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Chapter 15 : Global Connections

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Title: Chapter 15 : Global Connections


1
Chapter 15 Global Connections There are
millions of communities all over the world. Some
of these communities are day to day interactions
and others are virtual communities. At times
even when we have no connection to a community we
help out in whatever ways that we can. An
example would be flooding in High River, and the
tsunami in Indonesia. The effect of transnational
corporations on communities can be devastating.
Think back to the Wal Mart video businesses
that have been in a town for generations can be
wiped out within a year of Wal Mart coming to
town.
2
How Does Globalization Change Communities?
  • A community
  • People who identify with others through shared
    connections
  • (geographic location, similar religious beliefs,
    common language, cheering for same NHL team,
    etc.)
  • Belonging to communities is important to peoples
    identity and defines who they are.

3
How Does Globalization Change Communities?
  • Globalization has affected the communities people
    identify with.
  • Modern communication technologies and the speed
    of transportation mean that people can identify
    with others from all over the world.
  • The Asian tsunami of Dec. 2004 allowed the global
    community to provide help and support.

4
Transnational Corporations Communities
  • Those who support globalization
  • economic activity stimulated by expanded global
    trade has strengthened towns/cities.
  • Factories built by transnationals attract other
    businesses and people and create services and
    opportunities for residents that did not
    previously exist.

5
Transnational Corporations Communities
  • Those who are against globalization
  • transnationals can create more challenges than
    opportunities.
  • Low wages paid out by transnationals allow
    poverty to become widespread
  • The environment may deteriorate if standards are
    lowered to try and attract these companies to the
    community.

6
Wal-Mart Good or Bad for the Community?
  • The success of Wal-Mart is an excellent example
    of globalization. It is the worlds biggest
    retailer and one of the worlds most successful
    transnational corporations.
  • Pg 347
  • Fig. 15-4 What is the cartoonists main message?

7
Immigrations Effect on Communities With the
population of Canada aging and the birth rate
decreasing, immigration accounts for a large
portion of the growth in Canada. People often
come to large cities such as Calgary because they
have heard that it is an economic hot bed only to
find out that unless they are making a lot of
money they can not afford to live there.
8
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9
The Effects of Immigration on Communities
  • Immigration has kept Canadas population growth
    rate higher than that of any other developed
    country.
  • In 2006, immigration made up more than 2/3rds of
    the increase in Canadas population.
  • What do you think made up the other third?

10
Multiculturalism
  • Canada introduced official multiculturalism in
    the 1970s and this sparked a remarkable shift in
    Canadas source of immigrants.
  • Before the 1970s most immigrants arrived from
    Europe. Today, Asia is the biggest source.

11
Mass Asian Immigration
  • Some 56.5 of immigrants in 2007 came from an
    Asiatic country.
  • In 2007, Canada received 236,760 immigrants.
  • Top ten sending countries, by state of origin
    (2007)
  • People's Republic of China (28,896),
  • India (28,520),
  • Philippines (19,718),
  • Pakistan (9,808),
  • United States (8,750),
  • United Kingdom (7,324),
  • Iran (7,195),
  • South Korea (5,909),
  • Colombia (5,382),
  • Sri Lanka (4,068).

12
Immigrants Cities
  • Most immigrants to Canada head for the largest
    cities in the country.
  • Toronto alone accounts for more than 40 of
    immigrants.
  • http//www.statcan.gc.ca/pub/11-008-x/2008001/arti
    cle/10556-eng.pdf
  • Why do almost all immigrants to Canada want to
    live in the city?,
  • Figure 15-5, pg 349

13
Immigrants Cities
  • Newly arrived immigrants consider a number of
    factors when deciding where to settle. They often
    want to be close to
  • Family friends already in Canada
  • Where other members of their cultural group have
    already established businesses, places of
    worship, cultural centres, etc.
  • Lots of jobs and economic activities
  • Where education health care are most accessible

14
Immigrant Population by Place of Birth
  • Turn to pg. 349 in your textbook and analyze the
    data in Figure 15-6. Look for
  • Patterns, such as numbers that are consistent.
  • Inconsistencies, such as a for one census
    metropolitan area that is markedly different from
    others.
  • What are some of the reasons for the patterns and
    inconsistencies you identified?

15
Perhaps the biggest global force when it comes to
resources is OIL. The world needs oil from
everything from driving to plastic production.
The competition for oil can lead to war (Fig
15-7, pg350). The debate is still out did Iraq
have as many weapons as the USA said or were they
after the black stuff in the ground? Why is the
crisis in Africa (Darfur) ignored? Many people
would argue if they had oil it would be
different. The oil sands in Fort McMurray have
huge reserves of oil. The question now is does
the Canadian government allow for foreign
ownership or takeovers of Canadian companies that
have land in the oil sands. The other debate is
the royalty review that would greatly affect the
economy and people of Alberta.
16
Global Need for Resources
  • In a globalized world, the need for resources is
    great.
  • Some resources, such as oil and water, are so
    valuable that some governments are willing to use
    force to secure their supply.

17
Blood Oil
  • Blood oil is a new term that refers to oil
    obtained through violence and bloodshed.

18
Nigeria
  • In Nigeria, several transnational corporations,
    including Shell, Chevron, and Total, have been
    developing oil fields in the delta of the Niger
    River.

19
Govt vs. the People
  • People who live in the area say that the
    activities of these companies have damaged the
    environment and that they were persecuted when
    they tried to protest.
  • The Nigerian govt, which was controlled by the
    military at the time, co-operated with the oil
    companies by brutally suppressing opposition.

20
Why would the government be on the side of the
oil companies?
21
Execution of Activists
  • 1995
  • the govt executed nine Ogoni activists who had
    been fighting to preserve their ppls homeland,
    which was in the area slated for oil development.
  • Since then, a civilian govt has come to power,
    and the oil companies have changed some of their
    practices but many people continue to oppose
    the development.

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23
Iraq
  • Iraq has huge oil reserves.
  • By 2007, only 15 of its 74 oil fields had been
    developed.
  • Known reserves total 112 billion barrels, but
    estimates say that potential reserves could top
    300 billion barrels, amounting to about
    one-quarter of the worlds oil.
  • Estimates place the value of Iraqs oil at more
    than 3 trillion.

24
Iraq No Longer Ignored
  • Until the early 20th century, Iraq was largely
    ignored by the imperial powers. But this changed
    when oil was discovered there.
  • The invention of the automobile and the use of
    fossil fuels to power vehicles and heat homes
    made Iraqs oil reserves suddenly desirable.
  • Consequently, Iraq became the focus of many late
    20th and 21st century conflicts.
  • Figure 15-7 pg. 350

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26
The US Its Invasion of Iraq
  • Since Saddam Hussein took control of Iraq in
    1979, western access to oil had been uncertain.
  • Added to that was the fact that Saddam refused to
    give in to American demands in the years after
    the 1991 Gulf War, making him even more of a
    threat.
  • As far as western nations were concerned, as long
    as Saddam controlled Iraq, the global supply of
    oil was at risk.

27
What excuse did the US give for invading Iraq
in 2003?
28
Weapons of Mass Destruction!!!
  • George W. Bush justified the USs invasion of
    Iraq in 2003 by accusing Saddam of developing
    weapons of mass destruction.
  • These weapons were never found, but by this time
    Iraq was in the hands of the US and its allies,
    and Western oil companies controlled the
    countrys oil fields.
  • Was the invasion just an excuse to solidify
    Western control of the countrys massive oil
    resources?
  • Green Zone trailer http//www.youtube.com/watch?
    vfJilPA6MFLs
  • The Tillman Story http//www.youtube.com/watch?v
    daccIQzKVkg

29
Alberta
  • In the early 20th century, neither the Canadian
    govt nor Canadian investors were willing to play
    a leading role in developing Albertas oil.
  • As a result, intl companies came to dominate the
    provinces petroleum industry.
  • Until 1969, Canadian representatives of
    transnational corporations mostly
    American-based - dominated the industry. The
    big four were Shell, Imperial, Gulf, and Texaco.

30
The Creation of Petro-Canada
  • By 1969, foreign ownership was sparking fears
    that Canada was losing control of its energy
    resource. So, the Liberal govt began trying to
    Canadianize the industry.
  • They introduced the National
    Energy Program, which was
    designed to increase
    Canadian control, and
    created Petro- Canada to
    ensure a Canadian presence
    in the global development
    of energy
    resources.

31
Why did most of Alberta hate the National Energy
Program?Is it important for Canadians to own a
large share of Albertas oil and gas industry?
32
Free Trade Alberta Oil
  • The Free Trade Agreement between Canada and the
    US and, later, the North American Free Trade
    Agreement (NAFTA), has
  • reduced restrictions on foreign ownership in the
    energy sector
  • spurred development of Alberta energy projects,
    including the tar sands.
  • Assignment Read pgs 352-353. Answer 2 (not in
    booklet).

33
What is an epidemic?What is a pandemic?
34
Globalization Health
  • A pandemic is an epidemic that spreads around the
    world.
  • Medical experts today are concerned that
    pandemics pose a more serious threat than ever
    because of peoples ability to travel farther and
    faster than ever before.

35
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36
The Black Death
  • In the 14th century (1300s), an epidemic of
    bubonic plague that became known as the Black
    Death started in Asia and spread across Europe.
  • By the time the plague had run its course, 75
    million people had died, including 2/3rds of
    Europes population.
  • Pg 355

37
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38
  • National Geographic
  • http//science.nationalgeographic.com/science/heal
    th-and-human-body/human-diseases/plague-article/

39
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40
Where did the Black Death come from?
41
Black Deaths Origin
  • Most experts believe the Black Death was carried
    by rats but spread through human contact. It had
    travelled to Europe along the Silk Road.

42
Why So Deadly?
  • The Plague coincidentally struck at time when the
    ppl of Europe were particularly vulnerable.
  • War had disrupted farming and trading, famine was
    widespread, weather conditions were colder than
    normal, and a pestilence was killing sheep and
    cattle.
  • Economic and social conditions were deteriorating
    and there was little ppl could do to limit the
    spread of disease.

43
The Spanish Flu
  • Occurred just after WW I, between 1918 and 1920.
  • Killed an estimated 100 million people, a death
    toll that was much higher than that of the war.
  • What was most unusual about this disease was that
    it killed healthy young adults rather than the
    old, very young, and sick the usual victims of
    influenza outbreaks.

44
Why did WW I make the Spanish Flu that much more
deadly?
45
How Did Spread So Easily?
  • WW I did not cause the Spanish flu, but
    concentrations of soldiers helped spread the
    disease (fighting in trenches).
  • The soldiers movements from one area to another
    ensured that the disease moved quickly over a
    large geographical area.

46
What is SARS?
47
Pandemics of Today SARS
  • Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS),
    resulted in 774 deaths worldwide.
  • It was first discovered in rural China when a
    farmer died of an unidentified disease in 2002.
    However, China did not report the incident to the
    World Health Organization, the United Nations
    agency that monitors global health security.
  • Why would the world be ticked off at China for
    this?

48
SARS Spreads
  • Since the WHO was not notified, the disease did
    not become public until 2003, when an American
    man travelling to Singapore from China died on an
    airline from the disease.
  • Those who treated him developed the same disease
    soon after.
  • On March 12, the WHO issued a global alert, but
    the disease had already spread. By the time the
    outbreak ended in July 2003, SARS cases had been
    identified in 26 countries like Canada.
  • Figure 15-16 pg. 356

49
How Did We Limit SARS?
  • SARS could have become a deadly pandemic, but was
    held in check by the quick action of the WHO and
    national health agencies.
  • What is a quarantine?
  • Quarantines halted its spread, as ppl who might
    have come into contact with an infected person
    were isolated in their homes for 10 days. No
    contact with others was allowed.

50
AIDS
  • While SARS was successfully contained, the global
    response to Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome
    (AIDS), has been far less successful.
  • Every year, 4 million ppl contract the disease
    while 3 million die.
  • As of January 2006, an estimated 39.5 million ppl
    live with AIDS, while it has already killed
    another 25 million.

51
The Hush with AIDS
  • There is also a social stigma that comes with
    AIDS which has limited effective prevention
    programs since it was originally thought to be a
    disease of gay men.
  • Health officials now recognize that anyone can
    contact AIDS, but its association with sexual
    activity remains.
  • Many ppl who might be infected do not get tested
    for fear of testing positive. Those who do admit
    the are positive are often ostracized (not
    accepted).

52
If you thought you had AIDS, would you get
tested? Who you tell anyone that you were
infected?Should it be mandatory by law that you
get tested for AIDS and that people are made
aware if you have it?
53
  • Ryan White
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?vsCMr9jbq3Tk
  • FACES of HIV Steves Story
  • http//www.youtube.com/watch?v1OmEvsm_yDI
  • Kamaria
  • Renee

54
Why is AIDS so Deadly?
  • There is no cure for AIDS, although expensive
    drug therapies help prolong victims lives.
  • Many govts in Africa were very slow to develop
    prevention and treatment programs because they
    did not want to admit AIDS was a problem in their
    societies.
  • Now, 2/3rds of all AIDS cases are found in
    sub-Saharan African countries.

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56
Estimated prevalence of HIV among young adults
(15-49) per country at the end of 2005
57
Responses to Health Crises
  • The World Health Organization is the centre of
    the global response to health crises. Part of UN.
  • It systematically gathers reports about suspected
    outbreaks of diseases from formal and informal
    sources.
  • Formal sources include ministries of health in
    various countries, academic institutions,
    laboratories, NGOs, etc.
  • Informal sources would include websites and
    newswires that might report unconfirmed disease
    outbreaks. In more than 60 of disease crises,
    the first clues to WHO come from here.

58
Figure 15-17 15-18
59
Centers for Disease Control
  • Though the WHO coordinates disease control
    measures at the intl level, most of the
    monitoring, reporting, and responding to disease
    outbreaks take place at a national level.
  • The Centers for Disease Control Prevention in
    the US is one of the best-known national
    agencies. While they deal with pandemics they
    also look at healthy living, emergency
    preparedness, environmental health, violence and
    safety, workplace safety, and travellers health.

60
Why does most disease control take place at a
national level?
61
Various countries have come under criticism from
these pandemics that they are not doing enough to
help protect the peoples living in their
countries. Should they be responsible for
proving a needle or vaccine that can help protect
their peoples, and at what cost? Who is paying
for it?
62
How Have People Responded to Global Issues?
  • The worldwide connections that exist through
    globalization
  • people today can be informed of harmful or unfair
    situations in other places in greater detail and
    more quickly than ever before.
  • When people are informed, many move to take
    action. People can respond in a variety of ways
    as individuals, as part of a larger society, as
    part of a corporation, and through the
    government.

63
Consumers
  • Consumers can choose how to spend their money so
    they can carry a lot of power.
  • Many groups have formed to inform consumers about
    abuses and questionable practices by
    manufacturers and retailers. (Example
    sweatshops.)
  • As a consumer, would you be willing to pay more
    for consumer goods to guarantee equality in the
    workplace?

64
Boycotting
  • Boycotting is a form of consumer action. It
    involves refusing to buy a companys products.
  • A boycott is a form of direct action in which
    activists try to achieve their goals by targeting
    corporations, rather than working through the
    govt.
  • One high-profile boycott urged consumers not to
    buy Nestle products.

65
Civil Society
  • In the past, two sectors of society govts and
    business were thought to exert the most power
    and influence in making decisions and setting
    policy. Partly due to globalization, a third
    sector has arose.
  • Civil society groups (community groups, NGOs,
    faith-based groups, universities, etc.) have
    become more visible stronger.
  • Civil society groups have grown in importance due
    to the apparent decline in govts and rise in
    strength of corporations. Also, increased
    communication have allowed civil society groups
    to form easier and quicker.
  • What are some civil society groups?

66
Corporate Citizenship
  • Transnational corporations, whose operations span
    national boundaries, are in key positions to find
    solutions to important global challenges. They
    often have the expertise financial resources to
    make a difference.
  • Many of these businesses have developed corporate
    citizenship statements that mention a commitment
    to promoting sustainable development, human
    rights, and community involvement.

67
ISO Standards
  • Many corporations are showing their commitment to
    corporate citizenship by voluntarily adopting
    standards set by the International Organization
    for Standardization, or ISO.
  • ISO standards are designed to make the
    manufacturing and supply of goods and services
    more efficient, safe, and environmentally
    sustainable protect consumers/workers.
  • Companies that have met ISO requirements often
    promote this in their advertising. Is this an
    effective marketing tool?

68
Government Responses
  • Govts at various levels are in influential
    positions to work to achieve fairness and equity.
  • In Canada
  • Canadian Human Rights Commission
  • ensures human rights are being upheld in
    businesses such as banking, airlines, and tv
    stations.
  • In Alberta
  • Alberta Human Rights Citizenship Commission
  • looks at areas such as education, employment, and
    housing.
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