General Fire Safety | Precautions and Uses for Fire Safety Tools (1) - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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General Fire Safety | Precautions and Uses for Fire Safety Tools (1)


Impact fire and Safety Appliances Pvt. Ltd. learn about the causes of fire and how they get spread. You will also be able to learn about the safety precautions in case of a fire and different appliances that can be used in case of fire. You will also get to know which fire extinguisher needs to be used on which type or class of fire. – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: General Fire Safety | Precautions and Uses for Fire Safety Tools (1)

General Fire Safety By Impact fire and Safety
Appliances Pvt. Ltd.
Most Common Causes of Fire
  • Faulty or misused electrical equipments
  • Build up of rubbish or waste material (Poor
  • Smoking
  • Cooking
  • Heating appliances placed near Combustible/Flammab
    le materials
  • Unsafe Storage and use of Combustible/Flammable
  • Unsafe storage and use of hazardous materials
  • Hot process
  • Arson

Fire Triangle
  • 1. In order to ignite and burn, a fire required 3
  • Fuel
  • Heat (a source of ignition)
  • Oxygen
  • 2. Each element should be present in correct
  • 3. A fire can be prevented or extinguished by
    reducing anyone of these elements below the
    critical level, i.e.
  • Shutting of gas supply (Starvation)
  • Cooling for fire with water
  • Smothering flames with fire blankets (Suffocation)

What is Fuel
  • Anything that burns is a potential fuel for a
  • Duration of the fire will depend on the amount of
    fuel available

What is Heat
  • Must be sufficient to raise the fuel to its
    ignition temperature
  • After fire begins to burn, the source of ignition
    can be removed as combustion process releases
    heat energy to sustain the fire
  • Amount of heat required depends on the
  • Combustion point of fuel
  • Type of fuel
  • Amount of oxygen available

What is Oxygen
  • To sustain a fire, atmosphere only needs to have
    16 oxygen (The air we breathe is around 21)
  • Intensity of a fire depends on the concentration
    of oxygen available
  • Some chemicals releases oxygen when they gets
    heated thus adding to the natural supply

Sources of Fuel
  • Combustibles
  • Paper and Cardboard
  • Plastics and Rubber
  • Textiles and Soft furnishings
  • Wooden Items
  • Waste products
  • Flammables
  • Flammable liquid based products
  • Flammable liquids and solvents
  • Flammable chemicals
  • Flammable gases

Sources of Ignition
  • Cigarettes, Matches and Lighters
  • Naked Flames
  • Faulty or misused electrical equipments
  • Fixed or Portable Heaters (Electric, Gas,
  • Hot Processes
  • Cooking Equipments
  • Lighting Equipments
  • Obstructions of Equipments Ventilation
  • Arson

Sources of Oxygen
  • Main sources is in the air around us
  • In an enclosed building, oxygen is provided by
    natural airflow through doors/windows or
    mechanical air conditioning/ air handling
  • Further additional sources can be found in -
  • Oxidizing Chemicals
  • Oxygen supplies from cylinders storage and piped

Hazards and Risks
  • Hazards Anything that has the potential to
    cause them
  • Risks The chance of that harm occurring and

Hazards Created by Fire
  • Flames and Heat
  • Smoke and other products of combustion
  • Reduced oxygen
  • Structural damage to a building
  • Collapse of a building
  • Exposed Electrical Cables

  • Intense heat can cause serious injuries/death
  • High temperatures can melt clothing into skin,
    causing severe and deep burns
  • Breathing in superheated air causes rapid and
    severe lung damage followed by unconsciousness
  • Exposure to excessive heat can cause
    physiological effects such as heat stress

Smoke and Products of Combustion
  • Incomplete combustion produces a variety of
    by-products, many of which are toxic and/or
  • Smoke is the most cause of death in case of fire
  • Injuries/death due to inhalation
  • Irritation of the eyes can reduce visibility
  • Digestive problems and poisoning if swallowed
  • Respiratory and circulatory systems affected, if
  • Poisoning if absorbed by the skin
  • Many gasses produced by the fire are highly
    toxic, e.g. carbon monoxide

Reduced Oxygen
  • Oxygen deficiency can occur in 2 ways
  • Fires consume large quantities of available
  • Fires produces large quantities of other gasses
    that displaces oxygen
  • Low oxygen levels can result in disorientation
    and irrational thinking, which makes escaping
    more difficult
  • At worse, unconsciousness and death can occur
    when the brain gets starved of oxygen

Structural Damage and Collapse
  • Heat can have a serious impact on the structure
    of the building
  • Burning
  • Spilling
  • Melting
  • Expansion
  • If a building collapses, the people inside may be
    crushed or injured
  • Partial collapse may obstruct escape routes

  • Fire can cause damage to electrical cables,
    leading to short circuits or exposing live
    electrical conductors
  • Exposed wires can cause electrocution through
    direct contact or contact with water

Fire and Smoke Spread
  • Convection
  • Conduction
  • Radiation
  • Direct Flame Contact

  • Main mode of heat transfer in a developing fire
  • Heat transferred by the movement of warmed
    particles in a liquid or a gas
  • As particles are heated, they becomes lighter and
    less dense than air and this rises in atmosphere
  • Heated molecules eventually cools becomes denser
    and sinks
  • Repeated process results in convection currents

  • Heat transferred through matter from particle to
  • Particles in heated substance gain kinetic energy
    and move faster
  • These particles than interacts with others
    particles nearby, transferring heat to them
  • The process continues as thermal energy is
    transferred from hotter parts to cooler parts

  • Uses electromagnetic waves to transfer heat
  • Heat Transfer by radiation can occur over massive
    distances Radiation is how we receive heat from
  • Heat radiation can pass through transparent
    barriers such as glass
  • For significant level of heat to be radiated, the
    temperature of the heat source

Direct Flame Contact
  • Combustible or flammable materials can come into
    direct contact with flames, and the fire may
    travel along, up or through he material

Fire Control Measures
  • Preventative
  • Passive
  • Active
  • Managerial

Preventive Control Measures
  • Should always be considered first
  • Better to reduce the risk of fire starting than
    to deal with the consequences

Preventing Ignition
  • Adopt safe working practices when undertaking hot
  • Provide safe ways of discarding cigarettes
  • Allow smoking only in designated area and
    prohibit it in all areas of fire risk
  • Limit the use of open flames
  • Use suitable electrical equipments and test it
  • Ensure that all electrical equipments are well
  • Control Arson

Reducing Risks from Fuel
  • Reduces the amount of flammable material in the
    workplace to the minimum required for the
    operation of the business
  • Where possible replace flammable material with
    less flammable alternatives
  • Follow safe working practices when working with
    flammable substances
  • Ensure Safe storage, transportation and handling
    of flammable materials
  • Ensures that waste products are stored in an
    appropriate place until cleared
  • Ensure that paint, wall coverings, textiles and
    furnishings are fire resistant.

Reducing Risks from Oxygen
  • Keep windows and doors closed (Balanced against
    employee comfort)
  • Use compartmentation and self-closing fire doors
  • Close off ventilation systems when not in use
  • Prevent or strictly control oxygen rich

Passive Control Measures
  • Building features that prevent the spread of
    smoke and heat, e.g.
  • Permanent escape routes
  • Refuges with communication system
  • Fire resistance features, fittings and dĂ©cor

Active Control Measures
  • Systems/Devices that provide early warning of
    fire, control smoke movement or suppress or
    extinguish a fire in its early stages
  • Require some sort of operational
    (Manual/Automatic, Electrical/Mechanical) to
    perform function. Examples
  • Automatic Fire Detection System
  • Manual Call Points And Alarm System
  • Portable Fire Extinguishers and Fire Blankets
  • Sprinkler Systems

  • Sub-dividing a building into separate fire
    compartments in order to
  • Provide a safe refuge to people within the
    building, where it is not practicable to
    evacuate everyone at once
  • Assist fire- fighting operations
  • Minimize property damage

Managerial Control Measures
  • Support and active and passive measures, e.g.
  • Develop Fire Safety procedure
  • Undertake training and fire drills
  • Develop maintenance systems for safety
  • Undertake regular fire safety inspections
  • Require vigilance by those responsible for fire
  • Use Signage to identify escape routes and high
    risk areas

Means of Escape
  • Building features and Fittings that enables
    people to move from a place of potential damage
    to place of ultimate or relative safety in an
    event of fire.
  • Should take in to consideration
  • Time takes to move people
  • Time it takes for a fire to endanger the escape
  • The distance people have to travel to a place of
  • Features might include
  • Structural protection from a fire spread or
  • Fire Resistant paints and textiles
  • Fire doors and self closing devices
  • Signage and emergency lightings
  • Ventilation Control System

Fire Door Features
  • Self closing device or door release mechanism
    that operates if the fire alarm gets activated
  • Solid rebate or intumescent strips and cold smoke
    seals to prevent flames and smokes passing
    through the gaps
  • Viewing panels should be fire resistant glass
  • Constructed from or coated with fire resistant
  • Clearly identifiable with appropriate safety
  • Easy to open
  • Well lit
  • Properly maintained

Travel/ Distance Capacity
  • Travel Distance How far people have to travel
    to reach an exit, usually measured to a storey
    exit or another fire compartment or protected
  • Exit Capacity How many people can pass through
    the exit in a given time.

Emergency Lighting
  • Used when main power supply is failed
  • Should operate automatically and be sufficiently
    bright to allow people to evacuate the premises
    quickly an safely
  • Degree of illumination depends on nature of
    premises and its occupants
  • Exit Doors and escape routes
  • Intersections of corridors
  • Emergency Exit Signage
  • Stairways
  • Changes in Direction/Floor level
  • Windowless rooms
  • Fire Fighting equipments
  • Fire Alarm Call Points
  • Equipments to be shut down in an emergency
  • Lifts

Protected Escape Routes
  • Separated from the other parts of the building
  • Constructed from the fire resistant material
  • Sterile Places

Fire Safety Signs
  • Safe Condition Signs
  • Green Rectangle with white symbols/text
  • Show Directions to areas of safety and medical
  • E.g. Emergency exit signage
  • Fire Equipments Signs
  • Red Rectangle with white symbols/text
  • E.g. At manual call points or next to fire
  • Mandatory Signs
  • Blue Circle with white symbols/text
  • Action must be taken
  • E.g. Sign instructing that fire door is kept shut

Fire Safety Signs
  • Hazard Signs
  • Yellow Triangle with black outline and
  • Warn of Danger
  • E.g. Flammable Substance sign
  • Prohibit signs
  • Circle with red outline and red line from top
    left to bottom right
  • Behavior likely to result in danger is forbidden
  • E.g. No Smoking Sign

Fire Detection
  • Important to detect the fire as soon as possible
    after it starts and to warn other people in order
    to prompt their evacuation
  • In small premises, fire may be detected by
    building occupants
  • In some premises, fires may be detected
    automatically by devices that reacts to the
    presence of, for example, smoke, heat or carbon
    monoxide gas.

Raising the Alarm
  • Shouting Fire
  • Breaking Glass at Manual Call point
  • PA System
  • Whistles
  • Bells
  • Rotary Gongs
  • Klaxons

Fire Classes
  • Class A Organic Solids, Such As Paper And Wood
  • Class B Flammable Liquids And Liquefied Solids
  • Class C Flammable Gasses
  • Class D Metals
  • Class F Cooking Fat And Oil

Extinguishing Fires
  • Fires are extinguished by reducing one or more of
    the element of the fire triangle below the
    critical point
  • Reducing the heat (Cooling)
  • Reducing the fuel (Starving)
  • Reducing the oxygen (Suffocating)

Fires Extinguishers
  • Red with identifying labels to indicate type
  • Location and number determined by the risk
  • Work by breaking the fire triangle
  • Use a number of different agents
  • Water Cools
  • Foam Cools And Provide Barrier To Oxygen Reacting
    With Fuel
  • Dry Powder And Carbon Dioxide Suffocate

Water Extinguishers
  • Red label
  • For Fires involving carbon based solid material
    (Class A)
  • Remove heat from the fire triangle (Cooling)
  • Water conducts electricity, so should not be used
    where there is a risk of electric shock

Foam Extinguishers
  • Cream label
  • For Fires involving flammable liquid or liquefied
    solids (Class A, B and F)
  • Form a layer over the burning surface, separating
    the fuel from flames (Starving)
  • Nozzle sprays foam evenly, quickly coating fire
  • Can use near but directly on directly on live
    electrical equipments (beware water run-offs)

Co2 Extinguishers
  • Black Label
  • For fires involving electrical equipments (negate
    chances of electric shock)
  • Can be used on fires involving liquids such as
    paints and oils (with caution)
  • Remove Oxygen from the fire (Suffocation)
  • Should not be used in a space restricted enclosed
  • Ice can form on extinguisher nozzle
  • Noisy when discharge

Dry Powder Extinguishers
  • Blue Label
  • For all common types of fires including
    electrical (Class A, B and F)
  • Remove Oxygen from the fire interrupting the
    chain of combustion and preventing reignition
  • Extinguish quickly
  • Not suitable for use in enclosed space
  • Cause excessive damage to electrical equipments
  • Best used for outside fuel fire

Wet Chemical Extinguishers
  • Yellow Label
  • For use on deepfat cooking fire (Class F)
  • Create fine mist that cools flames and prevents
    splashing, then create thick that smothers fat
    and prevent reignition (Starving)
  • Only works with animal fats and vegetable oils

Simple Checks
  • Is the extinguisher ready to be picked up?
  • Is the pressure gauge reading is in green zone?
  • Weight has extinguisher been discharged?
  • Are there signs of corrosion/leak/rust?
  • Test engineers label Has the extinguisher been
    serviced in last 12 months?
  • Are the safety pins in place and tamper seal
  • Are notices of the type/suitability of the
    extinguisher displayed next to it.

Fire Blankets
  • Sheets of Fire retardant material placed over a
    fire to suffocate
  • Extinguish small fires before they spread
  • Light duty Kitchens
  • Heavy Duty industrial settings (Molten
  • Should be in the vicinity of fire hazards but in
    a position where they can be safely and easily
    accessed in an emergency
  • Must be checked regularly

How to use Fire Blankets
  • Pull the blankets out its case
  • Check if the fire is smaller than blanket
  • Hold up blanket in front of you by the top
    corners and keep your hands tucked behind it
  • Place the blanket over the fire and smother it
  • Do not remove the blanket for half an hour (to
    allow the material to cool down)

Fixed Fire Fighting System
  • Hose Reel
  • Dry and wet riser
  • Sprinkler systems
  • Gaseous Systems
  • Foam Systems

Fire Safety Inspections
  • Help to ensure that
  • Owners and occupiers of building are continuing
    to meet their responsibility under the fire
    safety regulations
  • Buildings are fitted with correct fire safety
  • Those installations are maintained in an
    operational conditions

Fire Wardens
  • Competent person who implement the fire safety
    measures and give effect to appropriate
    procedures to be followed in the event of serious
    and imminent danger to relevant persons
  • Can be called fire marshals or fire stewards
  • Need excellent organizational skills, a level of
    confidence and calm head
  • Should have received training

Day To Day Role Of Fire Warden
  • Monitor general fire safety
  • Report unsafe practices/conditions
  • Reports faults, incidents and near misses
  • Discuss evacuations arrangements with staff and
    offer guidance on procedures
  • Remain familiar with escapes routes
  • Take a lead role during fire drills
  • Feedbacks on fire drills

Role of fire wardens when the fire alarm sounds
  • Wear high visibility clothing
  • Instruct people to leave via the nearest route
  • Help and Ensure all people leaves the premises
  • Shut down dangerous equipments
  • Help any person waiting for assistance
  • Report to central assembly point
  • Communicate with other wardens
  • Liaise with fire and rescue services on arrival,
    if required

Role of fire wardens when not in area of
  • If not safe to move in area, evacuate to central
  • Report whether or not they have checked their
    area, so that someone can be allocated to it and
    can be reported to the fire and rescue service
  • Our Top Services And Products
  • Portable Fire Extinguisher
  • Trolley Mounted Fire Extinguishers
  • Fire Alarms
  • Fire Fighting System
  • Water Based Fire Sprinkler System
  • Gas Based Fire Suppression
  • Emergency Evacuation
  • Our Services 
  • Fire Equipments on Lease
  • Fire Safety Audits
  • Fire Safety Management Consultancy
  • Fire Extinguisher Refilling Services
  • Fire Annual Maintenance Contracts
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