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Title: Slide 1 Author: Servpro Industries, Inc. Last modified by: Christopher Nunan Created Date: 1/6/2005 2:45:36 PM Document presentation format – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fire

Employee Training Program Water Certification
Fire Water Cleanup Restoration
  • Safety

Safety concerns must be taken seriously and
properly addressed before starting emergency
services and restoration work
Slip, Trip and Fall
  • Water-damaged structures and SERVPROs cleanup
    procedures create many slip, trip and fall
    hazards. Wet surfaces are normally slick and
    equipment hoses and power cords can trip people.
    Post warning signs and tell customers about the
  • Did you know that Slip, Trip and Fall is the
    number one cause of industrial accidents?

Confined Spaces
  • Typical confined spaces that workers must enter
    during water damage restoration jobs are crawl
    spaces and attics.

Electrical Hazards
  • The first item to check is the power distribution
  • Turn off all circuit breakers at the power
    distribution panel
  • If only a portion of the building is affected,
    turn off all circuits providing power to the
    damaged areas.
  • This is especially important if water is inside
    wall cavities or electrical outlets or when
    electrical outlets are located on the floor.

Electrical Safety Steps
  • Turn off the power to the building at the main
    circuit breaker if this can be done safely. If
    you are unable to access the main circuit panel
    safely, call an electrician to turn off the
  • If water is running from a light fixture, light
    switch or outlet, do not turn on that circuit.
  • Use a Ground Fault Circuit Interrupter (GFCI for
    all electrical equipment). Portable GFCIs can be
    purchased at most home supply stores.
  • Metal conducts electricity. Dont use metal
    measuring tapes, ropes, hand lines, ladders or
    other metal materials that might make contact
    with energized circuits or equipment.
  • Determine the location of electrical wiring,
    cables and power lines before drilling or cutting
    into walls or other structural areas.
  • Do not turn on electrical appliances or fixtures
    that have been exposed to water.
  • Do not turn on electrical appliances or fixtures
    while you are standing on wet surfaces.
  • Always turn off the power at the power
    distribution box before unplugging wet items.

Key Definitions
  • Water Mitigation Stopping any further damage
    from happening. Can include stopping and removing
    water and placing drying equipment.
  • Water Restoration The process of getting a
    structure back to the way it was before the water
    damage occurred.

Infectious Waste Safety Steps
  • PPE Wear appropriate personal protective
    equipment when infectious waste is present,
  • Respirator.
  • Chemical resistant gloves.
  • Rubber boots.
  • Splash goggles.
  • Full-body suits.

  • If you find that At-risk persons are in any
    danger, notify your supervisor immediately.
  • At-risk people may include
  • The very young.
  • The old.
  • People with respiratory problems such as asthma
    or emphysema.
  • People with an immunity deficiency.
  • People sensitive to chemicals such as

Dispose of wastewater in accordance with state or
local guidelines. Requirements differ from state
to state and may even be different for various
cities with a state.
  • Filter wastewater as you dump it to prevent
    carpet fibers from being released. Filter by
    emptying the dump hose through a spare waste tank
    filter or window screen.
  • A biohazard firm should handle water with
    biohazards (medical hazards, human blood or
  • Gray and black wastewater normally may be
    disposed of in a treated sewer line. Some states
    require a permit.
  • Do Not dump wastewater in Septic tanks.
  • Do not dump wastewater in Storm Drains.
  • Do not dump wastewater in streams or natural

ContainmentIn some situations, you may need to
construct containment. The safety purpose of
containment is to
  • Stop contaminants from spreading into
    uncontaminated areas.
  • Protect building occupants and workers from being
    exposed to contaminants.
  • Manage airflow from clean to contaminated areas.

Chemical Safety
  • Chemical usage and safety information can be
    found in the SERVPRO (35026) Chemical Reference
    Manual and SERVPRO (35100) Production Guidelines.
  • No one should be present in the area where
    disinfectants and deodorizers are being applied.
    Before allowing occupants back in the area,
    ensure the area is properly ventilated and the
    product has had time to dry.

Safety Review Questions
  1. List three electrical hazards that you should
    check before beginning water damage emergency
  2. When should you look for safety hazards?
  3. Why would you construct containment?
  4. What types of PPE are needed in infectious waste
  5. What is an At-Risk person? Who would be
    considered in this category?
  6. Where should you dispose of wastewater?
  7. Where might you find a confined space in a
    home? List at least two places.
  8. What should you do before applying disinfectants
    and deodorants?
  9. What is the number one safety concern in a water
  10. Where are two places to look for information
    about SERVPRO professional products.

  • Psychrometry is the study of the air, humidity,
    temperature, and their affect on various
  • It is the science behind drying.
  • The moisture in the air can damage the materials
    it touches.
  • A technician uses psychrometrics to measure the
    amount of moisture in the air and to make sure
    that that amount gets smaller as the drying
    process moves forward.

Relative Humidity
  • Relative humidity (Rh) is the amount to moisture
    the air currently is holding at a given
    temperature. Rh is a percent. 100 Rh means the
    air is totally saturated it is holding as much
    moisture as it can at the temperature. 50 Rh
    means that the air is only 50 full it can hold
    50 more moisture before it is full
  • You take Rh and temperature readings with a
    thermohygrometer at each job.
  • Air at 100 RH is holding all of the water that
    it can

What happens when the temperature increases, but
the amount of moisture stays the same?
  • Think of temperature as the holding capacity of
    the air. Warm air can hold more moisture, cold
    air can hold less.

Temperature Amount Of Moisture Rh
50 54 100
70 54 50
90 54 25
Specific Humidity
  • Specific humidity is the actual amount of
    moisture in the air.

Determining Specific Humidity
  • Once you know the relative humidity and
    temperature, you find specific humidity (grains
    per pound) using psychrometric charts or

Using the Psychrometric Chart
  • The grid of the Psychrometric Chart consists of
    vertical line and horizontal lines. Vertical
    lines represent the temperature in degrees
    Fahrenheit and horizontal lines represent the
    grains per pound. The carves lines of the chart
    represent the relative humidity.
  • Find the vertical line that represents the
    current temperature of the air.
  • Find the curved line that represents the current
    relative humidity of the air.
  • Find the intersection of curved and vertical
  • Trace the horizontal line from the intersection
    point to the columns of numbers on the right side
    of the chart. The first column of numbers
    indicates the specific humidity (the grains per
    pound). The second column of numbers indicates
    the vapor pressure.
  • Trace the horizontal line from the intersection
    point to the temperature readings on the left
    side of the chart. These temperatures indicate
    the dew point temperature for air at the current
    temperature and relative humidity.

Moisture and Materials
Some Common Vapor Barriers 6 mil plastic sheeting Masonry brick ½ plywood Vapor retarding paint semi-gloss gloss enamel Kraft paper faced insulation Some Common Hygroscopic Materials Carpet Pad Upholstery Un-faced Insulation Gypsum wall board Particle board
  • Permeance
  • Permeance is the measure of water vapor flow
    through a material.
  • Vapor Barriers
  • Vapor barriers are materials that are
    either waterproof or have a permeance of 1 perm
    or less.
  • Hygroscopic Materials
  • Hygroscopic refers to materials that easily
    absorb and hold onto water vapor from the air.

Primary and Secondary Damage
  • When materials come into direct contact with
    water, primary damage occurs. When materials are
    damaged by water vapor, secondary damage occurs.
  • SERVPRO has been referred by the insurance
    company to limit primary damage and prevent
    secondary damage. If we dont, we have failed
    the customer!

Primary water damages Secondary water damages
Delamination of carpet backings Ceiling tiles moisten and crumble
Swelling and buckling of hardwood floors Wall paper softens and falls
Rusting of metal surfaces Mold and mildew growth
  • Nature seeks an equilibrium is the second law of
    thermodynamics and even if it sounds complicated,
    all you need to understand are the following
  • Wet goes to Dry
  • Hot goes to Cold
  • High Pressure goes to Low Pressure

Equilibrium Moisture Content
  • Equilibrium Moisture Content (EMC) is the
    condition of a material for which moisture
    content has stabilized in relation to the
    relative humidity and temperature of the
    surrounding air. Think about the concept wet
    goes to dry. When moisture is not longer moving
    from wet to dry, you have reached equilibrium

  • Condensation is the process in which water vapor
    changes into liquid.

Dew Point
  • The temperature at which water vapor begins to
    turn to a liquid is known as the dew point.
  • When drying a structure, you must never let the
    inside temperature reach the dew point or else
    water vapor will turn to a liquid on inside
  • Use the HVAC system or portable heaters or air
    conditioners to control the temperature. You
    determine the dew point on a psychrometric chart.
  • It CAN rain indoors, so never use cold
    outside air
  • to ventilate a wet structure.

  • Evaporation is the process of pushing moisture
    from materials into the air.

Psychrometry Review Questions
  • What is the specific humidity if the air
    temperature is 80 degrees F and the relative
    humidity is 70?
  • What is the specific humidity inside your office
    right now? What is the specific humidity outside
    your office?
  • What does nature seeks an equilibrium mean?
  • What is the difference between a primary and a
    secondary water damage?
  • Explain how equilibrium moisture content changes
    when there is more water in the air.
  • Why (and when) should you worry about the dew
    point temperature during water damage jobs?
  • What are hygroscopic materials? Vapor barriers?
  • What is permeance?
  • Define Psychrometry.
  • What is the difference between specific humidity
    and relative humidity?

Drying Theory
Clean Water
  • Clean Water (or category one water) is treated
    water that does not contain waste products.
    Burst pipes, overflowing sinks and defective
    appliances are sources of clean water.

Gray Water
  • Water that has been used and carries waste
    products, but does not contain human waste, is
    gray water (or category two water). An
    overflowing washing machine that dumps wash water
    on the floor is gray. A toilet overflow with no
    solid matter is gray. Gray water contains waste
    products, but generally does not present the
    danger of spreading disease. Pad must be
    replaced. Carpet that is saved must be cleaned

Black Water (eeewwww)
  • Black water (or category three water) is
    unsanitary water. Take precautions to protect
    humans from disease in these damages. Sewage
    back-ups are black water damages
  • Floodwaters are also black water.
  • Carpets and other porous materials must be
    replaced when contaminated with black water.
  • Compliance Tip
  • Extensive personal protective equipment (PPE) is
    required when cleaning black water damages. Make
    sure you obey local and federal laws!

Black water may not look black in color.
Gray water may not look gray in color. The
categorization of water depends on the source of
the water and whats in it, not the actual color
Industry Standards for Carpet and Pad
Water Type Pad Carpet
Clean (category 1) Can be saved in some Cases Can be saved in many cases
Gray (category 2) Must be replaced in all cases Can be saved in some cases
Black (category 3) Must be replaced in all cases Must be replaced in all cases
Moisture Effects on Wood Flooring
  • Warping and Buckling
  • Wood naturally contains moisture
  • but when wood absorbs excess
  • moisture, it expands. Sometimes
  • the boards will warp.
  • Expanded boards may push
  • against each other and may
  • buckle at the joints where the
  • Boards meet or at the wall.
  • Cupping and Crowning
  • Cupping occurs when the water is
  • absorbed from the bottom and
  • Sides of the wood. The edges
  • Slightly raise or cup.
  • Crowning occurs when the top of
  • the wood holds more moisture
  • than the sides and bottom. This
  • makes the wood arch, creating a
  • bowed shape in the middle.

Moisture Effects on Hard Flooring
  • Concrete
  • Painted concrete may flake or blister,
    requiring repainting. Concrete floors are
    porous, so water may wick up leaving chalk-like
    calcium deposits on the surface.
  • Resilient Tile
  • Asphalt tile will usually maintain a good bond
    with concrete following water damage. White or
    chalky areas respond well to cleaning. The
    whitening is often caused by the separation of
    sealer wax or finish from the floor itself.
  • Ceramic Tile
  • Often, the tile will be unaffected, but water
    will penetrate the grouting, causing warping or
    expansion of the subfloor. It may be necessary
    to dry the floor from the bottom or to drill
    holes into the floor to perform proper

Hard Flooring and Moisture Keys
  • Always check the subfloor! Dont just assume the
    floor is dry because the top layer is dry.
  • If cracks exist in the waterproofing over ceramic
    tile, the subfloor may buckle.
  • Instead of pulling up tile, you may be able to
    dry the floor from underneath.

Moisture Effects on Carpet
  • Carpet Construction presents two basic problems.
  • 1. Backing separation (delamination)
  • Delamination is one of the primary concerns
    in water damages. Even
  • new carpets delaminate,
    always check for delamination.
  • 2. Latex deterioration
  • Latex has several grades. The better
    grades contain additives that
  • slow the breakdown process.
    Cheaper latex compounds have fillers
  • that take up space, but
    offer no adhesive properties. The more fillers
  • in the compound, the less
    adhesive power and the sooner a breakdown
  • will occur.
  • Multi-level loop Olefin Berber carpet with a
    heavy face weight and a thick pad is one of the
    most difficult carpets to extract thoroughly.

Moisture Effects on Structure
  • Insulation
  • Drying wall cavities requires ventilation.
  • One way to ventilate wet wall cavities it to
    remove baseboards and drill holes between each
  • Then force air through these holes into wall
  • If a lot of moisture is found, areas of drywall
    may have to be removed.
  • Always talk to the customer and
  • adjuster before putting holes
  • in the wall.

Key Factors for Drying
  • Drying a house/building and its contents
    quickly is important. Four factors affect the
    amount of time required for drying
  • Temperature
  • Amount of water to be evaporated
  • Humidity
  • Air movement

  • Drying occurs faster when rooms are heated to 70
    to 90 since hot air can hold more moisture.

Amount of Water to be Evaporated
  • The more water you extract or pump out of the
    structure, the less you will need to remove with
  • A liquid is easier and faster to remove than a
  • Physical extraction is 1200 times more efficient
    than dehumidification.

  • Relative humidity (Rh) is amount of moisture the
    air currently is holding at a given temperature.
  • Rh of 30 to 50 is what most people consider
  • Rh over 60 slows drying time because the air is
    almost saturated or full.
  • The Rh should be below 40 by the second day of

Air Movement
  • The air in a water-damaged room is normally damp
    and humid, slowing evaporation.
  • Blowing the damp air out and bringing warm, dry
    air in will speed drying.
  • Proper positioning of air movers will help.
  • Remember to change the location of air movers as
    drying occurs to promote even, through drying of
  • This is a fan, NOT
    an Air Mover!

  • you can buy a fan in a hardware

  • store for 15. It will not do the job

  • of an Air Mover.

Establishing a Drying Goal
  • A drying goal is the condition the technician
    wants to bring
  • about in the affected area of the structure. How
    dry do you
  • want the environment to be when you are finished?
  • this goal is reached, the environment will be
    dry. Your
  • goal should include two parts.
  • Specific and Relative humidity readings from a
    dry unaffected area of the structure.
  • Moisture content readings from dry unaffected
    contents and structure.

Selecting a Drying System
The Open System
  • An open drying system exchanges the moist air
    inside the structure with the drier outside air.
  • An open system works only when outside air has
    fewer grains per pound than inside air.
  • Outside air should offer high temperature and low
    relative humidity.
  • Before using an open system, take measurements to
    determine specific humidity for both inside and
    outside air.
  • Use an open drying system only when measurements
    for outside air are at least 20 gpp less than
    measurements for inside air.

Open System Has Certain Disadvantages
  • Leaving windows open creates a security risk for
    the building.
  • Energy loss-youre now heating the outdoors.
  • The homeowner may prefer that the windows are
  • The weather may change.
  • Additional monitoring will be required when using
    open drying.

The Closed System
  • A closed drying system closes off the affected
    areas of the structure.
  • Dehumidification equipment is used to dehumidify
    the inside air.
  • For the closed system to work, you must control
    the indoor environment using air movers and


Outside Conditions Inside Conditions Which system Could be used Why Not Open?
Open Closed
70/ 50/55 gpp 78 /80/120 gpp yes yes The difference in gpp is more than 20 and the outside temperature is warm enough.
Outside Conditions Inside Conditions Which system Could be used Why Not Open?
Open Closed
60/ 65/51 gpp 68/65/70 gpp No yes There is not enough difference in the specific humidity to use open drying
Drying Techniques I
  • If the air mover is aimed at a 45 degree angle,
    air bounces off the wall, carrying moisture away
    to be replaced by dryer air.
  • Place air movers in a clockwise pattern with the
    inlet towards the wall and the snout touching the

Drying Techniques II
  • Floating Carpet
  • You can place an air mover under the carpet to
    improve the drying of carpets.
  • Always vent the carpet so air can escape.
  • Do not run air movers at too high of a speed.
  • Tack Carpet
  • Be careful when releasing wet carpet from
    tackless strip.
  • Tack carpet on tackless strip so it will not
    become loose when floating.
  • Make sure sides of air mover are not covered,
    restricting airflow.
  • Do not over float the carpet, it may stretch.

Calculating DryingEquipment Setup
Air mover Requirements
  • The best way to calculate air mover requirements
    is to use one air mover for each 100 to 300
    square feet of damaged area. (10 16 Linear Ft)
  • Also consider the layout of the structure (one
    large room versus several small rooms).
  • If the building is one large room, fewer air
    movers will be required.
  • In a house with several rooms, multiple closets,
    offsets, or bay windows, more air movers will be
    needed to circulate air from the wet area to the
    dehumidifier and to move the dry air from the
    dehumidifier back to the wet area.

Calculating Drying Equipment Setup Air Mover Keys
  • Once again If the air mover is aimed at a 45
    degree angle, air bounces off the wall, carry
    moisture away to be replaced by dryer air. Place
    air movers in a clockwise pattern with the inlet
    towards the wall and the snout touching the wall.
  • To have a balanced drying system, ensure the air
    movers are not putting more moisture into the air
    than the dehumidifiers are pulling out.
  • For a small dehumidifier, use three to four air
    movers, for a medium dehumidifier, use four to
    six air movers, and for a large dehumidifier, use
    up to ten air movers.

Calculating Drying Equipment Setup Dehumidifiers
  • To determine how many dehumidifiers are required,
    determine which class the water damage fits. The
    class is determined by how many porous items are
    wet, rather than the cleanness of the water.

Understanding Classes
Class 1 Only less porous materials are wet no carpet and pad Requires least amount of dehumidification. Condition air once per hour for 2-2 days (or until dry).
Class 2 Moderate amounts of porous materials are wet carpet and pad are wet. Increased dehumidification is needed. Condition air twice per hour for 2-3 days (or until dry).
Class 3 High amounts of porous materials are wet carpet and pad are wet and water came from above. Large amounts of high porosity materials are wet, so a great amount of dehumidification is needed. Condition air three times per hour for 2-3 days (or until dry).
Class 4 Specialty Drying Special dehumidification Depends on situation.
Calculating Dehumidifier Needs
  • Calculate the total cubic feet of air in the
    structure or the affected area. Remember Length
    x Width x Height.
  • Determine the amount of air to dehumidify per
    hour by multiplying the cubic foot measurement by
    the class level. For example for a Class 3
    damage, multiply the total cubic feet of the
    structure by 3.
  • Determine the capacity of the dehumidifiers you
    are using by looking in the user manual. This
    measurement will be given in cubic feet per
    minute (CFM).
  • Compare the amount of air requiring
    dehumidification with the calculated capacity of
    your dehumidifier. The capacity of the
    dehumidifier must be higher than the total cubic
    feet required to dehumidify the area in order for
    drying to occur. You must use AT LEAST this
    amount of dehumidifiers. This may sound
    complicated, but it is really not. Lets look at
    an example.

  • Your structure is 30 feet by 40 feet with 8 foot
    ceilings. A moderate amount of porous material is
    wet Class 2. You are using dehumidifiers with
    an air flow of 360 CFM.
  • Total Cubic Feet (CF) of Structure L x W x H
    30 x 40 x 8 9,600 CF.
  • Total CF that needs to be conditioned per hour
    total CF of structure x class 9,600 x 2
    19,200 CF/hour.
  • Capacity of one dehumidifier per hour 360 CFM x
    60 21,600 CF/hour.
  • Compare total CF that must be conditioned with
    capacity of the dehumidifier 19,200 CF/hour
    21,600 CF/hour. One dehumidifier would dry this
    space in the perfect conditions.

Drying Theory Review Questions
  1. What are the differences between category 1 and
    category 3 water damages?
  2. What can water do to wood? Carpet? Flooring?
  3. What are the key factors of drying and how do we
    control them?
  4. What should we test when developing and checking
    our drying goals?
  5. When can you use an open drying system?
  6. How do you calculate equipment needs? How do you
    position drying equipment?
  7. How do you float a carpet?
  8. If there is water inside a wall cavity, what
    should you do?
  9. What is the difference between class and
  10. How much more effective is physical extraction
    than dehumidification?

Conditions That Encourage Mold Growth Are
  • Food source. Molds feed on organic materials in
    a structure, such as wood, paper, drywall,
    insulation, natural fibers, and indoor dirt,
    which often has organic matter in it.
  • Temperature. The common molds found in buildings
    generally grow best in typical building
    temperatures between 68 and 86 F. Some molds
    can grow at very cold or very hot temperatures.
  • Moisture. Most molds need lots of moisture, but
    some molds can survive in relative humidities as
    low as 65. It is these molds that are a
    particular problem to the restoration industry.
  • To reduce mold growth, indoor relative humidity
  • should be maintained below 60
  • Molds can germinate in a warm, moist environment
  • where a food source is present. How fast
    growth occurs
  • depends on the combination of conditions.

Health Risks for Humans
  • People may get sick when microbes grow and
    multiply to abnormal levels in an indoor
    environment. Some microbes may make you sick
    when they enter your body. Some microbes enter
    your body by
  • 1. Breathing.
  • 2. Swallowing.
  • 3. Absorbing through the skin.
  • PPE will help block microbes from reaching your
    body. Wear respirators, gloves, goggles and
    appropriate clothing to prevent infection.

At-Risk Persons
  • Some people get sick from microbes easier than
    others do
  • Young children. The immune system of very young
    children is not developed enough to combat
  • Immune suppressed or compromised persons.
  • Elderly
  • Persons recovering from illnesses,
  • hospital stays and surgeries.
  • Cancer patients.
  • Transplant recipients.
  • Persons with HIV
  • Asthma patients.

Microbes in Water Damages
  • Category 1 Clean Water
  • Given enough time, microbes will grow in clean
    water. The longer clean water is present in a
    structure, the more likely conditions will
    develop where bacteria and fungi grow rapidly.
  • Examples of Clean Water Tap water

  • Rain water

  • Category 2 Gray Water
  • Gray water contains some contamination that
    threatens human health.
  • Examples of Gray Water Urine

  • Wash water

  • Chemicals
  • Category 3 Black Water
  • Black water is the most contaminated type of
    water damage.
  • Examples of Black Water Feces

  • Flood water

  • Chemicals

  • Medical waste

  • Dead animals

Microbes Review Questions
  1. List at-risk people.
  2. Define the three categories of a water damage.
  3. How can microbes make you sick?
  4. What can you do to avoid getting sick from
    microbial contamination?
  5. Where do you find mold?
  6. What are the conditions that promote mold growth?
  7. What can you do to prevent mold growth?
  8. What PPE should be worn at a sewage damage?
  9. Give examples of situations where you have
    encountered clean, gray and black water damages.

Equipment and Professional Products
  • Detection and Monitoring Devices

  • Moisture Sensor
  • The moisture sensor is used to detect
    moisture in soft materials. The
  • sensor has sharp probes that penetrate
    through carpets and pad to
  • show how far water has migrated. Moisture
    sensors only detect the presence of moisture,
    they do not measure the amount of moisture.
  • Moisture Testers
  • Moister testers (or moisture meters) are
    used to find the actual moisture content of
    various materials and help technicians determine
    if a structure is dry. Penetrating moisture
    testers have probes to test within wall cavities
    and underneath wood flooring. Non-penetrating
    moisture testers have sensors that produce
    readings when the tester is placed on the surface
    of materials.

  • Thermohygrometer
  • Thermohygrometers measure both temperature and
    relative humidity.
  • Compare readings of air for four areas.
  • 1. In the affected areas.
  • 2. In unaffected areas.
  • 3. Outside the structure.
  • 4. Exhaust processed through the
    dehumidifier into the affected
  • area ensure dehumidification is
    contributing to an effective
  • drying process.

Extraction Tools
  • Always use a wand for your first extraction pass
    to stop water migration.
  • Extract thoroughly extraction is 1,200 times
    more efficient than dehumidification.
  • If the water is two inches deep or more, use a
    submersible pump.

Air Moving Equipment
  • Remind the customer air movement is critical
    therefore, the air movers must be left on, even
    if they are noisy.
  • Air movers serve various functions in a water
  • A carpet clamp on some air movers allows them to
    be used to float carpets, blowing air under the
  • High velocity airflow from air movers increases
    the rate of evaporation by removing moist air
    next to a wet surface and replacing it with drier

  • Dehumidification Equipment

Types of Dehumidifiers
  • Water damage technicians use three types of
    dehumidifiers refrigerant, low grain refrigerant
    and desiccant.
  • Refrigerant dehumidifiers are efficient enough
    to lower the relative humidity in a structure to
    approximately 55-60 gpp.
  • Low grain refrigerants (LGR) are refrigerant
    dehumidifiers that will work below 40 gpp.
  • Desiccant dehumidifiers can lower relative
    humidity to a much lower point, but you risk
    damaging materials by getting them too dry for
    example, wood may crack if it becomes too dry.

Conventional Refrigerants and LGRs
  • Refrigerant dehumidifiers have one problem. At
    32 F, it is not uncommon for the evaporator coil
    to freeze up.
  • The only difference between the conventional
    refrigerant and LGR is the LGR re-cools the air
    before it hits the evaporator coil, therefore the
    LGR can work below 40 gpp.
  • An LGR is the most energy efficient dehumidifier.

Desiccant Dehumidifiers
  • A desiccant dehumidifier is simpler.
  • As moist air enters, it passes through a rotor
    filled with an incredibly hot substance (like
    silica gel).
  • The gel has such a high thirst (because of its
    high temperature), moisture molecules stay in the
    gel and 75 of the intake air is pumped back out
    warmer and drier.

  • Carpet and Pad Equipment

Your Carpet Kit Should Include
  • Knee kicker
  • Stair tool
  • Hot-melt glue gun and glue sticks
  • Latex adhesive
  • Carpet shears
  • Razor knife or duckbill knife
  • Seaming iron
  • Seaming tape
  • Stair roller (seam tractor)
  • Staple hammer or electric stapler
  • Power stretch

Other All Important ToolsEvery van should have a
regular toolbox containing
  • Screwdrivers
  • Pliers
  • Awl
  • Molding lifter
  • Hammer
  • Rubber hammer
  • Flashlight
  • Crescent wrench
  • Stapler
  • Various pluming tools
  • Extension cords
  • Plug adapters
  • Pry bars or crowbars
  • Measuring tape
  • Any other tools that you may need and dont want
    to travel back to the warehouse to get

Disinfectants and SewageTreat sewage-contaminated
environments with biocides two times
  • Apply the first treatment before work begins to
    make the site safer for workers to perform their
    cleaning tasks. This will start to decontaminate
    the sewage-covered materials and surfaces, but
    will not completely disinfect the environment.
    Exposure still may present health risks and
    personal protective equipment still should be
    used as required.
  • Apply a second treatment after cleaning
    contaminated surfaces because biocides are most
    effective when they contact microorganisms on
    clean surfaces.
  • Tell customers about the products
  • you are using and provide MSD sheets,
  • if requested.

Terms for Chemical Agents
Antimicrobial An antimicrobial agent is any chemical used against microorganisms to stop their development or to limit or stop their growth.
Disinfectants Disinfectants and germicides are antimicrobials that destroy about 99 of organisms they contact on surfaces. Common disinfectants are quaternaries, phenols, formaldehydes, alcohols and chlorines.
Sanitizers A product listed as a sanitizer reduces microbes to levels considered by public health authorities to be safe. Under the right conditions, however, the microbes may grow back again.
Sterilizers A sterilizer destroys all microorganisms, including bacteria and fungi spores. Sterilizing microbes in a water damage is generally not possible.
-cides Biocides are chemical agents that destroy or kill living organisms (-cide meaning kill). The term biocide is used generally to refer to any chemical agent that affects the growth of microbes like bacteria and fungi.
Ingredients of Chemical Agents
  • The antimicrobials listed on the next slide are
    some of the most commonly used products in the
    creation of water damage chemicals.

Advantages Disadvantages
Phenolics Aromatic alcohol based agents. Inexpensive Residual activity Some products can be fogged Effective against a wide variety of bacteria and fungi Some products OHSA compliant for Bloodborne Pathogens Strong odor
Quaternary Compounds Used primarily to disinfect or sanitize. Inexpensive Effective against a wide variety of bacteria and fungi Inactivated by organic matter
Gluteraldehydes A sanitizing agent used in leather, tanning, food processing and in fabric sanitizing or disinfecting Less affected by organic matter Non-corrosive Expensive Irritating vapors Toxic when inhaled
Chlorine Think bleach. Can remove stains Lox toxicity Germicidal action against bacteria, viruses, fungi, molds and mildew Strong odor Can irritate the skin or respiratory system Can remove dyes Cannot be fogged
Equipment and Professional Products Review
  1. What is the difference between a moisture sensor
    and a moisture tester?
  2. What is the most important key when using a
  3. What is the difference between a desiccant and a
    refrigerant dehumidifier?
  4. What does the term biocide mean in the
    restoration industry?
  5. What features must an air mover have in order to
    float a carpet?
  6. When should you apply chemicals in a sewage
    damaged home?
  7. What is the most energy efficient dehumidifier?
  8. What does it mean to sanitize, sterilize and
  9. Which extraction tool works best to stop water
  10. What are the key professional products that you
    may find useful in a water damage situation?

  • Job Management

Fast Response
  • If you are going to be late for ANY REASON, call
    the customer and let him/her know.
  • The SERVPRO system is a 24-hour emergency
    response and restoration service provider.
    SERVPRO has educated the insurance industry
    regarding the importance of fast service, and
    provides a nationwide commitment to 1-4-8
    response times.

Within 1 Hour Contact the customer.
Within 4 Hours Begin the work.
Within 8 Business Hours Provide preliminary scope information and initial ScanER estimate update to the Insurance Adjuster.
Previewing the Water Loss
  • Dont commit the adjuster or the insurance
    company! For example dont promise the carpet
    will be replaced because the adjuster might not
  • A Key Phrase Thats a good question. Your
    adjuster will help you interpret your policy.
    The adjuster will know those specific answers.
  • Moments of Truth A moment of truth occurs every
    time a SERVPRO Franchise employee comes into
    contact with a customer on an insurance contact.
    What the employee says is judged how the
    employee looks is judged and how the employee
    acts is judged.

Customer Information Form-Water Damage
  • While completing the scope, present the SERVPRO
    (28501) Customer Information Form-Water Damage.
    Cover the important topics with the customer and
    explain in detail any items the customer seems
    concerned about. Then give the form to the
    customer to review the rest of the information.
    DO NOT read the entire form to the customer!
  • Be sure to cover the following items

Authorization, Insurance Verification and
  • Explain that the SERVPRO (28000) Authorization to
    Perform Services must be signed before any work
    can begin.
  • Verify insurance coverage. Be sure to write down
    the name of the insurance carrier, the policy
    number and the amount of the deductible.

How We Proceed
  • Explain SERVPROs concern to protect the
    customers structure and contents.
  • Explain to the customer what you are going to do
    during the emergency service and answer any
    questions he/she may have.
  • Ask whether the customer is aware of any mold in
    the structure. If significant mold is identified
    or found during the inspections, notify the
    insurance representative to determine the
    appropriate course of action.

Pre-existing or Pre-loss Conditions
  • Ask the customer if the structure has had water
    damages before
  • If the answer is yes, watch for signs of
    pre-existing mold damage.

Personal Items
  • Ask if it is OK to inspect all area during the
  • Note any areas the customer wants avoided.

Jewelry, Valuable and Heirlooms
  • Ask the customer to list any expensive or valued
  • Recommend such items be removed if possible.

Health and Safety
  • Explain to customers that SERVPRO is concerned
    for their personal health and safety.

Approximate Completion
  • Tell the customer the approximate time needed to
    complete the job.

  • Make sure the customer checks either Yes or
    No on Points 5,7 and 13.
  • After presenting the Customer Information
    Form-Water Damage, ask the customer to read it
    over and acknowledge by signing in the
    appropriate area. If the customer is
    uncomfortable signing the form, note the time you
    reviewed it with the customer in the signature
    space and ask them to initial it.

  • Performing the
  • Emergency Services

Authorization to Perform Services
  • Before you begin measuring, present a completed
    SERVPRO (28000) Authorization to Perform Services
    to the customer to review and sign while you are
    performing the scope. If the customer hesitates
    to sign the authorization, calmly explain to the
    customer that without his/her approval
    (authorization) SERVPRO cannot begin the
    necessary emergency services. Ask for the
    signature in a natural tone.
  • Also, ask the customer to initial the back.
  • Explain that the Authorization to Perform
    Services gives SERVPRO permission to do the work.
  • Do not begin work unless the customer has signed
    the Authorization form.
  • Here is another chance to collect the deductible.
    You can introduce the subject by saying, We
    accept personal checks, credit cards or cash.

  • Equipment Monitoring
  • and Responsibility

Customer Equipment Responsibility Form
  • Use the SERVPRO (28509) Customer Equipment
    Responsibility Form when drying equipment, like
    air movers and dehumidifiers, must be left at the
    job. This form explains to customers their
    responsibility to keep the equipment safe and

Monitoring and Inspection Report
  • Water damage jobs should be monitored daily. You
    should create written Monitoring Reports,
    indicating moisture content readings of structure
    and contents, as well as specific humidity
    readings to document the environment is drying.
  • Use SERVPRO (28575) Monitoring and Inspection
    Report, it has a graph area to show exactly where
    it is wet.

Pretesting Has Four Primary Objectives
  1. What portion of the structure and contents will
    dry and clean to a pre-loss condition?
  2. What portion of the structure and contents will
    not dry to a pre-loss condition?
  3. What portion of structure and contents are
  4. What portion of structure and contents are you
    not sure about?

  • Completing the Job

Final Walk-Through
  • When the job has been completed, walk through the
    job once by yourself to make sure everything is
    truly finished. Then, walk through with the
    customer to ensure everything is done to the
    customers satisfaction.
  • Take notes during the walk-through, showing
    concern for the customers opinion and making
    notes for follow up if needed.
  • The best time for a final walk-through is just
    before the crew finishes the job. This prevents
    sending a crew back if there is a problem.

The Certificate of Satisfaction
  • After the final walk-through, ask the customer to
    complete and sign the SERVPRO (28503) Certificate
    of Satisfaction. A copy of the Certificate of
    Satisfaction should be included when the office
    person sends the bill to the agent or adjuster.

Job Management Review Questions
  1. What is the first form you hand to a customer?
  2. What form must be signed to begin work?
  3. What is 1-4-8?
  4. What do you look for when pretesting?
  5. What paperwork do you use when equipment is left
    at a job site?
  6. When should you do your final walk-through?
  7. What is a moment of truth?
  8. What does Dont commit the adjuster mean?
  9. What form should you ask the customer to sign
    before leaving the job site?
  10. What points do you review with the customer on
    the SERVPRO (28501) Customer Information
    Form-Water Damage?

  • Emergency
  • Services

The Purposes of an Emergency Service Call
  1. Make the homeowner feel at ease.
  2. Educate the customer about what you are doing.
  3. Protect the structure and contents from further
  4. Remove as much water as possible
  5. Start the drying process.
  6. Try not to disrupt the customers daily lives.
  7. Try to make the environment as comfortable as

The JobTo effectively dry a structure, four
basic questions must be answered.
  1. What areas and materials are wet?
  2. How wet are materials?
  3. Is the drying process working?
  4. Are materials dry before ending the drying

Basic Scoping Procedures
  • Figure out where the water came from. Make sure
    the water has been
  • stopped or contained. If it is not, contact your
    supervisor or the adjuster.
  • Is the water clean, gray or black? Remember, if
    the water sat for a period of time, clean may
    become gray and gray may become black.
  • Explain to customers what you are doing and why.
    Go over the appropriate forms, such as the
    Customer Information Form.
  • Have customer sign appropriate documentation,
    including the Authorization to Perform Services.
  • Look for possible safety hazards.
  • Answer the question What is wet? Use the
    moisture detection equipment to determine where
    it is wet. Start at the source of the water and
    work outwards.
  • Note the type of materials that need to be dried.
    Make sure you test the walls, baseboards,
    insulation, cabinets, hidden areas, crawl spaces,
    registers, ducts, carpets, pads, sub-floors, wet
    contents, etc. Write everything down.
  • Measure damaged areas.
  • Photograph the damage.
  • Complete the Water Damage Emergency Services

  • Clean Water Emergency
  • Service Procedures

Before beginning emergency services, make sure
the Authorization to Perform Services Form has
been signed.
  • Take care of any dangerous situations, post
    warning signs and make sure occupants are
    protected. Never proceed until youre sure it is
  • Move and block the furniture
  • Extract the water.
  • Try to remove furniture stains. Your best chance
    to remove furniture stains is while the carpet is
    still wet.
  • Remove the pad if necessary.
  • Extract the water from the sub-floor. Use
    squeegee wand on hard floors, not the carpet
  • Look for pre-existing damages. The primary
    pre-existing conditions to look for are
    delamination and mold growth.

  • If necessary, apply an appropriate professional
    product to the carpet backing and to the floor.
  • Lay the carpet back on the sub-floor and
    temporarily attach around perimeter.
  • Float the carpet (if necessary).
  • Take care of vapor barriers. Ventilate inside of
    wall and ceiling cavities as necessary.
  • Place dehumidifiers to remove excess moisture
    from the air.
  • Set up air movers around the perimeter of the
    room at 45 angles pointing towards the wall.
    Make sure that you have a balanced drying system.
  • Check temperature and relative humidity in the
    affected area, inside an unaffected area,
    outside, and for the air coming out of each
  • Take moisture content readings of dry materials
    in unaffected areas. These are your drying goals.
  • Draw a diagram showing the wet areas and the
    moisture content readings on the back of the
    Monitoring and Inspection Report.
  • Complete a SERVPRO (28509) Customer Equipment
    Responsibility Form.
  • Explain to the customer why it is important to
    leave the equipment on.
  • Thank the customer and answer any final questions.

Removing the Pad
  • Disengage the carpet with a carpet awl and knee
  • Cut as few seams as possible.
  • Pull back the carpet and extract the water from
    the pad.
  • Dont fold carpet at the seam or step on folded
    carpet (it creases).
  • Dont damage walls or baseboards with the carpet.
  • Use a utility knife to cut pad (and the carpet
    your are throwing away).
  • Place into plastic bags.
  • Save at least one square foot section so youll
    know what type of pad to use when replacing

Contaminated Water Emergency ServiceProcedures
Perform the following actions for contaminated
water damages.
  • Eliminate safety hazards from the job site.
    Post signs and gather the appropriate PPE,
    including boots, full-body suits, rubber gloves,
    respirators equipped with P100/organic vapor
    cartridges and eye protection.
  • As you enter, spray an EPA-registered
    disinfectant directly on affected areas. Follow
    the labels!
  • Containment may be needed if contaminants can
    spread to unaffected areas. Always talk to your
    supervisor to make sure the insurance company
  • If applicable, remove standing silt and debris.
  • Remove excess water from carpets and other types
    of flooring using extractors.
  • Evaluate whether contents and structure can be
    decontaminated and restored or must be removed
    and replaced.
  • Also, communicate with the insurance adjuster.

  • If damage is from black water, remove and dispose
    of both carpet and pad.
  • If needed, pressure wash structural components.
    Disinfect surfaces with an EPA registered
  • Remove materials as necessary to decontaminate
    the building.
  • Repeat disinfecting steps for newly exposed
  • Remove and dispose of any final debris and
  • After cleaning procedures are completed, place
    air movers and dehumidifiers to speed drying.
  • Wash your hands, body, and clothing.
  • Clean your PPE and equipment to prevent the
    spread of germs.

Emergency Services Review Questions
  1. What are the four questions you must answer to
    effectively dry a structure?
  2. What should you do if there is still water
    rushing in from a damaged ceiling?
  3. Where should you look for damage in a water
    damaged home?
  4. When should you use extraction equipment?
  5. When should you use professional products on gray
    and black water damages?
  6. What are the main steps in handling clean water
    emergency services?
  7. What makes a sewage damage different from a clean
    water damage?
  8. When should you attempt furniture stain removal?
    Use furniture pads or blocks?
  9. What are the necessary steps to pull the pad?
    Float the carpet?
  10. What paperwork will you use during the emergency

Job Monitoring
Why Do We Monitor?
  • To be sure the structure is drying.
  • To make sure our equipment is working properly
    and safely.
  • To continue to communicate with the customer.
  • To document that our processes are working in
    order to avoid future problems or liabilities.

Drying Goal Measurements
  • Take readings for relative humidity and
    temperature with a thermohygrometer and record
  • Use these readings to calculate the actual grains
    of moisture (the specific humidity).
  • A drying goal should be established for the
    affected areas.
  • Determine the moisture content of materials in
    unaffected areas of the structure and make these
    readings your drying goals for the affected
  • Unaffected areas normally represent the pre-loss
    condition or normal condition in the building.
  • When the affected area readings are the same or
    drier than the unaffected areas, you know that
    the affected area is back to normal.
  • Drying equipment should only be removed when
    drying goals are met.
  • If you are asked to remove equipment early,
    require the customer and adjuster to sign the
    SERVPRO (28540) Authorization to Remove
    Dehumidification/Drying Equipment Form.

Grain Depression
  • The difference between the GPP coming out of the
    DH as opposed to the GPP coming in.

Job Monitoring Review Questions
  • What tool do you use to monitor Rh and
  • How do you know when to stop drying something?
  • How do you establish a drying goal?
  • Is your drying process working?
  • Day 1 Affected Area - 75/71 Rh
  • Day 2 Affected Area 78 /60 Rh
  • 5. Why is it important to monitor and document?
  • What is your grain depression for the following
    dehumidifier? Is it enough?
  • -Affected Area 82/70 Rh
  • -Air from Dehumidifier 85/68 Rh
  • 7. In the following situation, would there be
    benefit to using an open air drying system?
  • Affected Area 70/62 Rh
  • Outside 75/62 Rh
  • 8. What form should be signed if a customer
    requests that drying equipment be removed early?
  • 9. Where should you take temperature and Rh
  • 10. How often should you monitor?

What is Restoration?
  • It is putting someone's home or business back
  • It is the extra things, like relaying the carpet,
    repairing the sub-floors and resetting the
  • It is restoring items to a pre-loss (normal)

Once the structure and contents are dry, the
technician can perform the restoration services.
Restoration services are all of the tasks needed
to return the site to its normal, per-loss
condition. Restoration may include
  • Cleaning, repairing or reinstalling floors and
    floor coverings, such as carpets, carpet pads,
    hardwood floors, resilient and non-resilient
  • Removing and resetting contents to install or
    repair floor coverings.
  • Installing tack strip.
  • Repairing or replacing sub-floors.
  • Cleaning and deodorizing contents.

Removing Drying Equipment
  • Once the structure is dry, remove air movers,
    dehumidifiers and other drying equipment from the
  • Complete the SERVPRO (28509) Customer Equipment
    Responsibility From.

Reinstalling Carpet and Replacing Pad
Reinstallation Procedure
  • Prepare floor for carpet reinstallation.
  • Reinstall tackless strip, if necessary.
  • Install new pad (make sure it is the same type,
    thickness and density as the type that was
  • Lay out pad using tackless for a
    straight edge. The pad should be installed at
  • right angles to carpet seams.
  • Cut pad to fit largest areas first.
  • Use a sharp blade to cut pad. Be
    careful with sharp knives to prevent injury.
  • Lay pad with slick side facing up so
    carpet can slide over it.
  • Tape seams of pad.
  • Anchor pad to floor with
    double-sided, non-paper tape, staples or glue.
  • 4. Prepare the carpet for stretching.
  • Stretch and attach the carpet.
  • Even if only part of the carpet was affected, the
  • whole room must be cleaned.

Completing the Job When all restoration services
are completed, finalize the job by making sure
the customer is satisfied with your work
  • Check moisture levels one last time to make sure
    the job is dry.
  • Complete a walk-through yourself, to make sure
    everything is done.
  • Complete walk-through with customer.
  • Listen, dont be defensive.
  • Fix any problems as necessary.
  • Remove equipment and supplies.
  • Have the customer complete the
  • Certificate of Satisfaction.
  • Return the paperwork to the office.

Restoration Services Review Questions
  1. When can restoration services begin?
  2. When should you remove drying equipment?
  3. What is the difference between mitigation and
  4. Name some of the most common restoration steps
    for water damaged homes.
  5. What forms should the customer sign during the
    restoration process?
  6. Why is it important to keep a sample of the pad
    when you pull it?
  7. What are the basic steps of reinstalling pad?
  8. What are the basic steps of reinstalling carpet?
  9. Only half of a room is damaged. How much of the
    carpet must you clean?
  10. How should you handle the question Is the
    insurance company going to replace my hardwood

Specialty DryingSituations
In-Place Drying of Carpet and Pad
  • Some water mitigation and drying systems dry
    carpet and pad without removing the pad. This
    method is called in-place drying or top down
  • The basic concept of in-place drying is to
    extract the carpet more times and increase the
    number of air movers and dehumidifiers.
  • The carpet is not detached, and the pad is dried
    in place.

Situations Not Appropriate for In-place
DryingDont use in-place Drying
  • If the carpet has been exposed to water for more
    than 72 hours.
  • If there is evidence of mold growth or other
    biological contamination.
  • If carpet is installed over hardwood floors or
    laminated floors.
  • If there is any evidence or structural damage to
    the sub-flooring.
  • If it is not a clean water damage.
  • If there are multiple layers of sub-flooring, or
    if there is a vapor barrier.
  • If the pad has a non-porous layer that will trap
    water underneath.

Extraction with In-place Drying
  • The extraction step of the in-place drying system
    must be aggressive. It is necessary to use
    specialty (weighted) equipment that squeeze water
    out of both the carpet and the pad.
  • Time Extracting with the in-place method
    requires double or triple the time to extract,
    but time is saved by not detaching carpet and
    removing pad.
  • Spend approximately 1 hour per 300 square feet.

Crawl SpacesSuggest that owners install a vapor
barrier once the water is removed.
  • Water damaged crawl spaces of a building/house
    are often difficult to access.
  • Even when the crawl space door is big enough
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