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Leadership Institute Addressing Barriers to Learning

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Title: Leadership Institute Addressing Barriers to Learning


1
Leadership Institute Addressing Barriers to
Learning Teaching and Re-engaging Disconnected
Students
2
  • We just missed the school bus.
  • \ Dont worry. I heard the
    principal say
  • \ no child will be left
    behind.
  • /

3
  • In the accompanying handouts we have included
    more than we cover in the power point slides. Our
    hope is that you will look the handouts over when
    you have time.
  • Feel free to use any handout as is or by adapting
    them.

4
Topics to be Covered
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
    Imperative
  • for School Improvement?
  • II. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • Rethinking Intervention
  • III. What is a System of Learning Supports?
    (cont.)
  • Reworking Infrastructure

5
Topics
  • IV. Intrinsic Motivation Engaging and
    Re-engaging
  • Students, Families, Staff
  • V. Whats involved in Getting From Here to There
  • VI. Planning Next Steps

6
  • I. Why is a System of
  • Learning Supports Imperative for
  • School Improvement?

7
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt
  • The current focus of school improvement policy
    and practice is too limited to ensure that all
    students have an equal opportunity to succeed at
    school.
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt

8
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates

9
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

10
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap

11
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing

12
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing
  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students

13
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing
  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students
  • Plateau Effect

14
  • Some of the data
  • The dropout rate for our nation remains
    unacceptably high. In 2006, the Education Trust
    reported that nearly 25 percent of the ninth
    grade population will not end up graduating from
    high school.

15
  • Some of the data
  • Take reading levels as an example.
  • Despite reports of small recent gains, most
    American students, across grade levels, are
    reading at the most basic levels and only about
    30 percent of high school students read
    proficiently and more than a quarter read below
    grade level.

16
  • Data from the National Assessment of Education
    Progress (NAEP) clearly shows the plateau effect
  • related to academic achievement.

17
(No Transcript)
18
  • Three Lenses for Viewing
  • School Improvement Efforts

19
  • Lens 1 All Students
  • Not some --
  • ALL youngsters
  • are to have an equal
  • opportunity to succeed at school

20
Lens 1 ALL Students
Range of Learners
Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities Avoidant/ very
deficient in capabilities
21
Lens 2 Barriers to Learning and School
Improvement
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
22
Appreciating the Full Range of Barriers to
Learning and School Improvement
  • For most students, its more about
  • Environmental Conditions
  • Neighborhood
  • Family
  • School and Peers
  • than about
  • Individual deficits
  • And, of course, a holistic approach emphasizes
  • gtProtective Buffers (strengths, resiliency)
  • gtPromoting Full Development

23
Examples of Environmental Conditions
  • extreme economic deprivation
  • community disorganization, including high levels
    of mobility
  • violence, drugs, etc.
  • minority and/or immigrant status

24
Examples of Family Conditions
  • chronic poverty
  • conflict/disruptions/violence
  • substance abuse
  • models problem behavior
  • abusive caretaking
  • inadequate provision for quality child care

25
Examples of School Peer Conditions
  • poor quality school
  • negative encounters with teachers
  • negative encounters with peers
  • inappropriate peer models

26
Examples of Individual Conditions
  • medical problems
  • low birth weight/neurodevelopmental delay
  • psychophysiological problems
  • difficult temperament adjustment problems
  • inadequate nutrition

27
  • Caution Dont let anyone
  • misinterpret the term
  • gtBarriers to learning
  • It encompasses much more than a deficit model of
    students.

28
  • And, it is part of a holistic approach that
    emphasizes the importance of
  • gtProtective Buffers
  • (e.g., strengths, assets, resiliency,
    accommodations)
  • gtPromoting Full Development

29
Lens 3 Engagement Disengagement
Source of Motivation
Extrinsics Intrinsics Intrinsics/

Extrinsics Engagement Intervention Concerns D
isengagement (psychological
reactance) Avoiding Over-reliance on Extrinsics,
Maximizing Intrinsic Motivation,
Minimizing Behavioral Control Strategies
30
Engaging Re-engaging Students in Classroom
Learning
Its time to pay greater attention to how
schools gtmaximize Intrinsic Motivation gtminimi
ze Behavior Control Strategies gtre-engage
Disconnected Students gtsustain Teacher
Motivation
31
Motivation, and especially Intrinsic Motivation
are fundamental intervention concerns
related to student (and staff) problems
32
  • First Concern Enhancing understanding of
    intrinsic motivation as related to academic
    achievement and the achievement gap
  • Second Concern Reducing overemphasis on
    behavior/social control enhancing appreciation
    of the impact of psychological reactance
  • Third Concern Re-engaging students who have
    become actively disengaged from classroom
    instruction
  • Fourth Concern Teacher motivation

33
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt
  • From the perspective provided by these three
    lenses, schools need to revisit their school
    improvement plans with an eye to whats missing.
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt

34
Brief Activity
  • Think about how your school improvement plan
    addresses students who do not come to school
    motivated and ready to learn.
  • Using the three lenses, jot down whats being
    done to
  • (1) Address barriers to learning
  • (2) Re-engage disconnected students

35
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
  • Imperative for School Improvement? (cont.)
  • School Improvement Planning
  • Whats Being Done
  • Whats Missing?

36
What we see around the country
Psychological Testing
Clinic
After-School Programs
HIV/Aids Prevention
Pupil Services
Health Services
Violence Crime Prevention
Physical Education
Special Education
Health Education
Nutrition Education
Juvenile Court Services
District
School Lunch Program
Community-Based Organizations
Drug Prevention
Counseling
Mental Health Services
Drug Services
Social Services
Pregnancy Prevention
Codes of Discipline
Smoking Cessation For Staff
HIV/AIDS Services
Child Protective Services
  • Talk about fragmented!!!

37
Why the fragmentation?
  • Current situation at all levels in the
    educational system
  • with respect to student/learning supports is
    that the efforts are
  • Marginalized in school improvement
  • policy and practice
  • Fragmentation is one result and isnt solved by
    focusing solely on improving coordination
  • Poor cost-effectiveness is another result (up to
    25 of a school budget used in too limited and
    often redundant ways)
  • So is counterproductive competition for sparse
    resources (among school support staff and with
    community-based professionals who link with
    schools)

38
Why the Marginalization?
How school improvement planning addresses
barriers to learning and teaching
Direct Facilitation of
Learning Development
Safe schools Some Student Family Assistance
Besides offering a small amount of school-owned
student "support services, schools outreach to
the community to add a few school-based / linked
services.
Instructional / Developmental Component
Management Component
Governance and Resource Management
39
  • Clearly, there are some supports whats missing
    is a dedicated, unified, and comprehensive
    component focused on
  • (1) addressing barriers to learning and
    teaching
  • AND
  • (2) re-engaging students who have become
  • disconnected from classroom instruction

40
  • The missing component becomes evident when school
    improvement plans are analyzed with respect to
    what is planned for those students who do not
    come to school every day motivated and ready to
    learn.

41
The need is to move from the prevailing
two-component framework to a three-component
framework in order to develop a Comprehensive
System of Learning Supports
Direct Facilitation of Learning Development
Addressing Barriers to Learning
Instructional/ Developmental Component
Learning Supports Component
Management Component
Governance and Resource Management
42
Unifying Policy Practice for Addressing
Barriers to Learning
Addressing Barriers to
Learning/Teaching (Enabling or Learning
Supports Component)
Direct Facilitation of Learning
(Instructional Component)
Examples of Initiatives, programs and
services that belong under the umbrella
gtpositive behavioral supports gtprograms
for safe and drug free schools gtbi-lingual,
cultural, and other diversity programs gtcompensat
ory education programs gtfamily engagement
programs gtspecial education programs gtmandates
stemming from the No Child Left Behind Act
other federal programs
Governance and Resource Management (Management
Component)
43
  • Activity
  • Discuss what you think teachers at your school
    would answer if asked what proportion of their
    students show up each day motivationally ready
    and able to do what the teacher has planned to
    teach that day.
  • Why are so many students not motivationally ready
    and able?
  • After your discussion, enjoy a break.

44
With all the budget problems, We have to do
everything on a shoestring. \ Are you
saying you \ still have a
shoestring? /
45
  • Whats the
  • community doing?

46
  • AGENCY REFORM
  • Restructuring and Reforming
  • Community Health and Human Services

47
  • The intent of current agency reform policy
  • gtend fragmentation
  • gtenhance access to clientele
  • The focus
  • gtinteragency collaboration
  • gtschool-linked services, sometimes
  • based (co-located) at a school

48
  • Problems
  • gtdoesnt integrate with schools efforts to
  • address barriers to learning
  • gtlimits the focus to current agency work
  • As a result, current agency policy produces
  • gtan additional form of fragmentation
  • gtcounterproductive competition
  • gtgreater marginalization

49
  • It is important to remember that
  • Community Agency Reform
  • is not the same thing as
  • Strengthening Communities

50
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.

51
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.
  • The emphasis is mainly on interagency
    collaboration.

52
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.
  • The emphasis is mainly on interagency
    collaboration.
  • Schools have been included since they offer
    better access to agency clients. Thus, the
    concept of school linked services, and the idea
    of community agencies co-locating services on a
    school site.

53
  • Because the focus is on services,
  • little attention is paid to
  • integrating community resources with
  • existing school programs and services
  • designed to address barriers to learning
  • including a full range of community resources
  • strengthening families and neighborhoods
  • by improving economic status and
  • enhancing other fundamental supports.

54
From Kretzmann McKnight -- Communities have
many resources!
Day care Center
Police
Faith-based Institutions
Banks
Higher Education Institutions
Senior Citizens
Local Residents
School
Library
Businesses
Artist Cultural Institutions
Restaurants
Media
Health Social Services Agencies
Community Based Orgs. Civic Assn.
55
  • To Recap
  • School improvement policy and planning have not
    addressed barriers to development, learning, and
    teaching as a primary and essential component of
    what must be done if schools are to minimize
    behavior problems, close the achievement gap, and
    reduce the rate of dropouts

56
  • To Recap
  • As a result, current efforts are
  • marginalized, fragmented, often
  • redundant and off track, and
  • they have resulted in
  • counterproductive competition
  • for sparse resources

57
  • To Recap
  • The need is for a comprehensive system of
    learning supports that
  • (1) addresses barriers to development,
  • learning, and teaching
  • (2) (re-)engages students in
  • classroom learning

58
  • In the handout, material , we have put some key
    questions
  • we hope you are thinking about at this point.
  • For discussion
  • What are the many external and internal barriers
  • interfering with your students learning and your
  • teachers teaching and how does all this affect
  • your schools?

59
  • Some matters that work against dealing
  • effectively with addressing barriers
  • to learning and teaching

60
(No Transcript)
61
(No Transcript)
62
(No Transcript)
63
  • Next
  • We turn to four fundamental, interrelated
    concerns involved in moving forward to develop
  • a Comprehensive
  • System of Learning Supports

64
Toward developing , implementing, sustaining a
unified and comprehensive component
  • Four Fundamental and Interrelated Concerns
  • Framing Interventions to
    Address
  • Barriers to Learning and
    Teaching into
  • Policy a Comprehensive System
  • Revision of Interventions
  • Rethinking
  • Developing Systemic Organizational
    Change Mechanisms for Operational
  • Effective Implementation,
    Infrastructure
  • Sustainability,
  • Replication to Scale
  • Also, counter the overemphasis on extrinsic
    reinforcers by reintroducing a focus on intrinsic
    motivation.

65
  • We begin discussing these
  • fundamental concerns by
  • clarifying a way to
  • frame interventions as
  • a comprehensive system
  • for addressing barriers to
  • learning and teaching
  • and re-engaging
  • disconnected students

66
  • II. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • Rethinking Intervention

67
  • Overview
  • A Sequential Approach
  • Defining Learning Supports
  • Framing a Comprehensive System of
  • Learning Supports
  • gtContinuum
  • gtContent
  • gtMajor examples of intervention activity
  • in each content arena
  • Combined Continuum and Content Arenas

68
Needed An Integrated Sequence of Interventions
that Includes a Comprehensive
System of Learning Supports
Promoting learning
Healthy Development plus Prevention of
Problems (System of Prevention)
as necessary
Intervening as early after onset of problems as
is feasible (System of Early Intervention)
as necessary
Specialized assistance for those with
severe, pervasive, or chronic problems (System of
Care)
69
  • Defining Learning Supports
  • Learning supports are the resources, strategies,
    and
  • practices that provide physical, social,
    emotional, and
  • intellectual supports to enable all pupils to
    have an
  • equal opportunity for success at school by
    directly
  • addressing barriers to learning and teaching
    and
  • re-engaging disconnected students.
  • A comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive
    learning
  • supports system provides supportive
    interventions in
  • classrooms and school-wide and is fully
    integrated
  • with efforts to improve instruction and
    management
  • at a school.

70

Framing a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports to Address Barriers to Learning
71
Meeting the needs of all students requires
gtpromoting assets gtpreventing problems
gtdealing with problems And doing so in
keeping with the principle of providing what is
needed in the least disruptive and restrictive
manner
72
A system of learning supports frames both an
intervention continuum delineated arenas of
content

73
Levels of Intervention ContinuumInterconnected
Systems for Meeting the Needs of All Students
One key Facet of a Learning Supports Component
School Resources (facilities, stakeholders,
programs, services)
Community Resources (facilities,
stakeholders, programs, services)
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems primary prevention
includes universal interventions (low end
need/low cost per individual programs)
See examples
See examples
Systems of Early Intervention early-after-onset
includes selective indicated
interventions (moderate need, moderate cost per
individual)
Systems of Care treatment/indicated
interventions for severe and chronic
problems (High end need/high cost per individual
programs)
74
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
75
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
76
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
77
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transitions
78
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Home involvement Engagement In Schooling
79
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
80
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
81
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Infrastructure gtleadership mechanisms
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
82
Major Examples of Activity in Each of the Six
Basic Content Arenas
83
  • Classroom-Based Enabling
  • Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning
  • FOCUS
  • Classroom based efforts to enable learning
  • Prevent problems intervene as soon as problems
    appear
  • Enhance intrinsic motivation for learning
  • Re-engage students who have become disengaged
    from classroom learning

84
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development Curricular
enrichment and adjunct programs Classroom and
school-wide approaches used to create and
maintain a caring and supportive climate
85
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
FOCUS School-wide and classroom-based efforts
for gtresponding to crises gtminimizing the
impact of crises gtpreventing crises
86
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning
Providing Follow up care as necessary
Forming a school-focused Crisis Team to
formulate a response plan and take leadership
for developing prevention programs
Mobilizing staff, students, and families
to anticipate response plans and recovery
efforts Creating a caring and
safe learning environment Working
with neighborhood schools and community to
integrate planning for response and
prevention
87
Support for Transitions FOCUS School-wide
and classroom-based efforts to gtenhance
acceptance and successful transitions gtprevent
transition problems gtuse transition periods to
reduce alienation gtuse transition periods to
increase positive attitudes/motivation toward
school and learning
88
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs School-to-career/higher
education Broad involvement of stakeholders in
planning for transitions
89
Home Involvement in Schooling FOCUS
School-wide classroom-based efforts to engage
the home in gtstrengthening the home
situation gtenhancing problem solving
capabilities gtsupporting student development and
learning gtstrengthening school and community
90
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making Enhancing home support for
learning and development Recruiting families
to strengthen school and community
91
Community Outreach for Involvement and
Support (including Volunteers) FOCUS
Building linkages and collaborations to
strengthen students, schools, families, and
neighborhoods
92
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement Reaching out
to Students and Families Who Don't Come to
School Regularly Including Truants and
Dropouts Connecting School and Community
Efforts to Promote Child and Youth
Development and a Sense of Community
93
From Kretzmann McKnight -- Communities have
many resources!
Day care Center
Police
Faith-based Institutions
Banks
Higher Education Institutions
Senior Citizens
Local Residents
School
Library
Businesses
Artist Cultural Institutions
Restaurants
Media
Health Social Services Agencies
Community Based Orgs. Civic Assn.
94
Student and Family Assistance
FOCUS Specialized assistance provided
through personalized health and social service
programs
95
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective Mechanisms for resource coordination
and integration to avoid duplication, fill
gaps, garner economies of scale, and enhance
effectiveness Enhancing stakeholder
awareness of programs and services
96
For more specific examples and mapping and
analysis self study surveys for each arena, see
the Centers online resource aid Guide to
resource mapping and management to address
barriers to learning An intervention for
systemic change
97
  • Combined Continuum and
    Content Arenas
  • Levels of Intervention

Systems for Promoting Healthy
Development
Preventing Problems
Systems for Early Intervention (Early after
problem onset
Systems of Care
Classroom-Focused Enabling
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for transitions
Content Arenas
Home Involvement in Schooling
Community Outreach/ Volunteers
Student Family Assistance
Activity Mapping Analyzing Learning Supports
98
System of Learning Supports is Designed to
Produce a Declining Proportion of Students
Needing Special Assistance
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems
Levels
Systems for Early Intervention (early-after proble
m onset)
(a)
Systems of Care
(b)
Intervention Content Arenas
(c)
(d)
(e)
Specialized Assistance other intensive
interventions
(f)
Accommodations for differences disabilities
(a) Classroom-focused enabling (b) Support
for transitions (c) Home involvement in
schooling (d) Community outreach/volunteers (e
) Crisis/ emergency assistance and prevention
(f) Student and family assistance
99
  • The framework is meant to guide development of
  • a comprehensive system of learning supports as
  • a primary and essential component of school
  • improvement.
  • Reminder
  • Such an enabling component is meant to
  • (1) address interfering factors
  • and
  • (2) re- engage students in classroom instruction

100
Whats Missing?
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
101
An Enabling or Learning Supports Component to
Address Barriers and Re-engage Students in
Classroom Instruction
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
  • Enabling
  • Component
  • Addressing
  • Interfering
  • Factors
  • (2) Re-engaging
  • Students in
  • Classroom
  • Instruction

Barriers To Learning, DevelopmentTeaching
(High Standards)
102
(No Transcript)
103
  • To Recap
  • School improvement planning for developing a
    comprehensive system of learning supports to
    address barriers to learning and teaching
    requires
  • (1) adoption of a umbrella framework that can
    unify
  • current efforts
  • (2) expansion of the framework for school
  • accountability (to account for efforts to
    enhance
  • social and personal functioning and
    address
  • barriers to learning and teaching -- we
    will detail
  • this later)

104
To Recap
Combining a continuum of intervention with a
discrete set of content arenas to establish a
comprehensive framework to guide development of
an enabling/learning supports component. The
resulting matrix provides a mapping tool and a
planning guide for developing a comprehensive set
of learning supports.
105
Activity Looking at schools you
know How close are they to having a unified and
comprehensive system of learning supports?
To answer this, many schools are
using our Centers tool for mapping analyzing
Learning Supports (Its online as part of a
toolkit of aids) Take a few
minutes now to do a bit of mapping using this
aid.
106
(No Transcript)
107
Next An overview of operational
infrastructure considerations
108
II. What is a System of Learning Supports?
(cont.) B. Reworking Infrastructure
  • Levels of Infrastructure Development
  • Key Mechanisms for a Component
  • What the infrastructure looks like at most
    schools
  • Prototype for an integrated infrastructure at a
    school
  • Connecting a Family of Schools (e.g., feeder
    pattern)
  • Prototype for a School District Infrastructure
  • About Developing a Learning Supports Leadership
    Team
  • About Effective School-community Infrastructure

109
Developing a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports (an Enabling Component) involves
reworking the organizational and operational
infrastructure for gtschools gtfeeder
patterns gtdistricts (and departments of
education) gtschool-community
collaboratives gtstate departments and
USDOE In reworking infrastructure, it is
essential to remember Structure Follows
Function!
110
Key Mechanisms for a Component Administrati
ve Leader Staff Lead for Component Le
adership Team Workgroups
111
What the student support infrastructure looks
like at most schools
Instructional Component
Leadership for
instruction
School Improvement Team
(Various teams and Work groups focused
on Improving instruction)
Moderate- Severe problems
Management/Governance
Component
Disability concerns
Management/ Governance Leadership
Case- Oriented Mechanisms
(Various teams and Work groups focused
on management governance)
112
Example of an Integrated Infrastructure at the
School Level
Instructional Component
Learning Supports or Enabling Component
Leadership for
Instruction
Leadership for Student Learning Supports
School Improvement Team
(Leadership Team
Work Groups)
Moderate- Severe problems
Leadership Team to develop
Component
Management/Governance
Component
Disability concerns
Management/ Governance Leadership
Work Groups Focused on Individual Students
Work Groups
Focused on System Development
(Leadership Team
Work Groups)
113
Leadership Beyond the School for Enhancing a
System of Learning Supports For a family of
schools (e.g., feeder pattern) 1-2
representatives from each School-Based Leadership
Team Facilitator for a Multi-site Resource
Council At the district Level 1-2
representatives from each Multi-site Resource
Council High Level District Administrator
School Board Subcommittee Chair (Comparable
leadership at county, state, and federal levels)
114
  • Enhancing a System of Learning Supports
  • Connecting Resources Across a Family of Schools,
  • a District, and Community-Wide

Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
High Schools
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Middle Schools
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Elementary Schools
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team
Learning Supports Council
Learning Supports Council
School District Resources, Management,
Governing Bodies
Community Resources, Management, Governing
Bodies
115
Prototype for an Integrated Infrastructure at the
District Level with Mechanisms for Learning
Supports That Are Comparable to Those for
Instruction
Board of Education
Superintendent
Subcommittees
Superintendents Cabinet
Leader for Learning Supports Component (e.g.,
Assoc. Sup.)
Leader for Instructional Component (e.g., Assoc.
Sup.)
Schools Improvement Planning Team
Learning Supports Leadership Team (e.g.,
component leader and leads for all six content
arenas)
Instructional Component Leadership Team (e.g.,
component leader and leads for all content areas)
Leader for Management/
Governance Component (e.g., Assoc. Sup.)
Leads for Content Arenas Work Groups for
Component Development
Leads for Content Arenas Work Groups for
Component Development
Leads, Leadership Team, and Work Groups Focused
on Governance/Management
116
About the Leadership Team Work Groups for
Developing thea Learning Supports Component
117
First Step Document Whos at a School?
  • Often, schools have not generated a map of the
    staff who are trying to address barriers to
    learning and teaching.
  • Adapt the following list to fit a specific
    school
  • and then fill in names, what they do, and when.
  • (2) Share the final version with teachers,
    parents,
  • and other concerned stakeholders.
  • The staff listed are all potentially invaluable
    members of a schools Leadership Team for
    Developing the Learning Supports Component

118
Learning Supports Staff at a School
gtAdministrative Leader for Learning
Supports gtSchool Psychologist gtSchool
Nurse gtPupil Services Attendance Counselor
gtSocial Worker gtCounselors gtDropout
Prevention Program Coordinator
gtTitle I and Bilingual Coordinators gtResource
and Special Education Teachers Other
important resources gtSchool-based Crisis
Team Members gtSchool Improvement Program
Planners gtCommunity Resources
Such a list should include a brief description
of programs and services and times available
119
Learning Supports Component Leadership Team
What you probably have is a Team Focused
on Specific Individuals Discrete
Services
What you also need is a Leadership Team to
Develop a Unified Comprehensive System of
Learning Supports
  • Possibly called
  • Learning Supports Resource Team
  • Learning Supports Component
  • Leadership Team
  • Learning Supports Component
  • Development Team
  • Sometimes called
  • Child/Student Study Team
  • Student Success Team
  • Student Assistance Team
  • Teacher Assistance Team
  • IEP Team

120
Team Focused on Specific Individuals
Discrete Services
Core Team for Developing a Unified
Comprehensive System of Learning Supports
  • EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS
  • triage
  • referral
  • case monitoring/management
  • case progress review
  • case reassessment
  • EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS
  • aggregating data across students and
  • from teachers to analyze school
  • needs
  • mapping resources
  • analyzing resources
  • enhancing resources
  • program and system
  • planning/development
  • redeploying resources
  • coordinating-integrating resources
  • social "marketing"

121
Can you define collaboration for me?
\ \ \
Sure! Collaboration is an unnatural act between
nonconsenting adults.
/
About Developing an Effective School- Community
Collaboration
122
About Developing an Effective School-Community
Collaborative Too often, what is described as
a collaborative amounts to little more than a
monthly or quarterly meeting of a small and not
very empowered group of stakeholders. The
meeting involves sharing, discussion of ideas,
and expression of frustrations. Then, everyone
leaves and little is done between meetings.
123
Collaboration is not about meeting. It is
about pursuing specific functions and
accomplishing essential tasks. For a
school-community collaborative to be meaningful,
it must be organized with full understanding of
where schools fit in strengthening the community
and where the community fits in strengthening
the school. And, the collaborative must
establish an effective infrastructure
(remembering that structure follows function).
124
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just
services) gt analyzing resources gt program
system planning/development gt redeploying
resources gt enhancing resource use and seeking
additional resources gt coordinating-integratin
g resources gt social marketing
125
About Collaborative Infrastructure Basic
Elements Who should be at the table?
steering group gtfamilies
gtschools gtcommunities
collab. ad hoc work
groups Connect Collaboratives at All Levels
body dy
126
Expanded Elements
steering group standing
work group for pursuing operational daily
functions/tasks collab.
body ad hoc work
groups standing work groups for
pursuing process for pursuing programmatic
functions/tasks functions/tasks
127
To Recap Operational infrastructure at all
levels needs to be reworked to effectively
plan, develop, and implement a comprehensive
system of learning supports Current school
improvement guidelines provide opportunities to
expand planning to focus on development of a
comprehensive system of learning
supports Planning means little if there is no
dedicated leadership and workgroup mechanisms
to carry out the work on a regular basis
128
Activity Looking at the schools you know
What Does the Operational Infrastructure
Look Like? What does the operational
infrastructure look like at the district
level? In thinking about this, see the tool
entitled Infrastructure Is What We Have
What We Need?
http//smhp.psych.ucla.edu/summit2002/tool20infra
structure.pdf
129
There are already so many problems in the world I
really dont think you should be introducing
another one!
130
Next A look at the topic of intrinsic
motivation
131
  • IV. Intrinsic Motivation Engaging and
  • Re-engaging Students, Families, Staff
  • Understanding Intrinsic Motivation
  • A Caution about Overreliance
  • on Extrinsics
  • A Focus on Re-engagement in
  • School Learning

132
  • Engaging Re-engaging Students
  • For students, family members, staff, or any
    other school stakeholders, concerns about
    engaging,
  • re-engaging, and maintaining engagement are
    central to effective schooling.
  • Given this, it is surprising how little
    attention has been paid to the topic of intrinsic
    motivation in discussions of school improvement.

133
I dont want to go to school. Its too
hard and the kids dont like me.
\ Thats too bad,
\ but you have to go \ youre
the Principal! /
134
  • Engaging Re-engaging Students
  • The following quick and simplified overview is
    meant to encourage a greater emphasis on these
    matters.
  • The focus here is mainly on students, but
    extrapolation to staff, family members and other
    stakeholders should be easy.

135
  • Understanding Intrinsic Motivation
  • is essential to addressing the problem of
  • student engagement and re-engagement
  • in classroom learning.
  • And, it is an essential concern in dealing with
  • misbehavior

136
  • Can you translate the following formula?
  • E x V M

137
  • If the equation stumped you, don't be surprised.
  • The main introduction to motivational thinking
    that many people have been given in the past
    involves some form of reinforcement theory (which
    essentially deals with extrinsic motivation).
  • Thus, all this may be new to you, even though
  • motivational theorists have been wrestling with
    it for a long time, and intuitively, you probably
    understand much of what they are talking about.

138
  • Translation
  • Expectancy times value
  • equals motivation

139
  • E represents an individual's expectations
    about outcome (in school this often means
    expectations of success or failure).
  • V represents valuing, with valuing
    influenced by both what is valued intrinsically
    and extrinsically.
  • Thus, in a general sense, motivation can be
    thought of in terms of expectancy times valuing.

140
  • Such theory recognizes that human beings are
    thinking and feeling organisms and that intrinsic
    factors can be powerful motivators.
  • This understanding of human
  • motivation has major implications for learning,
    teaching, parenting, and mental health
    interventions.

141
  • Applying the paradigm
  • Do the math.
  • E x V
  • 0 x 1.0
  • What are the implications?

142
  • Within some limits
  • (which we need not discuss here),
  • low expectations (E) and high valuing (V)
  • produce relatively weak motivation.
  • I know I wont be able to do it.

143
  • Now, what about this?
  • E x V
  • 1.0 x 0
  • What are the implications?

144
  • High expectations paired with low valuing
  • also yield low approach motivation.
  • Thus, the oft-cited remedial strategy of
  • guaranteeing success by designing tasks to be
  • very easy is not as simple a recipe as it sounds.

145
  • .
  • Indeed, the approach is likely to fail if the
  • outcome is not valued or if the tasks are
  • experienced as too boring or if doing them is
  • seen as too embarrassing.
  • In such cases, a strong negative value is
  • attached to the activities, and this contributes
  • to avoidance motivation.
  • Its not worth doing!

146
  • Two common reasons people give for not bothering
    to learn something are
  • It's not worth it"
  • "I know I won't be able to do it."

147
  • In general, the amount of time and
  • energy spent on an activity seems
  • dependent on how much the activity
  • is valued by the person and on the
  • person's expectation that what is
  • valued will be attained without too
  • great a cost.

148
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149
  • Overreliance on Extrinsics
  • a Bad Match

150
  • Overreliance on Extrinsics a Bad Match
  • Throughout this discussion of valuing and
  • expectations, the emphasis has been on
  • the fact that motivation is not something
  • that can be determined solely by forces
  • outside the individual.

151
Overreliance on Extrinsics a Bad Match Others
can plan activities and outcomes to influence
motivation and learning however, how the
activities and outcomes are experienced
determines whether they are pursued (or avoided)
with a little or a lot of effort and ability.
Understanding that an individual's perceptions
can affect motivation has led researchers to
important findings about some undesired effects
resulting from over-reliance on extrinsics.
152
  • Extrinsic Rewards Undermine Intrinsic Motivation
  • Over the past 20 years, nearly 100 published
    experiments have provided support for early
    studies indicating that extrinsic rewards can
    undermine peoples intrinsic motivation for the
    rewarded activity. This finding has been
    interpreted as stemming from people coming to
    feel controlled by the rewards.
  • Excerpted from The Rewards Controversy
    discussion highlighting the controversy and the
    research on the University of Rochester Self
    Detemination Theory website http//www.psych.roc
    hester.edu/SDT/cont_reward.html

153
  • Intrinsic Motivation
  • Intervention Considerations
  • Think in terms of
  • Maximizing feelings of
  • gtgtSelf-determination
  • gtgtCompetency
  • gtgtConnectedness to others

154
  • Intrinsic Motivation Intervention
    Considerations
  • Think in terms of
  • Minimizing threats to feelings of
  • gtgtSelf-determination
  • gtgtCompetency
  • gtgtConnectedness to others

155
  • About School Engagement
  • Re-engagement
  • A growing research literature is addressing these
    matters.
  • For example, see
  • School Engagement Potential of the Concept,
    State of the Evidence (2004) by J. Fredricks,
    P. Blumenfeld, A. Paris. Review of Educational
    Research, 74, 59-109.

156
  • Researchers conclude
  • Engagement is associated with positive academic
    outcomes, including achievement and persistence
    in school and it is higher in classrooms with
    supportive teachers and peers, challenging and
    authentic tasks, opportunities for choice, and
    sufficient structure.

157
  • Engagement is defined in
  • three ways
  • in the research literature

158
  • Behavioral engagement
  • Draws on the idea of participation
  • it includes involvement in academic and social
    or extracurricular activities and is considered
    crucial for achieving positive academic outcomes
    and preventing dropping out.

159
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions

160
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)

161
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs

162
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs
  • stress real options and choices and a
    meaningful
  • role in decision making

163
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs
  • stress real options and choices and a
    meaningful
  • role in decision making
  • provide enrichment opportunities (and be sure
    not
  • to withhold them as punishment)

164
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs
  • stress real options and choices and a
    meaningful
  • role in decision making
  • provide enrichment opportunities (and be sure
    not
  • to withhold them as punishment)
  • provide a continuum of structure

165
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166
  • Why is it important to minimize a
  • heavy emphasis on social control
  • and coercive procedures?
  • Those in control say
  • You cant do that
  • You must do this

167
If you didnt make so many rules, there wouldnt
be so many for me to break!
168
  • Kids think and often say as they react overtly
    or covertly
  • Oh, you think so!
  • This is called
  • Psychological Reactance.

169
  • When people perceive their freedom is
    threatened,
  • they experience psychological reactance, which
  • motivates them to act in ways that can restore
    the
  • threatened sense of freedom.
  • With prolonged denial of freedom, reactance
  • diminishes and people become amotivated
  • feeling helpless and ineffective.

170
  • Emotional engagement
  • Encompasses positive and negative reactions to
    teachers, classmates,
  • academics, and school and is presumed
  • to create ties to an institution and
  • influence willingness to do the work.

171
  • Cognitive engagement
  • Draws on the idea of investment
  • it incorporates thoughtfulness and willingness
    to exert the effort necessary to comprehend
    complex ideas and master difficult skills.

172
  • gtA Key Outcome of Engagement is Higher
    Achievement. The evidence from a variety of
    studies is summarized to show that engagement
    positively influences achievement
  • gtA Key Outcome of Disengagement is Dropping Out.
    The evidence shows behavioral disengagement is a
    precursor of dropping out.

173
  • Antecedents of Engagement
  • Antecedents can be organized into
  • School level factors voluntary choice, clear
    and consistent goals, small size, student
    participation in school policy and management,
    opportunities for staff and students to be
    involved in cooperative endeavors, and academic
    work that allows for the development of products
  • Classroom Context Teacher support, peers,
    classroom structure, autonomy support, task
    characteristics
  • Individual Needs Need for relatedness, need
    for autonomy, need for competence

174
  • Measurement of Engagement
  • Behavioral Engagement conduct, work
    involvement, participation, persistence, (e.g.,
    completing homework, complying with school rules,
    absent/tardy, off-task)
  • Emotional Engagement self-report related to
    feelings of frustration, boredom, interest,
    anger, satisfaction student-teacher relations
    work orientation
  • Cognitive Engagement investment in learning,
    flexible problems solving, independent work
    styles, coping with perceived failure, preference
    for challenge and independent mastery, commitment
    to understanding the work

175
  • Working with
  • Disengaged Students
  • Four general strategies

176
  • Clarifying student perceptions
  • of the problem
  • Talk openly with students about why they have
  • become disengaged so that steps can be planned
  • for how to alter the negative perceptions of
  • disengaged students and prevent others from
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