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Title: CORPORATE RESPONSIBILITY LEADERSHIP WORKSHOP Embedding CR in Your Operations & Management

WORKSHOPEmbedding CR in Your Operations
  • UC Berkeley
  • Center for Responsible Business
  • Business for Social Responsibility
  • July 8-9, 2008

Program Schedule
  • Day One
  • Overview of CR Global Trends
  • CR Strategy Development Tool
  • Case Tale of Two Strategic Approaches
  • CR Metrics, Impact Value Chain
  • Day Two
  • Defining Your Stakeholders
  • Communicating Branding Your CR
  • Strategy Small Group Work
  • Preparing for the Future

Overview of Corporate Responsibility Global
Corporate Responsibility Leadership Workshop
Embedding CR in Your Operations Management
  • Professor Kellie A. McElhaney
  • Haas School of Business

A Short Story in Three Parts
  • The Power of Business
  • The Challenges in the World
  • A Solution in CSR

Part One is ShortIts About the Power of
Theres Been a Shift of Power Resources
  • If you think its bad being exploited by global
    companiestry being ignored by one.
  • - Jeffrey Sachs

Theres Been a Shift of TrustExpectations of
Companies to Operate in Societys Best Interests
v. Perceived Performance
Globescan, 2005
Private Sector Has Lost Trust
  • Trust in global institutions to operate in
    societys best interests
  • NGOs 2, Business ranks 11 (out of 12), only ahead
    of Parliament/Congress
  • Armed Forces
  • NGOs
  • UN
  • Religious Institutions
  • WTO
  • Government
  • Press/ Media
  • Trade unions/ Labor
  • World Bank
  • IMF
  • Parliament/ Congress
  • NGOs more trusted, high credibility

Environics International, 2006
Part Two is LongerIts About the Challenges our
World Faces
  • Water
  • 1.1 B lack access to clean drinking water
  • 2.5 B lack access to proper sanitation
  • 5 M die from water-related disease (10 times
    killed in wars)
  • Climate Change
  • 2006 hottest year on record
  • Need 80 decrease by 2050 to prevent global
  • Climate change is the greatest market failure the
    world has ever seen.
  • - Sir Nicholas Stern, Former Chief Economist,
    World Bank.
  • Food
  • Global food prices (grains oils) have risen 54
    in 2008
  • In rich countries, we spend 10-20 of budget on
    food in poor countries, 60-80
  • 15M children die of hunger
  • For first time, levels of obesity approaching
    parity with levels of starvation
  • Rich/ Poor Gap
  • Half of the world lives on less than 2/day

The Third Part is a piece of a Solution
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR)
CSR Goes Mainstream
CSR is Everywhere
Defining CSR
  • Net Impact
  • Using the power of business to improve the world.
  • Business for Social Responsibility (BSR)
  • Companies being able to be commercially
    successful in ways that demonstrate respect for
    ethical values, people, community, and the
  • A Corporate Strategy Definition (McElhaney,
  • A corporate strategy that is integrated with (1)
    core business objectives (2) core competencies
    to create financial and social/environmental
    returns, and is embedded in corporate culture and
    day-to-day business operations.

Strategic CSR
  • CSR Strategy must fit two things
  • Core business objectives
  • Increase sales, penetrate new markets, engage
    employees, reduce operating expenses, improve
    reputation, protect brand, beat competitors
  • Core competencies
  • Technology, financial products services, making
    markets, natural food, automobiles and
    transportation systems, travel tourism.

Global Citizenship/ CSR/ Sustainability
  • Employee Engagement
  • Community Investment
  • Philanthropy
  • Government Public Relations
  • Governance Ethics
  • Environmental Footprint
  • Supply Chain/ Sourcing
  • Social/ Environmental Impact of Products

A Typical Corporate Strategy
Hewlett Packard, 2006
A Typical CSR Strategy
Supply Chain
Community investment
Cause marketing
Safe products
Environmental management
Human rights
Employee volunteerism
Fair employee treatment
Product give-aways
Business ethics
Corporate governance
Social/ environmental reporting
Workplace diversity
Non-Profit partnerships
A Lost Opportunity
to utilize CSR as a powerful integrated
business strategy, not an add on.
What People Think CSR Is
  • Spending (a little bit of) the (whole lot of)
    money that you make.

What CSR Really Is
  • How you make (the whole lot of) money that you

CSR is not about how you spend the money you
make. Its about how you make the money you
The Triple Bottom Line
Triple Bottom Line
J. Elkington, SustainAbility
Internal External CSR
Supply Chain
Mission, Vision, Values
Compensation/ Benefits
Stakeholder Engagement
Human Rights
Socio-political Issues
Health Wellness
Community Engagement Investment
Downsizing Layoffs
Work Life Balance
Job Satisfaction
Stages of CSR
Sweet Spot
The Baby Parable Four Approaches
It is Linked with Basic Human Needs
CSR Maturity
Growth stage
A CSR Landscape
A Company Who Gets It Whirlpool
Whirlpool Habitat for Humanity
  • 25M commitment in 1999
  • Given 34M, plus 73,000 refrigerators, ranges,
    household items to 36,000 homes
  • Pledged to give appliances to every house built
    through 2011
  • Launched Building Blocks initiative in 2006,
    sending over 1000 employees more volunteers to
    neighborhood for 1 week to build an entire block
  • From onset, was philanthropy in 2004, became
    brand message
  • We make very large, very heavy metal machines,
    often with big motors. This puts a human face on
    what could be a very cold metal category.
  • Sponsored 2006 Reba McEntire Habitat for Humanity
  • Tour

Its an Integrated Strategy
With Business Implications
Brand, Employees Consumers
Brand Who says social responsibility is a big
influence in their impressions of companies?
Product Purchase Who considers corporate
citizenship when buying a companys product?
Product Boycotts How many people would boycott a
product if they learned about negative
citizenship practices?
Employee Recruitment Who considers social
commitment when choosing an employer?
CSR The Million Dollar Employee
The Role of CSR in Business
  • Inspires/ attracts employees
  • Enhances/ redefines the brand
  • Enhances value proposition
  • Fosters distinctiveness
  • Tells a story
  • Opens access to new markets
  • Increases license to operate
  • Improves efficiencies
  • Increases trust and loyalty

CSR Leaders May No Longer Finish Last
  • Economist Intelligence Unit global study, Doing
    Good Business Sustainability Challenge 2007
  • Sponsored by B of A, Orange, Kearney, SAP
  • Companies who rated selves highly on CSR saw 16
    increase in profits, price growth of 45,
    compared to poorly-rated at 7 / 12
  • May not be causal or proved, but executives
    believe it is
  • Asked to name highest priority over next five
    years, 61 cited communicating their practices
    to all stakeholders

CSR Frameworks Part 1 ContextWhat is
CSR?What is the role of business?
Corporate Responsibility Leadership Workshop
Embedding CR in Your Operations Management
CEO Aron Cramer, BSR
What is CSR?
  • CSR is
  • Being energy efficient
  • Publishing a sustainability report
  • Greening the supply chain
  • Healthy working conditions
  • Producing a human rights policy
  • Signature philanthropic program
  • Having a social mission statement
  • Partnering with nonprofits
  • Dialogue with stakeholders
  • Enforcing a code of conduct

but whats behind all these activities?
CSR is aligning business with the worlds needs
Business has the potential to promote the
wellbeing of the world through problem solving
and wealth distribution.
A just and sustainable world is indicated by the
wellbeing of
  • Business can contribute to society by
  • Developing solutions
  • Innovating
  • Creating financial wealth
  • Allocating resources

The Emerging Business Case
  • The world is increasing in complexity and
    understanding social and environmental issues is
    required for making informed business decisions.

Public Policy
Natural Resources
Making sense of complexity finding opportunities
Business Success
Supply Chain Operations
Climate Change
Cultural Values
CSR can mean meeting essential global challenges
through value creation
Corporate leadership is not just about reducing
risk but using business and markets to deliver
social and environmental solutions.
CSR (Value Creation) Market solutions for
social/environmental needs
Philanthropy Civil Activism Non-market
solutions for social/environmental needs
Social Environmental Value
Financial Only Financial gains with little or no
societal value
No Value Failure to provide any value
Market Value
Evolving Definitions of CSR
Value Creation
CSR Frameworks Part 2 Strategy Development
Corporate Responsibility Leadership Workshop
Embedding CR in Your Operations Management
Assessment Where are we now? Visioning Where
do we want to be? Strategy How do we get
there? Implementation Lets get
there. Testing Will it work?
1. Assessment Where are we now?
  • Assessment Components
  • Business Strategy where is the business going
    over the next ten years?
  • Internal Assessment What are our existing
    policies and practices?
  • Current Approach How do we manage CSR today?
  • Value Chain What are the various touch points of
    our business? What opportunities and risks do
    they create?
  • Reputation How do important audiences internal
    and external view our company/industry?

2. Visioning Where do we want to be?
  • Visioning Components
  • Leadership Profile What is our companys
  • Materiality Analysis What are our most material
  • Prioritizing Where do we want to make a mark?
    What is secondary?
  • Internal Support Will this vision get traction
    throughout the company?
  • External Credibility Will this strategy be
    credible with key stakeholders?

3. Strategy How do we get there?
  • Strategy Components
  • Framing Questions Will this aid our business,
    foster innovation, and mitigate risk?
  • Value Chain Can we integrate this strategy
    throughout the supply chain?
  • Change Management What changes will be needed to
    make the strategy effective?
  • Systems Thinking What levers must be influenced
    to make the strategy work?
  • Relationships What relationships do we need to
    execute this strategy?
  • Communication Can we communicate this strategy

4. Implementation Lets get there.
  • Implementation Components
  • Communication Strategy must be conveyed clearly
    and effectively.
  • Policy Development Develop policies needed to
    implement strategy.
  • Integration Core business plays a role.
  • Targets Metrics (impacts, not only activities)
    and accountability introduced.
  • Collaboration Look for opportunities with
    industry and other partners.
  • Reporting Communicate our impacts to internal
    external stakeholders.

5. Testing Make it credible and resilient.
  • Testing Components
  • Stakeholder Dialogue Is the strategy credible to
    key opinion formers?
  • Forecasting What are the unknown unknowns?
  • Refresh the Strategy Assume that adjustments to
    strategy will be needed.

CSR Frameworks Part 3 Strategy Exercise
Corporate Responsibility Leadership Workshop
Embedding CR in Your Operations Management
Exercise One Rescue Our Reputation!
  • Your consumer products company has been hit by a
    series of labor and quality scandals that has
    placed it in the bottom fifth of the annual
    Consume-A-Lot reputation rankings.
  • Your CEO asks you, as the head of Public Affairs,
    to work with the head of CSR develop a three-step
    program to raise the companys rankings to the
    50th percentile in two years, and top quartile in
  • You have not really worked with the head of CSR
    before, and have always wondered whether his
    boss, the General Counsel, really embraces
    corporate responsibility.
  • What process will you use, and what will you
    recommend to the CEO?

Exercise Two Open New Markets!
  • Your food retailing company is taking advantage
    of market liberalization in India, and aims to be
    the 1 foreign retailer within five years.
  • As head of strategy, you have never really
    thought about CSR, but know that the India plan
    can make or break your career.
  • You want to make sure that your stores are viewed
    favorably in a notoriously difficult market.
  • You want to develop a five year strategy that
    establishes your company as a leading corporate
    citizen in India.
  • How will you develop a strategy, and what will it

Exercise Three Innovate!
  • Your new CEO has set innovation for society as
    the 1 objective for the company under her
  • As the Vice President, Sustainability, for your
    consumer electronics company, you have been
    tasked with developing new product offerings.
  • You have been asked to focus in particular on
    emerging markets with low to middle incomes, with
    the goal of increasing sales volume and
    generating economic opportunity for underserved
  • What process will you use, and what will the main
    points of your strategy be?

Exercise Four Overcome the Skeptics!
  • You are the head of CSR at a pharmaceutical
    company headed by a CEO who has made numerous
    cynical comments about greenies and CSR as
    nothing but the flavor of the month.
  • At the same time, the Board has recently
    established a committee focusing on CSR, and with
    the three most powerful independent directors to
    the Committee.
  • You have been asked to report to the Committee,
    with the CEO not present, on the three greatest
    risks and opportunities facing the company
    concerning sustainability.
  • How will you develop your report, and make sure
    that it has real impact on the companys
    thinking? How will you manage the CEOs

CSR Frameworks Part 4 Integration
Corporate Responsibility Leadership Workshop
Embedding CR in Your Operations Management
CSR Integration FrameworkHow do we integrate CSR
into the company?
Purpose Vision
Core Business Material Issues
Stakeholder Relations
Transparent Communication
Business Processes
Industry Collaboration
Performance Evaluation
Implementation Tools
Internal External AlignmentIf CSR is aligning
business with the worlds needs, how do we ensure
alignment throughout the process?
Purpose Vision
Core Business Material Issues
Internal External Alignment
Stakeholder Relations
Transparent Communication
Business Processes
Industry Collaboration
Performance Evaluation
Implementation Tools
Purpose VisionWhat impact do we want our
business to have on society?
BSR Services Visioning Strategy
Development Forecasting Trends RD
  • Purpose Vision
  • Vision establishes a direction that can then
  • Prioritization of issues and opportunities
  • Allocation of resources
  • Communication internally and externally
  • Development of performance measurement
  • Leadership
  • Avoidance of risk is not a road map it is
    neither anticipatory nor is it a destination

How do we get there?
Where are we today?
What is our vision for tomorrow?
Core Business Material IssuesWhat is the
business case for CSR at our company and what
issues should we focus on?
BSR Services CSR Assessment RD Materiality
Analysis Stakeholder Engagement Strategy
Development Convenings
Core Business Material Issues
  • An effective CSR strategy requires integration
    into the core business and understanding the
  • Business Model products, services, core
  • Business Context trends, relationship between
    business and external factors
  • Material Issues areas with high impact on both
    business and society

Issues Impacting Society
Issues Relevant to Business
Material Issues
Business ProcessesHow do we ensure that our
everyday business processes are aligned with the
BSR Services CSR Assessment Strategy
Development Supply Chain Strategy
Business Processes
  • Effective execution throughout your business
    processes can be enabled by integrating CSR into
  • Policies
  • Procedures
  • Staff
  • Performance measures

Human Resources
Internal External AlignmentHow do we align our
actions internally and externally to achieve our
BSR Services Stakeholder
Engagement Working Groups Convenings
Internal External Alignment
Aligning efforts internally and externally is
critical to effectively executing a CSR strategy.
  • Within the company
  • Along the supply chain
  • Within the industry
  • With external stakeholders
  • With the ecosystem

Buyers Consumers
Civil Society
Implementation ToolsWhat practices will enable
us to implement our CSR strategy?

Implementation Tools
Implementation of the strategy depends on the
following key practices
  • Stakeholder Engagement
  • Industry Collaboration
  • Performance Evaluation
  • Transparent Communications

Stakeholder EngagementWhat are external groups
perspectives on the issues?
BSR Services Engagement Design
Facilitation Stakeholder Engagement Internal
Process Development Stakeholder Engagement
Stakeholder Engagement
  • What Engaging with external groups in a two-way
    dialogue on key issues
  • Why To better understand and align business
    actions stakeholder interests
  • Business Benefits
  • Gather information for decision-making
  • Secure trust and credibility
  • Anticipate and manage conflicts trends
  • Assess performance and progress
  • Develop collaborative solutions
  • Gain access to capital markets

Industry CollaborationHow can we collaborate
with our industry to increase our impact?
BSR Services Working Groups Convenings Supply
Chain Strategy
Industry Collaboration
  • What Collaborating with other companies in the
    same industry on key initiatives
  • Why To increase impact of efforts, and in some
    cases share and thereby reduce costs and other
    barriers to improvement
  • Business Benefits
  • Shared resources
  • Greater influence as a collective
  • Exchange of knowledge best practices
  • Consistent message expectations across the
  • Level playing field

Performance EvaluationHow do we measure progress
and ensure accountability?
BSR Services Metrics Development Accountabili
ty Systems Information System Strategy
Performance Evaluation
  • What Developing metrics to assess progress in
    key performance areas and having incentive
    structures in place to ensure accountability
  • Why To understand how well desired objectives
    are being met
  • Business Benefits
  • Better understanding of ROI
  • Measure progress
  • Gather information for reporting
  • Inform strategic planning

Transparent CommunicationsHow do we communicate
our actions accurately, for to benefit of
ourselves and our stakeholders?
BSR Services Reporting Metrics
Development CSR Strategy
Transparent Communications
  • What Communicating actions and performance
    openly to stakeholders
  • Why Discussing issues publicly demonstrates a
    companys CSR commitment and creates
  • Business Benefits
  • Clear, consistent communications to the public
  • Enhanced credibility with stakeholders the
  • Companies can take clear positions on issues that
    matter to them
  • Engage and shape public discourse

In Closing Characteristics of A Successful
Sustainability Strategy
  • Strengthens business competitiveness
  • Aligned with basic business strategy
  • Supported top to bottom
  • Globally coherent
  • Credible externally
  • Resilient in the face of change

Company Case Studies
  • A Tale of Two Strategic Approaches
  • GE HP
  • Director Stacey Smith, BSR
  • Kellie McElhaney

GEs Strategic Approach
Background and Drivers
  • Increasing investor inquiries
  • Investor Relations exploring SRI and DJSI
  • Begin to form a new definition of best-in-class
  • Well-managed
  • Well-governed
  • Corporate Citizenship
  • Need to build Corporate Citizenship piece
  • Important commercial drivers in development
  • Ecoimagination
  • Emerging markets
  • Decision to create a report to address growing
    stakeholder inquiries

First Activities
  • Starting point was a citizenship report
  • Engaged external support to guide them
  • Created SWOT on CR performance delivered to
  • Conducted high level materiality analysis
  • Most data collection was in place (EHS, HR,
    etc.) other data not available
  • First report developed and published in 2005
  • Engaged stakeholders to receive feedback

Launch of Commercial Actions
  • Ecomagination a research priority the cut
    across all business units signaling a joined up
    collaborative approach
  • Company to Country product development driven
    by questions what are the social infrastructure
    needs of the country

Results from First Report
  • Identified key areas of weakness and began
    integration into GE system
  • Public Responsibilities Committee redirected
    focus and inquiry from philanthropy to core
    citizenship agenda as determined by materiality
  • Developed Human Rights policy followed by
    worldwide roll out in subsequent years
  • Put in place processes for water and waste data
    collection two years to collect baseline and
    then set targets
  • Began conducting business unit materiality

  • Culture is top down and driven by one philosophy
  • Conductors of the orchestra collect and review
    business unit goals and deliverables and identify
    opportunities with support of external advisors
    then work with business unit to push performance
  • No central structure established instead
    virtual work group across company comes together
    once a year to work on report some strategy is
    developed at that time
  • Business units tasked with strategy and
    implementation based on materiality analysis

HPs Strategic Approach
Business Drivers
Working together across HP
  • GC strategy workshop
  • Cross-functional company team
  • defined an integrated GC strategy for FY07
  • assessed GC relevance and prioritization
  • determined gaps, opportunities and mapped to
    company strategy
  • identified top three GC priorities
  • developed strategies and goals
  • gained commitment from BUs and Functions to
    integrate strategies and goals into business

Current GC investments
and to continue work in critical areas such as
employees, education privacy and compliance.
It was agreed that HP should drive for more
investment in the framework categories brand
and differentiation.
Recommended GC priorities
  • Energy
  • Improving energy efficiency and innovation in our
    operations and products.
  • Product take back and recycling
  • Reducing product environmental impacts through
    leading-edge reuse and recycling solutions.
  • Responsible supply chain
  • Raising standards in HPs global supply chain and
    ensuring responsible manufacturing for all

Proposed GC Goals
Additional Points Discussed
Next steps
  • Gain agreement on GC priorities from
    cross-company strategy team
  • Review proposed goals with internal
    stakeholders (in progress)
  • Executive Council Members
  • Global Marketing Council
  • Supply Chain Board
  • Others
  • Present recommendations to EC
  • Integrate GC strategies into business plans
  • Publicly announce new GC priorities goals

Global Citizenship at HP
Corporate Responsibility (Sustainability)
Metrics, Impact the Value Chain
Corporate Responsibility Leadership Workshop
Embedding CR in Your Operations Management
  • Tony Kingsbury
  • Executive-on-Loan
  • Sustainable Products Solutions Program
  • UC Berkeley

Desired Outcomes
  • Deeper understanding of CSR / Sustainability
  • Understand the Value of measuring CSR /
    Sustainability Metrics
  • Understand the need to be transparent and look
    across your value chain
  • Learn how to identify and apply the key metrics
    for your company / organization

  • Measuring Corporate Responsibility /
  • SustainabilityWhy is This Important?
  • Three Ps Approach
  • ? Planet ? People ? Profit / Prosperity
  • Whats Important for Your Organization?
  • In-class examples
  • Discussion of your key metrics (break-out?)
  • Wrapup discussion from break-outs
  • Conclusion

Sustainability what is it?
  • Webster Definition method of harvesting or
    using a resource so that the resource is not
    depleted or permanently damaged
  • World Commission on Environment and Development
    development that meets the needs of the present
    without compromising the ability of future
    generations to meet their own needs.
  • The word sustainability has been thrown around
    a lot. What it means to us is not seeing things
    piecemeal, not stressing business issues in one
    place and responsibility in another. To us,
    sustainability means running our business while
    being conscious of, and addressing its impacts,
    and addressing them everywhere. Nike

Sustainability what is it?
  • However you define sustainability, you need to
    realize that sustainability is a journey, not an

Measuring Sustainability Why is This Important?
  • "You only manage what you measure"
  • How many of you know what mpg your car
    gets?...what it costs to fill-up your gas tank?
  • How many gallons of water is used when you flush
    your toilet?... Or take a shower?
  • How much does your organization pay to dispose or
    recycle your waste?
  • Do your suppliers pay their employees a living
    wage?... Do they offer health benefits?

When we Measure we know what how to improve!
  • In 1995 Dow set a goal of improving its energy
    efficiency by 20 in 10 years.
  • Starts with knowing how much energy was used
  • Tracked progress
  • Tracked spent on improvements
  • Tracked energy saved from improvements
  • Results
  • 22 Improvement (9 trillion btus saved)
  • 1 Billion spent on improvements
  • 5 Billion saved from improvements.. and counting

2005 goals seek another 25 improvement by 2015!
Source http//
  • Improving working conditions in contract garment
    factories remains a key part of our overall
    social responsibility strategy. 
  • Our approach, which involves factory monitoring,
    training, other capacity-building programs and
    engaging with stakeholders, gives us first-hand
    insight into factory conditions, and helps us
    measure progress against our standards. In 2006
  • Continued to employ a team of more than 90 people
    around the world dedicated to improving the lives
    of garment workers.
  • Evaluated 425 new garment factories and rejected
    18 percent for failing to comply with our Code of
    Vendor Conduct.
  • Conducted 4,316 inspections in 2,053 garment
    factories around the world, covering 99.4 percent
    of garment factories approved for the entire
    fiscal year.
  • Revoked our approval of 23 factories for
    compliance reasons, approximately 1.1 percent of
    our base.

Measuring Sustainability...Why is This Important?
  • Trend in transparency throughout the value chain

Measuring Sustainability...Why is This Important?
  • Trend in transparency throughout the value chain
  • How many of you know your organizations carbon

Measuring Sustainability...Why is This Important?
  • carbon footprint - example of whats coming

Measuring Sustainability...Why is This Important?
  • How many of you have heard of Wal-Marts
    Sustainability Initiative?

We soon realized (sustainability) was something
we could be proactive about, a business strategy.
It's not an easy path, but we now see it as the
greatest opportunity we have to create value for
our customers, cut costs, increase morale, grow
responsibly, and do the right thing for the
planet. Lee Scott, Wal-Mart CEO
Wal-Mart is beginning to ask its suppliers for
Carbon Footprint data
  • Are you ready to supply carbon data to your
    customers and stakeholders?
  • What is the Opportunity?
  • Reduction savings
  • Carbon/CO2 is a green house gas climate change
  • Ability to differentiate from competitors
  • Lower cost, employee moral, hiring, reputation
    gains, ability to quickly supply data, etc.

Measuring Sustainability
  • Planet (Environment)
  • People (Social)
  • Profit / Prosperity (Financial)

Measuring Sustainability
  • Planet (Environment)
  • What are common environmental measures?
  • Whats important for your organization?

Common Planet (Environment) Metrics
  • Energy use (direct indirect)
  • Emissions (direct indirect)
  • water - air - land
  • Climate Change potential from your operations
  • Recycling Use of Recycled Materials
  • Fresh Water Use
  • Material Intensity products, packaging, etc.
  • Hazardous substances in your value chain
  • Biodiversity land use and activities that
  • etc.

Common Planet (Environment) Metrics
  • Environmental
  • Materials used by weight or volume.
  • Percentage of materials used that are recycled
    input materials.
  • Direct energy consumption by primary energy
  • Indirect energy consumption by primary source.
  • Total water withdrawal by source.Water sources
    significantly affected by withdrawal of water.
  • Percentage and total volume of water recycled and
  • Location and size of land owned, leased, managed
    in, or adjacent to, protected areas and areas of
    high biodiversity value outside protected areas.
  • Description of significant impacts of activities,
    products, and services on biodiversity in
    protected areas and areas of high biodiversity
    value outside protected areas.
  • Total direct and indirect greenhouse gas
    emissions by weight.
  • Other relevant indirect greenhouse gas emissions
    by weight.
  • Initiatives to reduce greenhouse gas emissions
    and reductions achieved.
  • Emissions of ozone-depleting substances by
  • NOx, SOx, and other significant air emissions by
    type and weight.
  • Total water discharge by quality and destination.
  • Total weight of waste by type and disposal
  • Total number and volume of significant spills
  • Initiatives to mitigate environmental impacts of
    products and services, and extent of impact
  • Percentage of products sold and their packaging
    materials that are reclaimed by category.

Extracted from the Global Reporting Initiative
Common Planet (Environment) Metrics
  • Product Responsibility
  • Life cycle stages in which health and safety
    impacts of products and services are assessed for
    improvement, and percentage of significant
    products and services categories subject to such
  • Type of product and service information required
    by procedures, and percentage of significant
    products and services subject to such information
  • Programs for adherence to laws, standards, and
    voluntary codes related to marketing
    communications, including advertising, promotion,
    and sponsorship.
  • Total number of substantiated complaints
    regarding breaches of customer privacy and losses
    of customer data.
  • Monetary value of significant fines for
    non-compliance with laws and regulations
    concerning the provision and use of products and

Extracted from the Global Reporting Initiative
Measuring Sustainability
  • People / Society
  • What are common societal measurements?
  • What is important for your organization?

Common People (Social) Metrics
  • Labor Practices (around the world throughout
    your value chain)
  • Women Minorities hiring and treatment
  • Ratio of salary of men to women by employee
  • Corruption Policies Practices
  • Human Rights Policies, Procurement, Suppliers
  • Community Engagement Practices
  • Donations, Volunteerism, etc.
  • Turnover by age group, gender region
  • Rates of injury, lost days, absenteeism, etc.
  • etc.

Measuring Social / People Impact
  • Social Society
  • Nature, scope, and effectiveness of any programs
    and practices that assess and manage the impacts
    of operations on communities, including entering,
    operating, and exiting.
  • Percentage and total number of business units
    analyzed for risks related to corruption.
  • Percentage of employees trained in organization's
    anti-corruption policies and procedures.
  • Actions taken in response to incidents of
  • Public policy positions and participation in
    public policy development and lobbying.
  • Total value of financial and in-kind
    contributions to political parties, politicians,
    and related institutions by country.
  • Total number of legal actions for
    anti-competitive behavior, anti-trust, and
    monopoly practices and their outcomes.
  • Monetary value of significant fines and total
    number of non-monetary sanctions for
    non-compliance with laws and regulations. 5

Extracted from the Global Reporting Initiative
Measuring Social / People Impact
  • Social Human Rights
  • and total number of significant investment
    agreements that include human rights clauses or
    that have undergone human rights screening.
  • of significant suppliers and contractors that
    have undergone screening on human rights and
    actions taken.
  • Total hours of employee training on policies and
    procedures concerning aspects of human rights
    that are relevant to operations, including the
    percentage of employees trained.
  • Total number of incidents of discrimination and
    actions taken.
  • Operations identified in which the right to
    exercise freedom of association and collective
    bargaining may be at significant risk, and
    actions taken to support these rights.
  • Operations identified as having significant risk
    for incidents of child labor, and measures taken
    to contribute to the elimination of child labor.
  • Operations identified as having significant risk
    for incidents of forced or compulsory labor, and
    measures to contribute to the elimination of
    forced or compulsory labor.
  • Percentage of security personnel trained in the
    organization's policies or procedures concerning
    aspects of human rights that are relevant to
  • Total number of incidents of violations involving
    rights of indigenous people and actions taken.

Extracted from the Global Reporting Initiative
Measuring Social / People Impact
  • Labor Practices Decent Work
  • Total workforce by employment type, employment
    contract, and region.
  • Total number and rate of employee turnover by age
    group, gender, and region.
  • Percentage of employees covered by collective
    bargaining agreements.
  • Minimum notice period(s) regarding significant
    operational changes, including whether it is
    specified in collective agreements.
  • Rates of injury, occupational diseases, lost
    days, and absenteeism, and number of work-related
    fatalities by region.
  • Education, training, counseling, prevention, and
    risk-control programs in place to assist
    workforce members, their families, or community
    members regarding serious diseases.
  • Average hours of training per year per employee
    by employee category.
  • Programs for skills management and lifelong
    learning that support the continued employability
    of employees and assist them in managing career
  • Composition of governance bodies and breakdown of
    employees per category according to gender, age
    group, minority group membership, and other
    indicators of diversity.
  • Ratio of basic salary of men to women by employee

Extracted from the Global Reporting Initiative
Measuring Sustainability
  • Profit / Prosperity (Financial)
  • What are key Financial Measurements
  • What are the important metrics for your

Common Profit (Financial) Metrics
  • Income Profitability Growth
  • Investments
  • Purchasing Practices
  • Joint Venture practices
  • Debt to Equity Ratio
  • Risks from operations and products
  • Financial Assistance from Governments
  • Patents, New Products, etc.

Measuring Financial Impact
  • Financial
  • Direct economic value generated and distributed,
    including revenues, operating costs, employee
    compensation, donations and other community
    investments, retained earnings, and payments to
    capital providers and governments.
  • Financial implications and other risks and
    opportunities for the organization's activities
    due to climate change.
  • Coverage of the organization's defined benefit
    plan obligations.
  • Significant financial assistance received from
  • Range of ratios of standard entry level wage
    compared to local minimum wage at significant
    locations of operation.
  • Policy, practices, and proportion of spending on
    locally-based suppliers at significant locations
    of operation.
  • Procedures for local hiring and proportion of
    senior management hired from the local community
    at significant locations of operation.
  • Development and impact of infrastructure
    investments and services provided primarily for
    public benefit through commercial, in-kind, or
    pro bono engagement.
  • Understanding and describing significant indirect
    economic impacts, including the extent of impacts.

Extracted from the Global Reporting Initiative
Measurement to Goals - SC Johnson Example
Source 2008 SCJ Public Report, Page 10
You Are Only As Green As Your Supply Chain
(Herman Miller) Years ago Herman Miller decided
to become an advocate for the environment, both
because we believed it was the right thing to do
and because we saw the potential for a clear
business benefit. Ever since, we've been refining
our processes to put our aspirations into
practice.Our Perfect Vision campaign, launched
in 2003, includes green goals such as no landfill
waste, no hazardous waste, no air or water
emissions from manufacturing, and the use of
100 green energy, all by the year 2020. These
are stringent targets our company cannot reach
without engaging over 200 materials and
components suppliers in the ongoing task of
greening our global supply chain.As we've
examined every aspect of our worldwide supply
chain, we've learned one key lesson A business,
and the products it sells, can only be
environmentally sustainable through a holistic
approach to design, raw materials, production
methods, packaging, shipping, recycling, and even
marketing--across the entire value chain. It's
far too large and complex a undertaking for any
organization to go it alone and be truly
effective. You know the saying, "It takes a
village to raise a child." Well, it takes an
entire supply chain to green a company. Here are
three things we recommend to companies working
with their suppliers on the long-term goal of
going green. 1. Design your products with
sustainability as a core principal. At Herman
Miller, we have a problem-solving, design-driven
culture, so we spend a lot of time thinking about
how to create our products. In 2001, when we were
creating our Mirra chair, we had been working
with architect Bill McDonough and chemist Michael
Braungart, both leading-edge environmentalist
thinkers, toward their vision of a
"cradle-to-cradle" design that embraces
sustainable materials in a closed-loop life
cycle. As a result, we eliminated the use of a
chemical called polyvinyl chloride in that chair.
Now, PVC has advantages, including the fact that
it is inexpensive and durable. However, PVC
releases toxins during manufacturing and when it
is burned. We decided not to use it and
implemented that decision with the help of our
suppliers. We embedded those cradle-to-cradle
principals in our product development process for
all new designs, beginning with Mirra.2. Refine
your goals and put them to paper. We aim to be
fully sustainable by 2020, but we're holding
ourselves accountable to interim goals along the
way. For example, by 2010, 50 of our sales will
come from products that conform to our own
rigorous Design for the Environment standards,
and we aim to reduce our environmental footprint
by 80. Achieving these goals requires paying
attention not only to materials, including their
chemical ingredients, but also to our sources of
energy, to our manufacturing processes, and to
our packaging. We don't want to reduce our impact
in one area while ignoring it in another. Nor do
we want to move our environmental impact upstream
into our supply chain.3. Embrace transparency
and meaningful metrics. Our company, our
customers, and our industry in general are moving
inexorably toward more transparent reporting when
it comes to the environment. And, like any other
management issue, what gets measured gets
managed. When it comes to our supply chain,
several measures apply. We award points through
our Supplier Quantification Process for formal
environmental programs and active waste-reduction
programs. We rate our suppliers according to how
effectively they are working to help us reach our
goals--from researching alternative materials to
incorporating our measurable targets into their
flow charts. And this is the crux of the issue
We're not only looking at our suppliers, but at
our suppliers' suppliers.We have 12 years and a
long way to go before reaching our self-imposed
deadline for our Perfect Vision mission. By
looking--and forcing change--outside our company
as well as inside, we believe we can achieve this
goal. By following the three steps above, we
believe other companies can reach their green
goals as well.
Author Brian Walker, CEO of Herman Miller
Herman Miller You Are Only As Green As Your
Supply Chain
  • Key Points
  • Know your Value-chain
  • Establish Meaningful Goals (and share them)
  • Be Prepared for a Transparent World
  • The right METRICS are the root to all three of
    these points

Break-out groups
  • Discuss the key metrics for your organization as
    a group
  • Come back in 20 minutes prepared to present your
  • Key metrics?
  • Why?
  • How can you make sure they are implemented?

Break-out groups - Feedback
  • Key metrics?
  • Why?
  • How can you make sure they are implemented?

  • Measure your Organizations Sustainability
  • Improvement begins with measurement
  • Take into account the full value chain
  • Determine what is important for your organization
    and set goals!
  • Be transparent you cant avoid it!
  • Reputational impact comes from being able to
    document your improvements
  • Opportunities will flow from these activities!

Final Word.
"Not everything that can be counted counts, and
not everything that counts can be counted." --
Albert Einstein
Participants for Break-out
  • Group A
  • Banaynal - Palm
  • Bell - Driscoll's
  • Berman - Bio-Rad Laboratories
  • Consler - Safeway, Inc.
  • Cortsen NOEA
  • Rudd- Altria Group, Inc.
  • Group B
  • Cousins - Safeway, Inc. 
  • Degenna - Altria Group, Inc.
  • DeMerritt- Frog's Leap Winery
  • Hughes - ConocoPhillips
  • Kelley - SunPower
  • Group C
  • McAlindon - Dow Coating Sol.
  • McIntosh - Navigant Consulting
  • Murdy - Fireman's Fund Insurance
  • Rankin -The Forrester Group
  • Renda - Safeway, Inc.
  • Group D
  • Rubinshteyn - UC Berkeley
  • Shields - Altria Group, Inc.
  • So - LG Electronics
  • Steffen - Transformative Ldr Inst.
  • van de Raadt -Waggener Edstrom Worldwide

Corporate Responsibility Leadership
WorkshopEmbedding CR in Your Operations
  • UC Berkeley
  • July 8-9, 2008

Defining Your Stakeholders
  • Stacey Smith, BSR

Stakeholder Value
  • Stakeholders, both traditional and emerging, can
    play an important role in creating and
    maintaining business value.
  • Stakeholders can supply key information
  • emerging trends and impacts
  • program implementation advise and partnership
  • critical feedback regarding perceptions,
    expectations and performance
  • Not all stakeholders can provide this value and a
    company must take a strategic and disciplined
    approach to its stakeholder relations to ensure
    that this business tool delivers value.

Stakeholder Evolving Definitions
  • Traditional stakeholders include
  • Shareholders
  • Employees
  • Customers
  • business partners
  • Companies often have reliable and sophisticated
    methods for relating to these stakeholders and
    incorporating their perspectives into business
    planning and execution.

Stakeholder Evolving Definitions
  • Emerging stakeholders include
  • governments and multi-lateral institutions
  • advocacy/special interest groups and
    non-governmental organizations
  • socially responsible and other investors
  • community representatives
  • the environment
  • future generations
  • As these stakeholders continue to evolve their
    influence, knowledge and potential value to
    companies, companies need to evolve methods to
    leverage the potential of these relationships for
    real business value.

Why Do Stakeholders Matter?
Benefits of Engagement
Entrance to and expansion of markets
Strengthened license to operate
Trusting relationships
Informed/improved decision-making
Issues identification and management
Mitigation of risk, lower legal costs
(We engage) to find solutions to shared
challenges, everything from creating awareness
about a topic to improving company performance on
the environment and human rights, to finding
solutions to societal challenges. --Novo
Exercise 1
  • Are external stakeholders important to your
    business success?
  • What role(s) can they play?

A Strategic Approach
Iterative Questions
What Are The Issues?
  • Financial ability to impact financial
    performance of company
  • Reputation ability to impact company reputation
    and image
  • Litigation ability to impact current/future
  • Regulation ability to impact current/future

Who is a Stakeholder?
Those who are affected by or affect a companys
products or operations.
Mapping Your Stakeholders
Stakeholder 1
Stakeholder 3
Stakeholder 2
Stakeholder 4
Stakeholder Relations
There is no best way to relate to traditional or
emerging stakeholders, instead there exists a
range of possible interactions that can serve the
companys business objectives. Companies can
benefit from taking a disciplined approached to
stakeholder relations that discriminates the type
of interaction best needed based on the situation
and the potential stakeholders. In a given
situation, different points along this continuum
might be most effective.
Stakeholder Relations Continuum
Dell Stakeholder Map
HP Stakeholder Engagement Grid
These interactions help us better understand our
markets and customers, develop effective
approaches to global citizenship issues, and
strengthen HPs reputation. --HP
When to Engage Stakeholders
  • Engagement is substantive two-way interaction
    between a company and their stakeholders, focused
    on mutual learning and/or solutions.
  • Engagement is most effective when
  • There is curiosity or concern regarding the
    impact of a company action or product
  • There is a need or desire to learn about issues
    or stakeholders
  • All of the decisions related to a project or
    issue have not yet been made
  • There is sufficient control or influence by the
    company regarding an issue

Types of Stakeholder Engagement
  • Engagement may be used in different situations.
    It is often useful in following situations. Each
    situation requires a slightly different approach
    to ensure that the company can receive value.
  • Crisis/Incident
  • Community
  • Trends Forecasting
  • Business Planning

Exercise 2
  • Identify, by name or organization, a single
    stakeholder that is currently important to your
  • What is your company curious about that the
    stakeholder could help shed light on?
  • Articulate how you would invite this stakeholder
    to a conversation to discuss this topic.

  • Deep Dive on Issues
  • Large, multi-stakeholder dialogue
  • Three issue focus areas
  • 40 business managers together with 40 external
  • Two days including polling, presentation by
    company and expert, small group work planning,
  • Laid groundwork for ongoing initiatives

  • Stakeholder Mapping
  • Determined focus area
  • Thorough identification and research
  • Cross-functional exercise to map stakeholders
  • Development of plan for communication and
  • Ongoing resource to guide strategy and reference
    additional engagement activities

  • System-wide Sustained Engagement
  • Identification of key systems of impact
    (packaging, textiles, GHG, buildings, etc.)
  • Conduct research and analysis
  • Assemble representatives from all key aspects of
    the system (producers, suppliers, experts,
    associations, government agencies, etc.)
  • Create facilitated, long term forum for dialogue,
    commitments and innovation

Supplemental Slides
Stakeholder Engagement Cycle
Communicating Branding CSR
  • Kellie McElhaney, Haas School of Business

McElhaneys Seven Principles of CSR Branding
  • Know Thyself
  • Get a Good Fit
  • Be Consistent
  • Simplify
  • Work from the Inside Out
  • Know Yours Customer
  • Tell Your Story

Stories trump facts ten times out of ten.
CSR is a powerful predictor of brandif known
Social Responsibility
Emotional Appeal
Supports Good Causes Environmental
Responsibility Community Responsibility
Feel Good About Admire and Respect Trust
ReputationQuotientSM (RQ)
Products Services
Vision Leadership
Market Opportunities Excellent Leadership Clear
Vision for the Future
High Quality Innovative Value for Money Stands
Financial Performance
Workplace Environment
Outperforms Competitors Record of Profitability
Low Risk Investment Growth Prospects
Rewards Employees Fairly Good Place to Work Good
Source C. Fombrun, Reputation Institute, Harris
and reputation matters.ask Nike.
There are Early Communicators
And Even They Have Enemies
  • Requires banked goodwill in customers minds
    when these messages emerge.

There Are Ready CSR Segments
  • Females (employees, consumers, investors)
  • Millennials/Gen Yers Ages 8-24 (cause focus)
  • LOHAS/ Ethical Consumers
  • More educated