Fire Safety Plan - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Fire Safety Plan


General Fire Safety By Impact fire and Safety Appliances Pvt. Ltd. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Fire Safety Plan

General Fire Safety By Impact fire and Safety
Appliances Pvt. Ltd.
Most Common Causes of Fire
  • Faulty or misused electrical equipments
  • Build up of rubbish or waste material (Poor
  • Smoking
  • Cooking
  • Heating appliances placed near Combustible/Flammab
    le materials
  • Unsafe Storage and use of Combustible/Flammable
  • Unsafe storage and use of hazardous materials
  • Hot process
  • Arson

Fire Triangle
  • 1. In order to ignite and burn, a fire required 3
  • Fuel
  • Heat (a source of ignition)
  • Oxygen
  • 2. Each element should be present in correct
  • 3. A fire can be prevented or extinguished by
    reducing anyone of these elements below the
    critical level, i.e.
  • Shutting of gas supply (Starvation)
  • Cooling for fire with water
  • Smothering flames with fire blankets (Suffocation)

What is Fuel
  • Anything that burns is a potential fuel for a
  • Duration of the fire will depend on the amount of
    fuel available

What is Heat
  • Must be sufficient to raise the fuel to its
    ignition temperature
  • After fire begins to burn, the source of ignition
    can be removed as combustion process releases
    heat energy to sustain the fire
  • Amount of heat required depends on the
  • Combustion point of fuel
  • Type of fuel
  • Amount of oxygen available

What is Oxygen
  • To sustain a fire, atmosphere only needs to have
    16 oxygen (The air we breathe is around 21)
  • Intensity of a fire depends on the concentration
    of oxygen available
  • Some chemicals releases oxygen when they gets
    heated thus adding to the natural supply

Sources of Fuel
  • Combustibles
  • Paper and Cardboard
  • Plastics and Rubber
  • Textiles and Soft furnishings
  • Wooden Items
  • Waste products
  • Flammables
  • Flammable liquid based products
  • Flammable liquids and solvents
  • Flammable chemicals
  • Flammable gases

Sources of Ignition
  • Cigarettes, Matches and Lighters
  • Naked Flames
  • Faulty or misused electrical equipments
  • Fixed or Portable Heaters (Electric, Gas,
  • Hot Processes
  • Cooking Equipments
  • Lighting Equipments
  • Obstructions of Equipments Ventilation
  • Arson

Sources of Oxygen
  • Main sources is in the air around us
  • In an enclosed building, oxygen is provided by
    natural airflow through doors/windows or
    mechanical air conditioning/ air handling
  • Further additional sources can be found in -
  • Oxidizing Chemicals
  • Oxygen supplies from cylinders storage and piped

Hazards and Risks
  • Hazards Anything that has the potential to
    cause them
  • Risks The chance of that harm occurring and

Hazards Created by Fire
  • Flames and Heat
  • Smoke and other products of combustion
  • Reduced oxygen
  • Structural damage to a building
  • Collapse of a building
  • Exposed Electrical Cables

  • Intense heat can cause serious injuries/death
  • High temperatures can melt clothing into skin,
    causing severe and deep burns
  • Breathing in superheated air causes rapid and
    severe lung damage followed by unconsciousness
  • Exposure to excessive heat can cause
    physiological effects such as heat stress

Smoke and Products of Combustion
  • Incomplete combustion produces a variety of
    by-products, many of which are toxic and/or
  • Smoke is the most cause of death in case of fire
  • Injuries/death due to inhalation
  • Irritation of the eyes can reduce visibility
  • Digestive problems and poisoning if swallowed
  • Respiratory and circulatory systems affected, if
  • Poisoning if absorbed by the skin
  • Many gasses produced by the fire are highly
    toxic, e.g. carbon monoxide

Reduced Oxygen
  • Oxygen deficiency can occur in 2 ways
  • Fires consume large quantities of available
  • Fires produces large quantities of other gasses
    that displaces oxygen
  • Low oxygen levels can result in disorientation
    and irrational thinking, which makes escaping
    more difficult
  • At worse, unconsciousness and death can occur
    when the brain gets starved of oxygen

Structural Damage and Collapse
  • Heat can have a serious impact on the structure
    of the building
  • Burning
  • Spilling
  • Melting
  • Expansion
  • If a building collapses, the people inside may be
    crushed or injured
  • Partial collapse may obstruct escape routes

  • Fire can cause damage to electrical cables,
    leading to short circuits or exposing live
    electrical conductors
  • Exposed wires can cause electrocution through
    direct contact or contact with water

Fire and Smoke Spread
  • Convection
  • Conduction
  • Radiation
  • Direct Flame Contact

  • Main mode of heat transfer in a developing fire
  • Heat transferred by the movement of warmed
    particles in a liquid or a gas
  • As particles are heated, they becomes lighter and
    less dense than air and this rises in atmosphere
  • Heated molecules eventually cools becomes denser
    and sinks
  • Repeated process results in convection currents

  • Heat transferred through matter from particle to
  • Particles in heated substance gain kinetic energy
    and move faster
  • These particles than interacts with others
    particles nearby, transferring heat to them
  • The process continues as thermal energy is
    transferred from hotter parts to cooler parts

  • Uses electromagnetic waves to transfer heat
  • Heat Transfer by radiation can occur over massive
    distances Radiation is how we receive heat from
  • Heat radiation can pass through transparent
    barriers such as glass
  • For significant level of heat to be radiated, the
    temperature of the heat source

Direct Flame Contact
  • Combustible or flammable materials can come into
    direct contact with flames, and the fire may
    travel along, up or through he material

Fire Control Measures
  • Preventative
  • Passive
  • Active
  • Managerial

Preventive Control Measures
  • Should always be considered first
  • Better to reduce the risk of fire starting than
    to deal with the consequences

Preventing Ignition
  • Adopt safe working practices when undertaking hot
  • Provide safe ways of discarding cigarettes
  • Allow smoking only in designated area and
    prohibit it in all areas of fire risk
  • Limit the use of open flames
  • Use suitable electrical equipments and test it
  • Ensure that all electrical equipments are well
  • Control Arson

Reducing Risks from Fuel
  • Reduces the amount of flammable material in the
    workplace to the minimum required for the
    operation of the business
  • Where possible replace flammable material with
    less flammable alternatives
  • Follow safe working practices when working with
    flammable substances
  • Ensure Safe storage, transportation and handling
    of flammable materials
  • Ensures that waste products are stored in an
    appropriate place until cleared
  • Ensure that paint, wall coverings, textiles and
    furnishings are fire resistant.

Reducing Risks from Oxygen
  • Keep windows and doors closed (Balanced against
    employee comfort)
  • Use compartmentation and self-closing fire doors
  • Close off ventilation systems when not in use
  • Prevent or strictly control oxygen rich

Passive Control Measures
  • Building features that prevent the spread of
    smoke and heat, e.g.
  • Permanent escape routes
  • Refuges with communication system
  • Fire resistance features, fittings and d├ęcor

Active Control Measures
  • Systems/Devices that provide early warning of
    fire, control smoke movement or suppress or
    extinguish a fire in its early stages
  • Require some sort of operational
    (Manual/Automatic, Electrical/Mechanical) to
    perform function. Examples
  • Automatic Fire Detection System
  • Manual Call Points And Alarm System
  • Portable Fire Extinguishers and Fire Blankets
  • Sprinkler Systems

  • Sub-dividing a building into separate fire
    compartments in order to
  • Provide a safe refuge to people within the
    building, where it is not practicable to
    evacuate everyone at once
  • Assist fire- fighting operations
  • Minimize property damage

Managerial Control Measures
  • Support and active and passive measures, e.g.
  • Develop Fire Safety procedure
  • Undertake training and fire drills
  • Develop maintenance systems for safety
  • Undertake regular fire safety inspections
  • Require vigilance by those responsible for fire
  • Use Signage to identify escape routes and high
    risk areas

Means of Escape
  • Building features and Fittings that enables
    people to move from a place of potential damage
    to place of ultimate or relative safety in an
    event of fire.
  • Should take in to consideration
  • Time takes to move people
  • Time it takes for a fire to endanger the escape
  • The distance people have to travel to a place of
  • Features might include
  • Structural protection from a fire spread or
  • Fire Resistant paints and textiles
  • Fire doors and self closing devices
  • Signage and emergency lightings
  • Ventilation Control System

Fire Door Features
  • Self closing device or door release mechanism
    that operates if the fire alarm gets activated
  • Solid rebate or intumescent strips and cold smoke
    seals to prevent flames and smokes passing
    through the gaps
  • Viewing panels should be fire resistant glass
  • Constructed from or coated with fire resistant
  • Clearly identifiable with appropriate safety
  • Easy to open
  • Well lit
  • Properly maintained

Travel/ Distance Capacity
  • Travel Distance How far people have to travel
    to reach an exit, usually measured to a storey
    exit or another fire compartment or protected
  • Exit Capacity How many people can pass through
    the exit in a given time.

Emergency Lighting
  • Used when main power supply is failed
  • Should operate automatically and be sufficiently
    bright to allow people to evacuate the premises
    quickly an safely
  • Degree of illumination depends on nature of
    premises and its occupants
  • Exit Doors and escape routes
  • Intersections of corridors
  • Emergency Exit Signage
  • Stairways
  • Changes in Direction/Floor level
  • Windowless rooms
  • Fire Fighting equipments
  • Fire Alarm Call Points
  • Equipments to be shut down in an emergency
  • Lifts

Protected Escape Routes
  • Separated from the other parts of the building
  • Constructed from the fire resistant material
  • Sterile Places

Fire Safety Signs
  • Safe Condition Signs
  • Green Rectangle with white symbols/text
  • Show Directions to areas of safety and medical
  • E.g. Emergency exit signage
  • Fire Equipments Signs
  • Red Rectangle with white symbols/text
  • E.g. At manual call points or next to fire
  • Mandatory Signs
  • Blue Circle with white symbols/text
  • Action must be taken
  • E.g. Sign instructing that fire door is kept shut

Fire Safety Signs
  • Hazard Signs
  • Yellow Triangle with black outline and
  • Warn of Danger
  • E.g. Flammable Substance sign
  • Prohibit signs
  • Circle with red outline and red line from top
    left to bottom right
  • Behavior likely to result in danger is forbidden
  • E.g. No Smoking Sign

Fire Detection
  • Important to detect the fire as soon as possible
    after it starts and to warn other people in order
    to prompt their evacuation
  • In small premises, fire may be detected by
    building occupants
  • In some premises, fires may be detected
    automatically by devices that reacts to the
    presence of, for example, smoke, heat or carbon
    monoxide gas.

Raising the Alarm
  • Shouting Fire
  • Breaking Glass at Manual Call point
  • PA System
  • Whistles
  • Bells
  • Rotary Gongs
  • Klaxons

Fire Classes
  • Class A Organic Solids, Such As Paper And Wood
  • Class B Flammable Liquids And Liquefied Solids
  • Class C Flammable Gasses
  • Class D Metals
  • Class F Cooking Fat And Oil

Extinguishing Fires
  • Fires are extinguished by reducing one or more of
    the element of the fire triangle below the
    critical point
  • Reducing the heat (Cooling)
  • Reducing the fuel (Starving)
  • Reducing the oxygen (Suffocating)

Fires Extinguishers
  • Red with identifying labels to indicate type
  • Location and number determined by the risk
  • Work by breaking the fire triangle
  • Use a number of different agents
  • Water Cools
  • Foam Cools And Provide Barrier To Oxygen Reacting
    With Fuel
  • Dry Powder And Carbon Dioxide Suffocate

Water Extinguishers
  • Red label
  • For Fires involving carbon based solid material
    (Class A)
  • Remove heat from the fire triangle (Cooling)
  • Water conducts electricity, so should not be used
    where there is a risk of electric shock

Foam Extinguishers
  • Cream label
  • For Fires involving flammable liquid or liquefied
    solids (Class A, B and F)
  • Form a layer over the burning surface, separating
    the fuel from flames (Starving)
  • Nozzle sprays foam evenly, quickly coating fire
  • Can use near but directly on directly on live
    electrical equipments (beware water run-offs)

Co2 Extinguishers
  • Black Label
  • For fires involving electrical equipments (negate
    chances of electric shock)
  • Can be used on fires involving liquids such as
    paints and oils (with caution)
  • Remove Oxygen from the fire (Suffocation)
  • Should not be used in a space restricted enclosed
  • Ice can form on extinguisher nozzle
  • Noisy when discharge

Dry Powder Extinguishers
  • Blue Label
  • For all common types of fires including
    electrical (Class A, B and F)
  • Remove Oxygen from the fire interrupting the
    chain of combustion and preventing reignition
  • Extinguish quickly
  • Not suitable for use in enclosed space
  • Cause excessive damage to electrical equipments
  • Best used for outside fuel fire

Wet Chemical Extinguishers
  • Yellow Label
  • For use on deepfat cooking fire (Class F)
  • Create fine mist that cools flames and prevents
    splashing, then create thick that smothers fat
    and prevent reignition (Starving)
  • Only works with animal fats and vegetable oils

Simple Checks
  • Is the extinguisher ready to be picked up?
  • Is the pressure gauge reading is in green zone?
  • Weight has extinguisher been discharged?
  • Are there signs of corrosion/leak/rust?
  • Test engineers label Has the extinguisher been
    serviced in last 12 months?
  • Are the safety pins in place and tamper seal
  • Are notices of the type/suitability of the
    extinguisher displayed next to it.

Fire Blankets
  • Sheets of Fire retardant material placed over a
    fire to suffocate
  • Extinguish small fires before they spread
  • Light duty Kitchens
  • Heavy Duty industrial settings (Molten
  • Should be in the vicinity of fire hazards but in
    a position where they can be safely and easily
    accessed in an emergency
  • Must be checked regularly

How to use Fire Blankets
  • Pull the blankets out its case
  • Check if the fire is smaller than blanket
  • Hold up blanket in front of you by the top
    corners and keep your hands tucked behind it
  • Place the blanket over the fire and smother it
  • Do not remove the blanket for half an hour (to
    allow the material to cool down)

Fixed Fire Fighting System
  • Hose Reel
  • Dry and wet riser
  • Sprinkler systems
  • Gaseous Systems
  • Foam Systems

Fire Safety Inspections
  • Help to ensure that
  • Owners and occupiers of building are continuing
    to meet their responsibility under the fire
    safety regulations
  • Buildings are fitted with correct fire safety
  • Those installations are maintained in an
    operational conditions

Fire Wardens
  • Competent person who implement the fire safety
    measures and give effect to appropriate
    procedures to be followed in the event of serious
    and imminent danger to relevant persons
  • Can be called fire marshals or fire stewards
  • Need excellent organizational skills, a level of
    confidence and calm head
  • Should have received training

Day To Day Role Of Fire Warden
  • Monitor general fire safety
  • Report unsafe practices/conditions
  • Reports faults, incidents and near misses
  • Discuss evacuations arrangements with staff and
    offer guidance on procedures
  • Remain familiar with escapes routes
  • Take a lead role during fire drills
  • Feedbacks on fire drills

Role of fire wardens when the fire alarm sounds
  • Wear high visibility clothing
  • Instruct people to leave via the nearest route
  • Help and Ensure all people leaves the premises
  • Shut down dangerous equipments
  • Help any person waiting for assistance
  • Report to central assembly point
  • Communicate with other wardens
  • Liaise with fire and rescue services on arrival,
    if required

Role of fire wardens when not in area of
  • If not safe to move in area, evacuate to central
  • Report whether or not they have checked their
    area, so that someone can be allocated to it and
    can be reported to the fire and rescue service
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