The Future of US Fisheries - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

About This Presentation
Title:

The Future of US Fisheries

Description:

The Future of US Fisheries Historical background Joanna Life of a Fisherman Meghan Fisheries Management Steve Specific Species Management Leigh – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:255
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 103
Provided by: Vaughn6
Learn more at: http://people.uncw.edu
Category:

less

Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: The Future of US Fisheries


1
The Future of US Fisheries
  • Historical backgroundJoanna
  • Life of a FishermanMeghan
  • Fisheries ManagementSteve
  • Specific Species ManagementLeigh
  • AquacultureZach
  • Future of NC FisheriesDrew

2
Fisheries
  • GoingGoingGone
  • Joanna Krohn

3
Fish Facts
  • 500 mya
  • Nourishment provides 16 of protein to the
    Worlds populations
  • Provide food, work, culture
  • Uses
  • -Menhaden used to make glue
  • -puffer fish for asthma

4
Fishing Industry
  • Employs millions
  • In North Carolina
  • -reliant on Industry for tourism, commercial or
    recreational fisheries, and military activity
  • -5,500 commercial fisherman
  • -9,000 RCGL
  • -2 million recreational anglers

5
Statistics
  • US Landings
  • Year Pounds
  • 1950 4,978,081,222 336,266,187
  • 1966 4,407,265,300 455,825,239
  • 4,986,043,100 729,491,834
  • 6,438,764,920 2,373,018,412
  • 10,297,683,995 3,806,062,152
  • 2003 9,504,553,331 3,355,545,349

6
A closer look at commercial landings
  • Species 1972 2003
  • Catfish 2,398,012 385,878
  • Menhaden 84,692,020 48,936,502
  • Pigfish 171,785 50,556
  • Seatrout 502,792 181,462
  • Spot 3,902,144 2,043,385
  • Striped Bass 1,261,060 565,919 (prohibited)
  • Sturgeons 154,109 Endangered

7
Recreational LandingsEstimated Harvest
  • Species 1989 2003
  • Bluefish 1,605,431 939,199
  • Cobia 6,269 4,191
  • CroakerAtlantic 2,131,763 480,123
  • SharksDogfish 85,868 1,513
  • Drum,red 62,359 24,943
  • SpanishMackerel 679,360 342,338

8
Northwest Atlantic Catch Compostion
9
Whos the culprit?
  • Pollution (Dioxins-paper mills, Mercury, PCBs)
  • Oceanic temperature rise
  • Overfishing 25-30 fish pop. Overfished
  • -government aid-gtproviding low interest loans
    for boat building, currently yields 3.5-4 million
    commercial fishing boats
  • Trawling 50 of continental shelf
  • -Bycatch-gtkills innocent by-swimmers
  • -long-liners-gtwiping out swordfish others
  • -ghost nets-gtkilling dolphins, birds, turtles,
    sharks
  • also destroys our coral reefs that help protect
    fish populations provide habitat

10
Modern Fishing
  • Spotter planes help boats pursue schools
  • Dynamite and cyanide
  • Aquaculture
  • Restrictions in size, season, quantity etc.
  • -big fish are the sexually mature
  • Advanced technology for temperature and depth
    sensors(Military sonar), as well as sturdier
    winches and cables, more powerful engines
  • 60 tonnes of fish in 20minutes!

11
Jellyfish sandwich anyone?
  • North Atlantic has one-sixth the high quality
    table fish(ie Cod, Tuna) that it posessed in
    1900s
  • In the 1960s 21 lbs per person, now 7 lbs!
  • Price of seafood has risen 20-fold since 1950
  • Sturgeon population decreased 90 in last 20
    years

12
It doesnt take a Dodo bird to figure out
  • That the worlds oceans are headed for
  • complete collapse, quite possibly by the year
  • 2010.

13
(No Transcript)
14
Fishing as a Career
  • Meghan Fuller

15
Pros of a Fishing Lifestyle
  • Seasonal Job
  • Fish migration daily to annual, and distances
    from a few meters to thousands of kilometers
  • Change in water temperature (seasonal migration),
    to mate/spawn, or to for feeding patterns
  • Classifications of migratory marine fish
  • Anadromous ex Salmon
  • Oceanodromous ex Swordfish, Tuna

16
Salmon
  • Salmon are some of thebest known migratory fish
  • Migrate for spawning purposes

17
Migratory Fish Stocks
  • Swordfish
  • Billfish
  • Dauphin
  • Tuna
  • Halibut
  • Lobster

18
Swordfish Distribution
19
Pros of a Fishing Lifestyle
  • 2) Travel Possibilities
  • Potential to see different areas due to migration
  • Occasional free room and board
  • Majority of fishers are self-employed

20
Cons of a Fishing Lifestyle
  • Lack of Job Security
  • Over-fishing results in loss of fish stock
  • Income dependent on fish stock
  • Projected decline through 2012

21
Fish Stocks Declining
22
(No Transcript)
23
Cons of a Fishing Lifestyle
  • Dangerous Job
  • Work is long and difficult
  • Equipment heavy and slippery
  • Weather hazards due to strong winds, heavy rains,
    rough water, fog
  • Help not readily available

24
Hazards on the Water
25
Risk of Dive Fishing
  • Equipment malfunctions
  • Murky waters
  • Sudden changes in current

26
(No Transcript)
27
Fisheries Management
Steve Artabane
  • How are Fisheries Managed?
  • Who is Responsible for Management?

28
History of Fisheries Management
  • Magnuson Fishery Conservation and Management Act
    of 1976
  • Congressionally Mandated
  • Renamed Magnuson-Stevens Fishery Conservation and
    Management Act 1996
  • Sustainable Fisheries Act 1996 amended
  • Establishes 8 Regional Management Councils to
    govern fisheries

29
Regional Fishery Management Councils
Eagle et al. (2003)
30
State Divisionsto Regional Councils
31
Regional Management Councils
  • Establish Fishery Management Plans
  • Determine amount of Fishing Effort
  • Numbers of Participants
  • Amount of Catch
  • Gear Restrictions
  • Assess Maximum Sustainable Yield or Optimal Yield
  • Take account for Communities impacted

32
Individual Fisherman Restrictions
  • Permits
  • Days at Sea
  • VMS System for Scallop Boats
  • Crew Limits
  • Individual Limits
  • Restricted/Closed Areas
  • Gear Restrictions
  • Mesh Sizes

33
South Atlantic Regional Fisheries Management
Council
  • NOAA
  • US State Dept.
  • US FWS
  • NC Div Marine Fish.
  • South Carolina DNR
  • Georgia DNR
  • Florida Fish and Wildlife
  • State Obligatory Seats
  • At Large Seats

16 Total Members
South Atlantic Council Sub-Committees
34
51 of Voting Members Represent Fishing
Eagle et al. (2003)
35
Essential Fish Habitat
  • Fisheries managers are responsible for
    determining if EFH exists
  • Congress defined EFH as "those waters and
    substrate necessary to fish for spawning,
    breeding, feeding, or growth to maturity" (16
    U.S.C. 1802(10)). (from NOAA)
  • This can is difficult to Determine
  • Easy for Salmon, can be hard for Highly Migratory
    Species like Tuna

36
Vessels Required to Report Right Whales
37
Role of National Marine Fisheries Service
  • Scientific Data Collection
  • NEFSC Conducts
  • Fall, Spring, Winter Bottom Trawls
  • Summer Scallop Surveys
  • Ocean Quahog and Surf Clam Surveys
  • Ecosystem Monitoring
  • Whale Surveys
  • Using Same Methods Year After Year

38
Role of US Coast Guard
  • Fisheries Law Enforcement
  • Responsible for Boarding Fishing Vessels and
    Checking for evidence of
  • Safety Infractions
  • Illegal Activities
  • Permit Violations
  • USCG Personnel will check permits, check cargo,
    measure and inspect gear, and measure, ID and
    count fish

39
Role of NOAA
  • NOAA General Counsel prosecutes violators
  • On judgment of USCG, catch can be seized
  • Vessel is escorted to port
  • NOAA attorneys bring Owner, Captain and/or Permit
    Holder to Trial
  • National Observer Program

40
Observers
  • Observers record catch and bycatch and discards
  • Requires cooperation between fisherman and
    program admins.
  • Requires Federal funding
  • Trained Individuals
  • Work is usually contracted out to companies

41
(No Transcript)
42
Management of 3 Fisheries
Leigh Zimmermann
43
Pacific Halibut
  • Hippoglossus stenolepis
  • Flatfish
  • CA to Bering Sea
  • Up to 500-700 lbs.
  • Can reach 9 ft.

44
(No Transcript)
45
IPHC
  • International Pacific Halibut Commission
  • 1924
  • IFQ
  • Derby system
  • User groups

46
American Lobster
  • Homarus americanus
  • Crustacean
  • ME to NY
  • Up to 63 cm (25)
  • gt19 kg (42 lbs)

47
Lobster Fishery
48
Management
  • New England Fishery Management Councils Lobster
    Fishery Management Plan
  • Atlantic States Marine Fisheries Commissions
    Interstate Fishery Management Plan

49
Regulations
  • License
  • Closed periods
  • Methods
  • Gear
  • Size and type of lobster

50
Pacific Salmon
  • Chinook, coho, pink, sockeye, chum, and steelhead
  • Wide range of sizes
  • Pacific Ocean
  • Saltwater fish, spawns in fresh water
  • Coho threatened

51
Fishery
52
Management
  • Pacific Salmon Treaty
  • Alaska EEZ
  • Season length
  • Quotas
  • Bag limits
  • Salmon Technical Team

53
(No Transcript)
54
Aquaculture
  • Reducing Stress On Collapsing Fisheries

Zachary Fink
55
Introduction
  • What is Aquaculture?

56
Aquaculture
  • - Form of agriculture that involves the
    propagation, cultivation, and marketing of
    aquatic animals and plants in a controlled
    environment.
  • In principle, very similar to traditional earthen
    agriculture.
  • Difference is technique and management

57
History
  • Not a new idea!!!
  • Pond Aquaculture started in China about 2000 BC
  • In Europe by middle ages.
  • By 1800s specific culture methods were being
    developed ie. Trout
  • In America around 1850s, trout methods taught to
    settlers

58
History
  • Not too important throughout most of world
    history
  • Many early attempts at fish cultivation
    unsuccessful
  • However, currently growing in importance by leaps
    and bounds

59
Why The Delay?Capture VS Culture
  • Simple economics
  • Technology
  • Result
  • -Cheaper and easier to capture than to grow
  • -Due to sheer abundance
  • -Advancements continually occurred in fishing but
    not so with aquaculture
  • -Over fishing leads to fishery collapse and the
    need for aquaculture advancements

60
Aquaculture Now
  • Fastest growing food production industry.
  • Average growth 10 per year
  • 1/3 of all seafood consumed comes from
    aquaculture
  • Aquaculture growth currently more rapid than
    traditional agriculture and commercial fishing
  • Trend- Aquaculture is beginning to replace
    commercial fishing

61
(No Transcript)
62
(No Transcript)
63
(No Transcript)
64
Global Production
65
US Aquaculture By Species
66
How its Done
67
2 Types of Aquaculture
  • Polyculture-
  • Several different species cultivated
  • Advantages-
  • Relatively environmentally friendly more
    sustainable
  • Disadvantages-
  • Lower production levels
  • Monoculture-
  • Single species cultivation
  • Advantages-
  • More Productive in short term, cheaper to start
    and run
  • Disadvantages-
  • Nutrient loading pollution leading to habitat
    destruction

68
Polyculture Operation
  • Here waste water is cleaned of excess nutrients
    due to fish waste by channeling it through
    aquatic plants

69
Monoculture Operation
  • Crab Pond

70
Components of a Recirculation Aquaculture
Operation
71
Tanks
  • Where the fish are held
  • 4 types
  • Raceway
  • Pond
  • Cage
  • Cylindrical

72
Cylindrical
73
Cylindrical
  • Constructed of any non-corrosive, environmentally
    friendly substance, usually fiberglass, concrete
    or steel.
  • Advantages- Self-cleaning
  • -Water naturally flows about the outside of the
    tank, forcing solids into the center drain
  • -High production
  • Disadvantages-
  • -Filter cleaning and fish extraction both
    cumbersome due to cylindrical shape
  • -Costly to maintain due to necessary filters,
    pumps and aeration devices

74
Cylindrical Tanks-Additional Components
  • Closed system aquaculture, Most advanced
    expensive, productive and environmentally
    friendly
  • Can include gene therapy, breeding faster growing
    fish
  • Pumps- Required for circulation throughout system
    and for aeration to increase dissolved O2
  • Biofilters- needed to remove dissolved waste
    (ammonia and nitrite)
  • Additional holding tanks for H2O as it goes
    through various stages of treatment

75
Raceway
76
Raceway
  • Advantages
  • Made of simple materials, bricks, poured
    concrete, require little specialized labor, easy
    to expand. Built with a slight incline
  • Water transfer highly efficient, water
    continually flows in and out of system
  • Screens can be placed anywhere along raceway,
    dividing a single unit into two or more

77
Raceways Optional Components
  • Curved Bottom- Traps solids for easier extraction
    by vacuum
  • Aeration pumps- Adding O2 increases ability to
    support more fish with less water, also serves to
    concentrate solid waste in specific areas
    (between pump outlets)

78
Ponds
79
Ponds
  • Advantages
  • Easiest to construct and manage
  • Very productive in short term
  • Disadvantages
  • -Poor water quality
  • -Often unsustainable
  • -Environmental degradation during construction,
    continual build up of waste
  • -Requires periodic draining

80
Ponds Optional Components
  • Wastewater pond- Nutrient rich water can be
    pumped/transferred to a holding pond for
    treatment. Typically treatment involves
    polyculture- nutrient rich water used for
    irrigation of crops.

81
Cages
82
Cages /4 Types
  • Fixed- Soft netting attached to posts anchored in
    a lake or river.
  • Cheap and easy, but requires soft bottom and
    shallow water
  • Floating- Buoyant collar supports soft netting
  • -Any size or shape, mobile
  • Submersible- Depth variable due to variable
    buoyancy
  • -Poor weather conditions are overcome by
    lowering to calmer waters
  • Submerged- Anchored in riverbed
  • -Takes advantage of naturally flowing water, but
    costlier and difficult to extract fish at depth

83
Downfalls of Cages
  • Problem- Completely integrated with natural
    environment
  • Main problem of aquaculture, water quality
    degradation spreads into natural environment

84
Aquaculture Overall
  • Pros/Cons/Issues

85
Pros
  • Recent trends in production suggest that
    Aquaculture has a vast potential for alleviating
    over fishing
  • The status of global fisheries dictates that
    commercial fishermen will continue to struggle-
    Aquaculture presents job opportunities.
  • Natural fisheries stock enhancement?!?!?

86
Cons
  • Environmental degradation
  • Effluent stimulates harmful bacteria
  • Construction of ponds often destroys environment
  • State of the art facilities are expensive and
    currently are the only systems with little
    environmental impact
  • Possibility for invasive species escaping to
    natural environment
  • Bioaccumulation
  • Potential transformation of coastal zone

87
Harmful Substances in Aquaculture
88
What is Needed
  • Research and development!!!!
  • Policy
  • No framework exists for utilization of the EEZ
    for aquaculture
  • Designated sites needed
  • Who owns it, who can set up operations,
    government leasing?
  • No framework exists for enforcement of these
    future policies

89
Future Developments
  • Aquaculture / Agriculture Comparison
  • Expect evolution of aquaculture to mimic that of
    traditional agriculture
  • Essentially same process- Create it, Raise it,
    Sell it, Eat it
  • But methods for increasing production differ
    greatly
  • Aquaculture needs its own unique technological
    advancements

90
Final Note
  • Demand is the mother of invention
  • People want to eat fish
  • People will continue to eat fish
  • Environmentally smart applications of new
    technologies will repair the damage we have done
    to the worlds fisheries

91
(No Transcript)
92
The Future of NC Fisheries Management
  • By Drew Thorndyke

93
Fish and Shellfish Resources Are Not
Inexhaustible.
  • Coastal Habitat Protection Plan (CHPP)
  • NC General Assembly passed the Fisheries Reform
    act in 1997
  • To protect and enhance habitats supporting
    coastal fisheries
  • CRC, DMF, EMC

94
Habitat defined by DMF
  • a place, or set of places, in which a fish, fish
    population, or fish assemblage finds the
    physical, chemical, and biological features
    needed for life.

95
Six Coastal Fish Habitats(Chapters)
  • Water Column
  • Wetlands
  • Shell bottom
  • Vegetated bottom
  • Hard bottom
  • Soft bottom

96
Threats to Habitat
  • Environmental habitat degradation.
  • Marina docks and piers.
  • Bottom fishing gear.
  • Introduced species.

97
Goals of CHPP
  • Goal 1. To improve effectiveness of existing
    rules
  • Educate public about reasons for management
    measures
  • Increase water quality, physical habitat, and
    resource monitoring
  • .

98
Goal 2. Identify, designate, and protect
strategic habitat areas.
Early in 2005 plans will begin on the devolopment
of these 11 management units. Providing area
specific information and recommendations. 12-18
months to complete plans for each area
99
Goal 3. Enhance and protect fish habitats.
  • - Protect underwater grass beds, shell bottom,
    and ocean hard bottom from fishing gear impacts
  • - Greatly expand habitat restoration

Before trawling
After Trawling
100
Goal 4. Enhance and protect water quality
  • Reduce point source pollution by increasing
    inspections in all aspects of sewage treatment
    plants and provide incentives for upgrading
    methods of treatment.
  • Reduce non-point source pollution from
    concentrated animal farms.

101
To Learn How to become a part of the CHPP process
  • Go to www.ncfisheries.net
  • Send an email to chpps_at_ncmail.net.
  • Call 800-682-2632
  • Attend regional CHPP meeting to express your
    opinions.

102
The Future of NC fisheries will be greatly
affected by the CHPP
  • This is a major step in the right direction.
    Hopefully it will truly support science based
    fishery management so that we can rebuild our
    declining fish and shellfish populations for the
    future.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
About PowerShow.com