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Title: Leadership%20Institute%20Addressing%20Barriers%20to%20Learning%20


1
Leadership InstituteAddressing Barriers to
Learning Teaching and Re-engaging Disconnected
Students
2
  • We just missed the school bus.
  • \ Dont worry. I heard the
    principal say
  • \ no child will be left
    behind.
  • /

3
  • Weve included more handouts than we probably can
    cover on some topics. Our hope is that you will
    look over the others when you have time.
  • Feel free to use any handout as is or by adapting
    them.

4
Topics to be Covered
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
    Imperative
  • for School Improvement?
  • II. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • Rethinking Intervention
  • III. What is a System of Learning Supports?
    (cont.)
  • Reworking Infrastructure

5
Topics
  • IV. Intrinsic Motivation Engaging and
    Re-engaging
  • Students, Families, Staff
  • V. Whats involved in Getting From Here to There
  • VI. Planning Next Steps

6
  • I. Why is a System of
  • Learning Supports Imperative for
  • School Improvement?

7
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt
  • The current focus of school improvement policy
    and practice is too limited to ensure that all
    students have an equal opportunity to succeed at
    school.
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt

8
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates

9
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates

10
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap

11
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing

12
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing
  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students

13
  • The limited focus contributes to
  • High Student Dropout Rates
  • High Teacher Dropout Rates
  • Continuing Achievement Gap
  • So Many Schools Designated as Low Performing
  • High Stakes Testing Taking its Toll on Students
  • Plateau Effect

14
  • Some of the data
  • The dropout rate for our nation remains
    unacceptably high. In 2006, the Education Trust
    reported that nearly 25 percent of the ninth
    grade population will not end up graduating from
    high school.

15
  • Some of the data
  • Take reading levels as an example.
  • Despite reports of small recent gains, most
    American students, across grade levels, are
    reading at the most basic levels and only about
    30 percent of high school students read
    proficiently and more than a quarter read below
    grade level.

16
  • Data from the National Assessment of Education
    Progress (NAEP) clearly shows the plateau effect
  • related to academic achievement.

17
The Nations Report Card National Center for Education Statistics
Trend in NAEP reading average scores for
9-year-old students
Trend in NAEP reading average scores for
13-year-old students
See key on next slide
18
Trend in NAEP reading average scores for
17-year-old students
The Nations Report Card National Center for Education Statistics
Significantly different (p lt .05) from 2008.
Note The long-term trend assessment was updated
in several ways in 2004. Outdated material was
replaced, accommodations for students with
disabilities (SD) and for English language
learners (ELL) were allowed, and administration
procedures were modified. A special bridge study
was conducted in 2004 to evaluate the effects of
these changes on the trend lines. The study
involved administering both the original and
revised formats of the assessments to determine
how the revisions may have affected the results.
19
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
  • Imperative for School Improvement? (cont.)
  • Three Lenses for Viewing
  • School Improvement Efforts

20
  • Lens 1 All Students
  • Not some --
  • ALL youngsters
  • are to have an equal
  • opportunity to succeed at school

21
Lens 1 All Students
  • Range of Learners
  • I Motivationally ready and able
  • II Not very motivated/lacking prerequisite
    skills/
  • different rates styles/minor
    vulnerabilities
  • III Avoidant/very deficient in current
    capabilities
  • has a disability and/or major health
    problems

22
Lens 2 Barriers to Learning and School
Improvement
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
23
About Barriers to Learning
  • Categories of Risk-Producing Conditions
  • that Can be Barriers to Learning
  • gtEnvironmental Conditions
  • gtFamily
  • gtSchool and Peers
  • gtIndividual

24
Examples of Environmental Conditions
  • extreme economic deprivation
  • community disorganization, including high levels
    of mobility
  • violence, drugs, etc.
  • minority and/or immigrant status

25
Examples of Family Conditions
  • chronic poverty
  • conflict/disruptions/violence
  • substance abuse
  • models problem behavior
  • abusive caretaking
  • inadequate provision for quality child care

26
Examples of School Peer Conditions
  • poor quality school
  • negative encounters with teachers
  • negative encounters with peers
  • inappropriate peer models

27
Examples of Individual Conditions
  • medical problems
  • low birth weight/neurodevelopmental delay
  • psychophysiological problems
  • difficult temperament adjustment problems
  • inadequate nutrition

28
  • Caution Dont let anyone
  • misinterpret the term
  • gtBarriers to learning
  • It encompasses much more than a deficit model of
    students.

29
  • And, it is part of a holistic approach that
    emphasizes the importance of
  • gtProtective Buffers
  • (e.g., strengths, assets, resiliency,
    accommodations)
  • gtPromoting Full Development

30
Lens 3 Engagement Disengagement
Source of Motivation
Extrinsics Intrinsics Intrinsics/

Extrinsics Engagement Intervention Concerns
Disengagement (psychological
reactance)
31
Engaging Re-engaging Students in Classroom
Learning
How are schools gtmaximizing Intrinsic
Motivation? gtminimizing Behavior Control
Strategies?
32
Motivation, and especially Intrinsic Motivation
are fundamental intervention concerns
related to student (and staff) problems
33
  • First Concern Enhancing understanding of
    intrinsic motivation as related to academic
    achievement and the achievement gap
  • Second Concern Reducing overemphasis on
    behavior/social control enhancing appreciation
    of the impact of psychological reactance
  • Third Concern Re-engaging students who have
    become actively disengaged from classroom
    instruction
  • Fourth Concern Teacher motivation

34
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt
  • From the perspective provided by these three
    lenses, schools need to revisit their school
    improvement plans with an eye to whats missing.
  • ltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgt

35
  • I. Why is a System of Learning Supports
  • Imperative for School Improvement? (cont.)
  • School Improvement Planning
  • Whats Being Done
  • Whats Missing?

36
School Improvement Planning
  • Missing
  • A Comprehensive Focus on
  • Addressing Barriers to Learning Teaching
  • Re-engaging Disengaged Students in Classroom
    Learning

37
  • This becomes evident when we ask
  • What do schools currently do to
  • (1) address barriers to learning
  • and teaching
  • and

38
  • This becomes evident when we ask
  • What do schools currently do to
  • (1) address barriers to learning
  • and teaching
  • and
  • (2) re-engage students in
  • classroom instruction?

39
How is the district/school addressing barriers to
learning?
Psychological Testing
Clinic
After-School Programs
HIV/Aids Prevention
Pupil Services
Health Services
Violence Crime Prevention
Physical Education
Special Education
Health Education
Nutrition Education
Juvenile Court Services
District
School Lunch Program
Community-Based Organizations
Drug Prevention
Counseling
Mental Health Services
Drug Services
Social Services
Pregnancy Prevention
Codes of Discipline
Smoking Cessation For Staff
HIV/AIDS Services
Child Protective Services
  • Talk about fragmented!!!

40
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
41
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
  • Current Situation at All Levels in the
    Educational System with Respect to
    Student/Learning Supports
  • Marginalization

42
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
  • Current Situation at All Levels in the
    Educational System with Respect to
    Student/Learning Supports
  • Marginalization
  • Fragmentation

43
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
  • Current Situation at All Levels in the
    Educational System with Respect to
    Student/Learning Supports
  • Marginalization
  • Fragmentation
  • Poor Cost-Effectiveness (up to 25 of a school
    budget used in too limited and often redundant
    ways)

44
What does this mean for the district and its
schools?
  • Current Situation at All Levels in the
    Educational System with Respect to
    Student/Learning Supports
  • Marginalization
  • Fragmentation
  • Poor Cost-Effectiveness (up to 25 of a school
    budget used in too limited and often redundant
    ways)
  • Counterproductive Competition for Sparse
    Resources (among school support staff and with
    community-based professionals who link with
    schools)

45
With all the budget problems, We have to do
everything on a shoestring. \ Are you
saying you \ still have a
shoestring? /
46
  • Whats the
  • community doing?

47
  • AGENCY REFORM
  • Restructuring and Reforming
  • Community Health and Human Services

48
  • The intent of current agency reform policy
  • gtend fragmentation
  • gtenhance access to clientele
  • The focus
  • gtinteragency collaboration
  • gtschool-linked services, sometimes
  • based (co-located) at a school

49
  • Problems
  • gtdoesnt integrate with schools efforts to
  • address barriers to learning
  • gtlimits the focus to current agency work
  • As a result, current agency policy produces
  • gtan additional form of fragmentation
  • gtcounterproductive competition
  • gtgreater marginalization

50
  • It is important to remember that
  • Community Agency Reform
  • is not the same thing as
  • Strengthening Communities

51
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.

52
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.
  • The emphasis is mainly on interagency
    collaboration.

53
  • The major intent of agency reform is to
    restructure services to reduce fragmentation.
  • The emphasis is mainly on interagency
    collaboration.
  • Schools have been included since they offer
    better access to agency clients. Thus, the
    concept of school linked services, and the idea
    of community agencies co-locating services on a
    school site.

54
  • Because the focus is on services,
  • little attention is paid to
  • integrating community resources with
  • existing school programs and services
  • designed to address barriers to learning
  • including a full range of community resources
  • strengthening families and neighborhoods
  • by improving economic status and
  • enhancing other fundamental supports.

55
From Kretzmann McKnight -- Communities have
many resources!
Day care Center
Police
Faith-based Institutions
Banks
Higher Education Institutions
Senior Citizens
Local Residents
School
Library
Businesses
Artist Cultural Institutions
Restaurants
Media
Health Social Services Agencies
Community Based Orgs. Civic Assn.
56
  • To Recap
  • School improvement policy and planning have not
    addressed barriers to development, learning, and
    teaching as a primary and essential component of
    what must be done if schools are to minimize
    behavior problems, close the achievement gap, and
    reduce the rate of dropouts

57
  • To Recap
  • As a result, current efforts are
  • marginalized, fragmented, often
  • redundant and off track, and
  • they have resulted in
  • counterproductive competition
  • for sparse resources

58
  • To Recap
  • The need is for a comprehensive system of
    learning supports that
  • (1) addresses barriers to development,
  • learning, and teaching
  • (2) (re-)engages students in
  • classroom learning

59
  • In your handout, we have put some key questions
  • we hope you are thinking about at this point.
  • Before we take a break, lets briefly hear your
    thoughts about
  • the first question
  • What are the many external and internal barriers
  • interfering with your students learning and your
  • teachers teaching and how does all this affect
  • your schools?

60
  • Next
  • We turn to four fundamental, interrelated
    concerns involved in moving forward to develop
  • a Comprehensive
  • System of Learning Supports

61
  • Four Fundamental and Interrelated Concerns

Policy Revision
Framing Interventions to Address Barriers to
Learning and Teaching into a Comprehensive
System of Interventions
Rethinking Organizational and Operational
Infrastructure
Developing Systemic Change Mechanisms for
Effective Implementation, Sustainability, and
Replication to Scale
62
  • We begin discussing these
  • fundamental concerns by
  • clarifying a way to
  • frame interventions as
  • a comprehensive system
  • for addressing barriers to
  • learning and teaching
  • and re-engaging
  • disconnected students

63
  • II. What is a System of Learning Supports?
  • Rethinking Intervention

64
  • Overview
  • A Sequential Approach
  • Defining Learning Supports
  • Framing a Comprehensive System of
  • Learning Supports
  • gtContinuum
  • gtContent
  • gtMajor examples of intervention activity
  • in each content arena
  • Combined Continuum and Content Arenas

65
A Sequential Approach
Promoting learning
Healthy Development plus Prevention of
Problems (System of Prevention)
as necessary
Intervening as early after onset of problems as
is feasible (System of Early Intervention)
as necessary
Specialized assistance for those with
severe, pervasive, or chronic problems (System of
Care)
66
  • Defining Learning Supports
  • Learning supports are the resources, strategies,
    and
  • practices that provide physical, social,
    emotional, and
  • intellectual supports to enable all pupils to
    have an
  • equal opportunity for success at school by
    directly
  • addressing barriers to learning and teaching
    and
  • re-engaging disconnected students.
  • A comprehensive, multifaceted, and cohesive
    learning
  • supports system provides supportive
    interventions in
  • classrooms and school-wide and is fully
    integrated
  • with efforts to improve instruction and
    management
  • at a school.

67

Framing a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports to Address Barriers to Learning
68
Meeting the needs of all students requires
gtpromoting assets gtpreventing problems
gtdealing with problems And doing so in
keeping with the principle of providing what is
needed in the least disruptive and restrictive
manner
69
A system of learning supportsframes both an
intervention continuum delineated arenas of
content

70
ContinuumInterconnected Systems for Meeting the
Needs of All Students One key Facet of a
Learning Supports Component
School Resources (facilities, stakeholders,
programs, services)
Community Resources (facilities,
stakeholders, programs, services)
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems primary prevention
includes universal interventions (low end
need/low cost per individual programs)
Systems of Early Intervention early-after-onset
includes selective indicated
interventions (moderate need, moderate cost per
individual)
Systems of Care treatment/indicated
interventions for severe and chronic
problems (High end need/high cost per individual
programs)
71
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
72
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
73
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
74
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transitions
75
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Home involvement Engagement In Schooling
76
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
77
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
78
Categories of Basic Content Arenas for Learning
Supports Intervention
Classroom-Based Approaches to Enable Learning
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Student Family Assistance
Infrastructure gtleadership gtresource-
oriented mechanisms
Support for Transition
Community Outreach
Home involvement t Engagement In Schooling
79
Major Examples of Activity inEach of the Six
Basic Content Arenas
80
  • Classroom-Based Enabling
  • Re-engaging Students in Classroom Learning
  • FOCUS
  • Classroom based efforts to enable learning
  • Prevent problems intervene as soon as problems
    appear
  • Enhance intrinsic motivation for learning
  • Re-engage students who have become disengaged
    from classroom learning

81
Classroom-Based Enabling
(cont.) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Opening the
classroom door to bring in available supports
Redesigning classroom approaches to enhance
teacher capability to prevent and
handle problems and reduce need for out of
class referrals Enhancing and personalizing
professional development Curricular
enrichment and adjunct programs Classroom and
school-wide approaches used to create and
maintain a caring and supportive climate
82
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
FOCUS School-wide and classroom-based efforts
for gtresponding to crises gtminimizing the
impact of crises gtpreventing crises
83
Crisis Assistance and Prevention
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Ensuring
immediate assistance in emergencies so
students can resume learning
Providing Follow up care as necessary
Forming a school-focused Crisis Team to
formulate a response plan and take leadership
for developing prevention programs
Mobilizing staff, students, and families
to anticipate response plans and recovery
efforts Creating a caring and
safe learning environment Working
with neighborhood schools and community to
integrate planning for response and
prevention
84
Support for Transitions FOCUS School-wide
and classroom-based efforts to gtenhance
acceptance and successful transitions gtprevent
transition problems gtuse transition periods to
reduce alienation gtuse transition periods to
increase positive attitudes/motivation toward
school and learning
85
Support for Transitions
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Welcoming social
support programs for newcomers Daily
transition programs (e.g., before/afterschool,
lunch) Articulation programs Summer or
intersession programs School-to-career/higher
education Broad involvement of stakeholders in
planning for transitions
86
Home Involvement in Schooling FOCUS
School-wide classroom-based efforts to engage
the home in gtstrengthening the home
situation gtenhancing problem solving
capabilities gtsupporting student development and
learning gtstrengthening school and community
87
Home Involvement in Schooling
EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES Addressing specific
support and learning needs of family Improving
mechanisms for communication connecting
school and home Involving homes in student
decision making Enhancing home support for
learning and development Recruiting families
to strengthen school and community
88
Community Outreach for Involvement and
Support (including Volunteers) FOCUS
Building linkages and collaborations to
strengthen students, schools, families, and
neighborhoods
89
Community Outreach for Involvement and Support
(including Volunteers) EXAMPLES OF ACTIVITIES
Planning and Implementing Outreach to Recruit a
Wide Range of Community Resources Systems
to Recruit, Screen, Prepare, and Maintain
Community Resource Involvement Reaching out
to Students and Families Who Don't Come to
School Regularly Including Truants and
Dropouts Connecting School and Community
Efforts to Promote Child and Youth
Development and a Sense of Community
90
Student and Family Assistance
FOCUS Specialized assistance provided
through personalized health and social service
programs
91
Student and Family Assistance
Providing support as soon as a need is
recognized and doing so in the least
disruptive ways Referral interventions for
students families with problems Enhancing
access to direct interventions for health,
mental health, and economic assistance
Care monitoring, management, information sharing,
and follow-up assessment to coordinate
individual interventions and check whether
referrals and services are adequate and
effective Mechanisms for resource coordination
and integration to avoid duplication, fill
gaps, garner economies of scale, and enhance
effectiveness Enhancing stakeholder
awareness of programs and services
92
For more specific examples and mapping and
analysis self study surveys for each arena, see
the Centers online resource aid Guide to
resource mapping and management to address
barriers to learning An intervention for
systemic change
93
  • Combined Continuum and
    Content Arenas
  • Levels of Intervention

Systems for Promoting Healthy
Development
Preventing Problems
Systems for Early Intervention (Early after
problem onset
Systems of Care
Classroom-Focused Enabling
Crisis/ Emergency Assistance Prevention
Support for transitions
Content Arenas
Home Involvement in Schooling
Community Outreach/ Volunteers
Student Family Assistance
94
System of Learning Supports is Designed to
Produce a Declining Proportion of Students
Needing Special Assistance
Systems for Promoting Healthy Development
Preventing Problems
Levels
Systems for Early Intervention (early-after proble
m onset)
(a)
Systems of Care
(b)
Intervention Content Arenas
(c)
(d)
(e)
Specialized Assistance other intensive
interventions
(f)
Accommodations for differences disabilities
(a) Classroom-focused enabling (b) Support
for transitions (c) Home involvement in
schooling (d) Community outreach/volunteers (e)
Crisis/ emergency assistance and prevention
(f) Student and family assistance
95
  • The framework is meant to guide development of
  • a comprehensive system of learning supports as
  • a primary and essential component of school
  • improvement. Such an enabling component is
  • meant to
  • (1) address interfering factors
  • and
  • (2) re- engage students in classroom instruction

96
Whats Missing?
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
Barriers To Learning, Development, Teaching
(High Standards)
97
An Enabling or Learning Supports Component to
Address Barriers and Re-engage Students in
Classroom Instruction
Range of Learners
Instructional Component Classroom Teaching Enri
chment Activity
I Motivationally ready and able Not
very motivated/ lacking prerequisite II
skills/ different rates styles/ minor vulner
abilities III Avoidant/ very deficient in
capabilities
No barriers
Desired Outcomes (High Expectations
Accountability)
  • Enabling
  • Component
  • Addressing
  • Interfering
  • Factors
  • (2) Re-engaging
  • Students in
  • Classroom
  • Instruction

Barriers To Learning, DevelopmentTeaching
(High Standards)
98
  • To Recap
  • School improvement planning for developing a
    comprehensive system of learning supports to
    address barriers to learning and teaching
    requires
  • (1) adoption of a umbrella framework that can
    unify
  • current efforts
  • (2) expansion of the framework for school
  • accountability (to account for efforts to
    enhance
  • social and personal functioning and
    address
  • barriers to learning and teaching -- we
    will detail
  • this later)

99
To Recap
Combining a continuum of intervention with a
discrete set of content arenas to establish a
comprehensive framework to guide development of
an enabling/learning supports component. The
resulting matrix provides a mapping tool and a
planning guide for developing a comprehensive set
of learning supports.
100
Next An overview of operational
infrastructure considerations
101
Activity Mapping and analyzing resources with
a view to developing a cost-effective
comprehensive system of learning supports
102
  • III. What is a System of Learning Supports?
    (cont.)
  • Reworking Infrastructure

103
  • Overview
  • gtLevels for Infrastructure Development
  • gtKey Mechanisms for a Component
  • gtWhat the infrastructure look like at most
    schools
  • gtExample Integrated Infrastructure at the
    School Level
  • gtConnecting the Feeder Pattern
  • gtSchool District Infrastructure
  • gtDeveloping a Learning Supports Resource Team
  • gt About an Effective School-Community
    Collaborative

104
Developing a Comprehensive System of Learning
Supports (an Enabling Component) involves
reworking the organizational and operational
infrastructure for gtschools gtfeeder
patterns gtdistricts (and departments of
education) gtschool-community
collaboratives gtstate departments and
USDOE In reworking infrastructure, it is
essential to remember Structure Follows
Function!
105
What the student support infrastructure look
like at most schools
Instructional Component
Leadership for
instruction
School Improvement Team
(Various teams and Work groups focused
on Improving instruction)
moderate problems
Management/Governance
Component
severe problems
Management/ Governance/ Administrator
Case- Oriented Mechanisms
(Various teams and Work groups focused
on management governance)
106
School Mechanisms for an Enabling or Learning
Supports Component
gtAdministrative Leader (e.g., 50 FTE
devoted to component) gtStaff Lead for
Component gtStaff Workgroups A key
infrastructure mechanism for ensuring continuous
analysis, planning, development, evaluation and
advocacy is a Learning Supports Resource Team
107
Example of an Integrated Infrastructure at the
School Level
Instructional Component
Learning Supports or Enabling Component
Leadership for Learning Supports
Leadership for
instruction
School Improvement Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
moderate problems
Management/Governance
Component
Management/ Governance Administrator
severe problems
Work Groups
Case- Oriented Mechanisms
Resource- Oriented Mechanisms
108
Leadership Beyond the School for Enhancing a
System of Learning Supports For a family of
schools (e.g., feeder pattern) 1-2
representatives from each School-Based Resource
Team Facilitator for a Multi-site Resource
Council At the district Level 1-2
representatives from each Complex Resource
Council High Level District Administrator
School Board Subcommittee Chair (Comparable
leadership at county, state, and federal levels)
109
  • Enhancing a System of Learning Supports
  • Connecting Resources Across a Family of Schools,
  • a District, and Community-Wide

Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
High Schools
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Middle Schools
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Elementary Schools
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Team
Learning Supports Resource Council
Learning Supports Resource Council
School District Resources, Management,
Governing Bodies
Community Resources, Management, Governing
Bodies
110
Prototype for an Integrated Infrastructure at the
District Level with Mechanisms for Learning
Supports That Are Comparable to Those for
Instruction
Board of Education
Superintendent
Subcommittees
School Improvement Planning Team
Superintendents Cabinet
Leader for Learning Supports Component (e.g.,
asst.sup.)
Leader for Instructional Component (e.g.,
asst.sup.)
Learning supports Cabinet (e.g., component leader
and leads for all six content arenas)
Instructional Component Cabinet (e.g., component
leader and leads for all content areas
Leader for Management/ Governance
Component (e.g., Asst. Sup.)
Leads for Content Arenas Content Arena Work
Groups
Leads for Content Arenas Content Arena Work
Groups
Leads, Teams, and Work Groups Focused on
Governance/Management
111
Assign Leadership and Develop a Learning Supports
Resource Team
112
Whos at a School?
  • Often, schools have not generated a map of the
    staff who are trying to address barriers to
    learning and teaching.
  • Adapt the following list to fit a specific
    school
  • and then fill in names, what they do, and when.
  • (2) Share the final version with teachers,
    parents,
  • and other concerned stakeholders.
  • The staff listed are all potentially invaluable
    members
  • of a schools Learning Supports Resource Team

113
Learning Supports Staff at a School
gtAdministrative Leader for Learning
Supports gtSchool Psychologist gtSchool
Nurse gtPupil Services Attendance Counselor
gtSocial Worker gtCounselors gtDropout
Prevention Program Coordinator
gtTitle I and Bilingual Coordinators gtResource
and Special Education Teachers Other
important resources gtSchool-based Crisis
Team Members gtSchool Improvement Program
Planners gtCommunity Resources
Such a list should include a brief description
of programs and services and times available
114
A Learning Support Resource Team Schools say
We already have a team But is it
Resource-oriented?
What you also need is a a
Resource-Oriented Team (Focused
on all students and the resources, programs, and
systems to address barriers to learning promote
healthy development)
What you probably have is a
Case-Oriented Team (Focused on
specific individuals and discrete
services)
115
A Resource-oriented Team
A Case-oriented Team
Possibly called gtResource
Coordinating Team gtResource Coordinating
Council gtSchool Support Resource Team gtLearning
Support Resource Team
Sometimes called gtChild/Student Study
Team gtStudent Success Team gtStudent Assistance
Team gtTeacher Assistance Team gtIEP Team

116
A Resource-oriented Team
A Case-oriented Team
EXAMPLES OF
FUNCTIONS gtaggregating data across students
from teachers to analyze school
needs gtmapping resources gtanalyzing resources
gtenhancing resources gtprogram and system
planning/development gtredeploying resources
gtcoordinating-integrating resources gtsocial
"marketing"
EXAMPLES OF FUNCTIONS gttriage gtre
ferral gtcase monitoring/management gtcase progress
review gtcase reassessment
117
Can you define collaboration for me?
\ \ \
Sure! Collaboration is an unnatural act between
nonconsenting adults.
/
118
About Developing an Effective School-Community
Collaborative Too often, what is described as
a collaborative amounts to little more than a
monthly or quarterly meeting of a small and not
very empowered group of stakeholders. The
meeting involves sharing, discussion of ideas,
and expression of frustrations. Then, everyone
leaves and little is done between meetings.
119
Collaboration is not about meeting. It is
about pursuing specific functions and
accomplishing essential tasks. For a
school-community collaborative to be meaningful,
it must be organized with full understanding of
where schools fit in strengthening the community
and where the community fits in strengthening
the school. And, the collaborative must
establish an effective infrastructure
(remembering that structure follows function).
120
About the Functions of a School-Community
Collaborative gt aggregating data from schools
and neighborhood to analyze system
needs gt mapping resources (not just
services) gt analyzing resources gt program
system planning/development gt redeploying
resources gt enhancing resource use and seeking
additional resources gt coordinating-integratin
g resources gt social marketing
121
About Collaborative Infrastructure Basic
Elements Who should be at the table?
steering gtfamilies group
gtschools gtcommunities collab.
body ad hoc work groups
Connect Collaboratives at All Levels
122
Expanded Elements
steering group standing
work group for pursuing operational daily
functions/tasks collab.
body ad hoc work
groups standing work groups for
pursuing process for pursuing programmatic
functions/tasks functions/tasks
123
To Recap Operational infrastructure at all
levels needs to be reworked to effectively
plan, develop, and implement a comprehensive
system of learning supports Current school
improvement guidelines provide opportunities to
expand planning to focus on development of a
comprehensive system of learning
supports Planning means little if there is no
dedicated leadership and workgroup mechanisms
to carry out the work on a regular basis
124
Activity Looking at the schools you know
What Does the Operational Infrastructure
Look Like? What does the operational
infrastructure look like at the district
level? In thinking about this, see the tool
entitled Infrastructure Is What We Have
What We Need?
125
Next A look at the topic of intrinsic
motivation
126
  • IV. Intrinsic Motivation Engaging
  • and Re-engaging Students,
  • Families, Staff

127
  • Overview
  • Understanding Intrinsic Motivation
  • A Caution about Overreliance
  • on Extrinsics
  • A Focus on Re-engagement in
  • School Learning

128
  • Engaging Re-engaging Students
  • For students, family members, staff, or any
    other school stakeholders, concerns about
    engaging, re-engaging, and maintaining engagement
    are central to effective schooling.
  • Given this, it is surprising how little
    attention has been paid to the topic of intrinsic
    motivation in discussions of school improvement.

129
  • Engaging Re-engaging Students
  • The following quick and simplified overview is
    meant to encourage a greater emphasis on these
    matters.
  • The focus here is mainly on students, but
    extrapolation to staff, family members and other
    stakeholders should be easy.

130
  • GOSH MS. THOMPSON, I WAS READY TO
  • LEARN MATH YESTERDAY. TODAY IM READY
  • TO LEARN TO READ.

131
  • Understanding Intrinsic Motivation
  • is essential to addressing the problem of
  • student engagement and re-engagement
  • in classroom learning.
  • And, it is an essential concern
  • in dealing with misbehavior

132
  • Can you translate the following formula?
  • E x V M

133
  • If the equation stumped you, don't be surprised.
  • The main introduction to motivational thinking
    that many people have been given in the past
    involves some form of reinforcement theory (which
    essentially deals with extrinsic motivation).
  • Thus, all this may be new to you, even though
  • motivational theorists have been wrestling with
    it for a long time, and intuitively, you probably
    understand much of what they are talking about.

134
  • Translation
  • Expectancy times value
  • equals motivation

135
  • E represents an individual's expectations
    about outcome (in school this often means
    expectations of success or failure).
  • V represents valuing, with valuing
    influenced by both what is valued intrinsically
    and extrinsically.
  • Thus, in a general sense, motivation can be
    thought of in terms of expectancy times valuing.

136
  • Such theory recognizes that human beings are
    thinking and feeling organisms and that intrinsic
    factors can be powerful motivators.
  • This understanding of human
  • motivation has major implications for learning,
    teaching, parenting, and mental health
    interventions.

137
  • Applying the paradigm
  • Do the math.
  • E x V
  • 0 x 1.0
  • What are the implications?

138
  • Within some limits
  • (which we need not discuss here),
  • low expectations (E) and high valuing (V)
  • produce relatively weak motivation.
  • I know I wont be able to do it.

139
  • Now, what about this?
  • E x V
  • 1.0 x 0
  • What are the implications?

140
  • High expectations paired with low valuing
  • also yield low approach motivation.
  • Thus, the oft-cited remedial strategy of
  • guaranteeing success by designing tasks to be
  • very easy is not as simple a recipe as it sounds.

141
  • .
  • Indeed, the approach is likely to fail if the
  • outcome is not valued or if the tasks are
  • experienced as too boring or if doing them is
  • seen as too embarrassing.
  • In such cases, a strong negative value is
  • attached to the activities, and this contributes
  • to avoidance motivation.
  • Its not worth doing!

142
  • Two common reasons people give for not bothering
    to learn something are
  • It's not worth it"
  • "I know I won't be able to do it."

143
  • In general, the amount of time and
  • energy spent on an activity seems
  • dependent on how much the activity
  • is valued by the person and on the
  • person's expectation that what is
  • valued will be attained without too
  • great a cost.

144
  • Overreliance on Extrinsics
  • a Bad Match

145
  • Overreliance on Extrinsics a Bad Match
  • Throughout this discussion of valuing and
  • expectations, the emphasis has been on
  • the fact that motivation is not something
  • that can be determined solely by forces
  • outside the individual.

146
Overreliance on Extrinsics a Bad Match Others
can plan activities and outcomes to influence
motivation and learning however, how the
activities and outcomes are experienced
determines whether they are pursued (or avoided)
with a little or a lot of effort and ability.
Understanding that an individual's perceptions
can affect motivation has led researchers to
important findings about some undesired effects
resulting from over-reliance on extrinsics.
147
  • Extrinsic Rewards Undermine Intrinsic Motivation
  • Over the past 20 years, nearly 100 published
    experiments have provided support for early
    studies indicating that extrinsic rewards can
    undermine peoples intrinsic motivation for the
    rewarded activity. This finding has been
    interpreted as stemming from people coming to
    feel controlled by the rewards.
  • Excerpted from The Rewards Controversy
    discussion highlighting the controversy and the
    research on the University of Rochester Self
    Detemination Theory website http//www.psych.roc
    hester.edu/SDT/cont_reward.html

148
  • Intrinsic Motivation
  • Intervention Considerations
  • Think in terms of
  • Maximizing feelings of
  • gtgtSelf-determination
  • gtgtCompetency
  • gtgtConnectedness to others

149
  • Intrinsic Motivation Intervention
    Considerations
  • Think in terms of
  • Minimizing threats to feelings of
  • gtgtSelf-determination
  • gtgtCompetency
  • gtgtConnectedness to others

150
  • Intrinsic Motivation Intervention
    Considerations
  • Think in terms of
  • Minimizing strategies designed only for
    social control and
  • increasing
  • options
  • choice
  • involvement in decision making

151
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions

152
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with the
  • adults at school)

153
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs

154
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs
  • stress real options and choices and a
    meaningful
  • role in decision making

155
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs
  • stress real options and choices and a
    meaningful
  • role in decision making
  • provide enrichment opportunities (and be sure
    not
  • to withhold them as punishment)

156
  • Some Guidelines for Strategies that Capture
  • An Understanding of Intrinsic Motivation
  • minimize coercive interactions
  • facilitate students desire and ability to
    share their
  • perceptions readily (to enter into dialogues
    with
  • the adults at school)
  • emphasize real life interests and needs
  • stress real options and choices and a
    meaningful
  • role in decision making
  • provide enrichment opportunities (and be sure
    not
  • to withhold them as punishment)
  • provide a continuum of structure

157
I dont want to go to school. Its too
hard and the kids dont like me.
\ Thats too bad,
\ but you have to go \ youre
the Principal! /
158
  • Why is it important to minimize a
  • heavy emphasis on social control
  • and coercive procedures?
  • Those in control say
  • You cant do that
  • You must do this

159
  • Kids think and often say as they react overtly
    or covertly
  • Oh, you think so!
  • This is called
  • Psychological Reactance.

160
  • When people perceive their freedom is
    threatened,
  • they experience psychological reactance, which
  • motivates them to act in ways that can restore
    the
  • threatened sense of freedom.
  • With prolonged denial of freedom, reactance
  • diminishes and people become amotivated
  • feeling helpless and ineffective.

161
  • About School Engagement
  • Re-engagement
  • A growing research literature is addressing these
    matters.
  • For example, see
  • School Engagement Potential of the Concept,
    State of the Evidence (2004) by J. Fredricks,
    P. Blumenfeld, A. Paris. Review of Educational
    Research, 74, 59-109.

162
  • Researchers conclude
  • Engagement is associated with positive academic
    outcomes, including achievement and persistence
    in school and it is higher in classrooms with
    supportive teachers and peers, challenging and
    authentic tasks, opportunities for choice, and
    sufficient structure.

163
  • Engagement is defined in
  • three ways
  • in the research literature

164
  • Behavioral engagement
  • Draws on the idea of participation
  • it includes involvement in academic and social
    or extracurricular activities and is considered
    crucial for achieving positive academic outcomes
    and preventing dropping out.

165
  • Emotional engagement
  • Encompasses positive and negative reactions to
    teachers, classmates,
  • academics, and school and is presumed
  • to create ties to an institution and
  • influence willingness to do the work.

166
  • Cognitive engagement
  • Draws on the idea of investment
  • it incorporates thoughtfulness and willingness
    to exert the effort necessary to comprehend
    complex ideas and master difficult skills.

167
  • gtA Key Outcome of Engagement is Higher
    Achievement. The evidence from a variety of
    studies is summarized to show that engagement
    positively influences achievement
  • gtA Key Outcome of Disengagement is Dropping Out.
    The evidence shows behavioral disengagement is a
    precursor of dropping out.

168
  • Antecedents of Engagement
  • Antecedents can be organized into
  • School level factors voluntary choice, clear
    and consistent goals, small size, student
    participation in school policy and management,
    opportunities for staff and students to be
    involved in cooperative endeavors, and academic
    work that allows for the development of products
  • Classroom Context Teacher support, peers,
    classroom structure, autonomy support, task
    characteristics
  • Individual Needs Need for relatedness, need
    for autonomy, need for competence

169
  • Measurement of Engagement
  • Behavioral Engagement conduct, work
    involvement, participation, persistence, (e.g.,
    completing homework, complying with school rules,
    absent/tardy, off-task)
  • Emotional Engagement self-report related to
    feelings of frustration, boredom, interest,
    anger, satisfaction student-teacher relations
    work orientation
  • Cognitive Engagement investment in learning,
    flexible problems solving, independent work
    styles, coping with perceived failure, preference
    for challenge and independent mastery, commitment
    to understanding the work

170
  • Working with
  • Disengaged Students
  • Four general strategies

171
  • Clarifying student perceptions
  • of the problem
  • Talk openly with students about why they have
  • become disengaged so that steps can be planned
  • for how to alter the negative perceptions of
  • disengaged students and prevent others from
  • developing such perceptions.

172
  • (2) Reframing school learning
  • Major reframing in teaching approaches is
  • required so that these students
  • (a) view the teacher as supportive (rather than
  • controlling and indifferent) and
  • (b) perceive content, outcomes, and activity
  • options as personally valuable and
  • obtainable.

173

It is important, for example, gtto eliminate
threatening evaluative measures gtreframe
content and processes to clarify purpose in
terms of real life needs and experiences and
underscore how it all builds on previous
learning gtclarify why procedures are
expected to be effective especially in
helping correct specific problems.
174
  • (3) Renegotiating involvement
  • in school learning
  • New and mutual agreements must be
  • developed and evolved over time through
    conferences with the student and where
    appropriate including parents.
  • The intent is to affect perceptions of choice,
  • value, and probable outcome.

175

(4) Reestablishing and maintaining an
appropriate working relationship (e.g.,
through creating a sense of trust,
open communication, providing support
and direction as needed).
176
The focus throughout is on clarifying awareness
of valued options, enhancing expectations of
positive outcomes, and engaging the student in
meaningful, ongoing decision making. For the
process to be most effective, students should be
assisted in sampling new processes and content,
options should include valued enrichment
opportunities, and there must be provision for
reevaluating and modifying decisions as
perceptions shift.
177
  • To maintain re-engagement and prevent
    disengagement, the above strategies must be
    pursued using processes and content that

178
  • minimize threats to feelings of competence,
    self-determination, and relatedness to valued
    others

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