Yes Open competition for techno-logical innovation No Threatens local com-munities Mixed If beneficial to the marginalised Mixed. Yes for economic security, No for environment or social purposes
Law Yes Commercial law and human rights No Undermines national sovereignty Yes Building global rule of law No National laws on property rights, terrorism
People Yes Open border policy No Undermines national cohesion Yes Open border policy Mixed. Yes useful immigrants, No asylum seekers and people of other cultures
8
  • Why did it happen?
  • Standard explanations
  • New technology enabled global communications,
    global financial flows, cheap transport
  • Iron curtain came down, allowed global
    cooperation and global trade
  • IMF and World Bank conditionalities together with
    transnational corporations crack Third World
    states

9
Civil Society, The State and the Market ca.
1890s-1970s
International treaties or war
State 2
State 1
10
  • Deeper causes of globalisation
  • 1960-70s peak of nation state two reactions
  • - New Social Movements, from 1968, incl. Peace,
    Human Rights, Women, Environment
  • - Neo-liberalism, 1980s, Chicago School
    advocates retreat of state. Thatcherism,
    Reaganism, IMF/World Bank

11
Civil Society, The State and the Market 1990s-
Global governance
Global civil society
Migration/ New Identities
State 1
State 2
Global economy
12
Aun San Suu Kyi
Nelson Mandela
Vaclav Havel
Rigoberta Menchu
13
  • Transnational advocacy networks
  • Promote causes, principled ideas and norms that
    cannot be reduced to self-interest
  • May include NGOs, local social movements,
    foundations, media, churches, trade unions,
    consumer organisations, intellectuals, parts of
    IGOs, civil servants, politicians
  • Work through information politics, symbolic
    politics, leverage politics, accountability
    politics
  • (Keck and Sikkink, 1998)

14
The boomerang pattern (Keck and Sikkink)
Pressure
IGO
State B
Pressure
State A
Pressure
XXXXXXXXXXX Blockage
NGO
NGO
NGO
Information
NGO
15
Global civil society? Even though the
implications of our findings are much broader
than most political scientists would admit, the
findings themselves do not yet support the strong
claims about an emerging global civil
society Keck and Sikkink, 1998, 33.
16
A descriptive definition Global civil society
is the sphere of ideas, institutions,
organisations, networks and individuals located
between the family, the state and the market, and
operating beyond the confines of national
societies, polities and economies. Anheier,
Glasius and Kaldor (2001, 17.)
17
  • What does that mean?
  • It is not just civil society organisations,
    individuals, networks working at the global level
  • But rather, the whole of organisations,individuals
    , networks with transnational elements in their
    line of work, partners and networks, or ideology
  • But they are not a homogeneous bunch!

18
  • The normative connotations of civil society
  • Trust, social capital
  • Active citizens in public affairs
  • Non-violent and resisting violence
  • Fostering public debate
  • Counter-hegemonic challenging the powerful
    championing the marginalised

19
  • Global civil society has yet more normative
    connotations
  • Being part of a global imagined community, a
    sense of connection
  • Belief in human rights, global social justice
    rather than just civil rights, justice for own
    citizens
  • Belief in global and shared responsibility for
    the environment, One World solutions, global
    governance
  • Challenging the winners, championing the losers,
    of globalisation

20
NGOs and global civil society
Normative concept
Descriptive concept
Global civil society
NGOs
Civil
NGOs
Society
Or even (!)
GCS
NGOs
NGOs
GCS
21
First international conference of the
Anti-Slavery Society, 1840
22
Part II The Political Economy of INGOs
23
(No Transcript)
24
Students for West Papua, Dublin
25
Before Globalisation
Country 1
Country 2
26
Retreat of the State. A combination of
globalisation, privatisation, NGO-isation.
Control?
S
S
Market
Civil society
Country 1
Country 2
27
Some Figures
Revenues of Relief and Development INGOs
bln 1980 1988 1999 Public 1.6 2.4 1.7 Private
3.6 4.5 10.7 Total 5.2 6.9 12.4 Clark, 2003,
130.
Number of INGOs 1981 1991 2001 9,789
17,826 24,797 Anheier and Themudo, 2002, 195.
NGOs with UN consultative status 1945 1965 1985 20
05 0 361 760 2,595 Glasius, Kaldor and
Anheier, 2005, Record 17, 421.
28
  • Globalisation has changed the organisational
    environment for NGOs. New Opportunities
  • Retreat of states and decline of party politics
  • Expanded private and institutional donations
  • Major reductions in communication costs
  • More democracy, freedom of expression and
    freedom of assembly
  • Lindenberg and Bryant, 2001, 9
  • Anheier and Themudo, 2002, 198.

29
  • New problems
  • External
  • More complex and diverse cultural, political and
    economic environment
  • Relations with diverse constituencies and
    stake-holders
  • Managing different legal and fiscal systems
  • Complex international funding environment
  • Internal
  • Transnational governance structure must be clear
    on responsibilities, line management and
    enforcement
  • Need to develop a common mission and language
    within the organisation
  • Structure that remains accountable to dispersed
    membership and reflects diversity

30
Different Solutions
  • Member consultation
  • One vote per member (Amnesty)
  • One vote per country (FOEI)
  • Headquarters
  • Move to South (Civicus, ActionAid)
  • Split HQ (World Rainforest Movement)
  • Ring structure (Panos)
  • Boards
  • More Southern and female (ActionAid)
  • Regional sub-boards (HRW)
  • Forms of organisation
  • Unitary organisation (HRW)
  • Partnerships (Christian Aid)
  • Federations (IFRC)
  • Confederations (Oxfam Int)
  • Networks (YES!)

31
  • 1990s move from service-delivery to advocacy
  • Macro-explanations
  • Political party activism declines,
    decision-making power seeps away from national
    level
  • development encounters international politics
  • Micro-explanations
  • NGO staff increasingly frustrated by lack of
    macro-impact of their work on development
  • Northern NGOs need new role capacity-building
    and advocacy

32
advocate an intercessor or defender one who
pleads the cause of another advocacy the
function of an advocate a pleading for
Chambers Twentieth Century Dictionary   advocat
es plead the cause of others or defend a cause or
proposition Keck and Sikkink, 1998, 8.
33
What can be the basis for NGO advocacy? -
representation           - moral conviction
(values)          - experience/expertise
34
  • Representation speaking for
  • Problems
  • constituency
  • procedure
  • time
  • money

35
  • Some solutions
  • transparency about procedures or lack thereof
  • networks
  • accompaniment
  • Deeper problem What does it mean to represent?
    To speak on behalf of?
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