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Coastal and inland fisheries: old challenges and new opportunities

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Coastal and inland fisheries: old challenges and new opportunities Sloans Chimatiro Senior Fisheries Advisor, NEPAD Agency, Johannesburg, South Africa – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Coastal and inland fisheries: old challenges and new opportunities


1
Coastal and inland fisheries old challenges and
new opportunities
Sloans Chimatiro Senior Fisheries Advisor, NEPAD
Agency, Johannesburg, South Africa Presented at
the Hotel Victoria, Pointe aux Piments,
Mauritius, 23 April 2012
2
Outline of the presentation
  1. Features of the Small Island States
  2. Vulnerability of Small Island States
  3. Importance of fisheries in SIDS
  4. How can SIDS optimise the wealth-generating
    potential of fisheries?
  5. Lessons from best practices
  6. Conclusion

3
Key Features of Small Island Developing States
  1. The United Nations currently classifies 52
    countries and territories as Small Island
    Developing States (SIDS)
  2. Forty-three of SIDS are found in the Caribbean
    and the Pacific regions.
  3. SIDS are a diverse group of countries with 50
    million inhabitants
  4. The group comprises countries that are relatively
    rich and those that relatively poor
  5. SIDS are extremely dependent on the sea and its
    living marine resources for their existence.

4
Small Island States Vulnerability
  1. small size
  2. remoteness
  3. vulnerability to external (demand and
    supply-side) shocks
  4. narrow resource base and
  5. exposure to global environmental challenges (sea
    level rise, destruction of coral reefs critical
    to food security and tourism)
  6. waste pollution and acidification of the oceans
    and resultant loss of biodiversity

5
Small Island States Vulnerability to climate
change
  1. Many people in SIDS live in the low elevation
    coastal zone (LECZ) (coast area of 10 metres
    above sea level).
  2. LECZ are vulnerable to sea-level rise, storm
    surges, floods and other climate change-induced
    hazards.
  3. Overall impact of climate change is being felt
    via water resources availability, agriculture
    and food security, and the protection of coastal
    zones
  4. Destruction of coral reefs critical to food
    security and tourism)

6
Small Island States Vulnerability to trade
imbalances
  1. SIDS are economically vulnerable due to their
    remoteness and smallness (resulting in logistical
    costs)
  2. Susceptibility to natural disasters, fragile
    ecology,
  3. Limited institutional capacity (in part due to
    limited critical mass),
  4. Limited ability to diversify,
  5. Strong dependence on a narrow range of exports,
    and high import content (especially strategic
    items with volatile prices food and fuel)
  6. Rapid rise in their debt burden (due to the lack
    of economies of scale, high transport costs, low
    trade capacities and increasing trade deficits)
  7. More recently, decreasing workers remittances
    (due to global economic downturn)
  8. SIDS are disadvantaged in the negotiation of
    bilateral agreements because they lacked a
    collective bargaining position as well as
    information on the market value of their (fish)
    resource

7
International Logistics Performance Index (LPI)
Comparison with some of the SIDS
LPI Rank Country LPI
28 South Africa 3.46
58 Senegal 2.86
Sao Tome Principe 2.86 (2007)
66 Uganda 2.82
78 Bahamas 2.75
120 Comoros 2.45
135 Solomon Islands 2.31
144 Fiji 2.24
149 Guinea Bissau 2.10
Source World Bank 2010
LPI compares transport costs, quality of
infrastructure (e.g., roads, ports, etc),
tracking and tracing of consignments, and
timeliness of delivery
8
Importance of fisheries to SIDS
  • According to the UN Department of Economic
    Social Affairs (2010)
  • In some SIDS fisheries account for 50 of
    exports (UN 2010)
  • Subsistence fishing supplies 50-90 of animal
    protein diet of people in rural areas and remote
    islands
  • In Pacific tuna fisheries contributes 10 of GDP

9
SIDS and the Extent of their EEZ
EEZ of African ISDS
EEZ of Caribbean ISDS
10
Country and Size of EEZ
Country Population EEZ (km2)
Cape Verde 240,000 800,561km2
Comoros 794,683 163,752km2
Madagascar 21.9 million 1,198,722km2
Mauritius 1,303,717 1.9million km2
Seychelles 87,463 1,374,000 km²
Sao Tome Principe 200,000 165,364 km2
11
Country and Fish production/Consumption
Country Fish Production (tons) Exports (tons) Per capita supply (kg) Fish/Animal Protein ()
Cape Verde 18,328 14,524 11.6 11.7
Comoros 16,000 0 19.8 56.3
Madagascar 159,035 44,776 7.4 19.6
Mauritius 8,476 132,554 22.8 18.4
Seychelles 66,239 63,471 61.0 40.6
Sao Tome Principe 4,150 6 26.5 49.3
FAO Yearbook (2009)
12
Challenges of fisheries in the SIDS
  1. Fish as an export commodity exerts pressure on
    the resources with potential of overfishing
  2. Knowledge of the level of stocks might be lacking
    resulting in poor management plans
  3. Poor knowledge of economic underpinning of the
    fisheries resources results in rent dissipation
  4. Poor governance mechanism which is manifested in
    Illegal, Unreported and Unregulated (IUU) Fishing
  5. Unfavourable trade mechanisms which leads to loss
    of value and wealth
  6. Wealth loss through Foreign Fishing Agreements
    (FFA), (assess agreements are provided for under
    UNCLOS)

13
Impact of governance structure on IUU Fishing
Country Catch value calculated from FAO statistics (2003) US million Average Governance Score IUU as proportion of estimated total catch IUU value US million
These figures are from country case studies These figures are from country case studies These figures are from country case studies These figures are from country case studies These figures are from country case studies
Namibia 532 0.347 0.0 0
Mozambique 215 -0.393 15.0 38
Kenya 15 -0.735 20.0 4
Seychelles 137 -0.148 5.2 8
These figures are extrapolated using the case studies above (one parameter model) These figures are extrapolated using the case studies above (one parameter model) These figures are extrapolated using the case studies above (one parameter model) These figures are extrapolated using the case studies above (one parameter model) These figures are extrapolated using the case studies above (one parameter model)
Morocco 734 -0.189 7.5 59
Mauritania 193 -0.209 8.1 17
Senegal 423 -0.176 7.1 32
Cape Verde 11 0.353 0.0 0
Guinea-Bissau 13 -0.872 29.1 5
Cameroon 37 -0.868 28.9 15
Equatorial Guinea 2 -1.148 37.8 1
Sao Tome Principe 4 -0.323 11.7 0
South Africa 626 0.431 0.0 0
Madagascar 247 -0.121 5.3 14
Comoros 22 -0.827 27.6 8
Tanzania 91 -0.451 15.7 17
Eritrea 13 -0.977 32.4 6
Mauritius 18 0.659 0.0 0
Source MGRA.2005.
14
Wealth-loss in the value chain
Fig 1. Share of value of Nile Perch from Tanzania
15
Wealth loss in the value chain
Fig 2. Share of value of Moroccan anchovy sold in
Italy
16
How are SIDS losing potential wealth of their
fisheries Resources?
  1. In general, according to an EU study (IFREMER
    1999), Financial payments (compensation) for
    Fisheries Access Agreements to developing
    countries ranges between 2 and 17 (average 2.6)
    of the catch value
  2. MRAG (2012) estimate that the EU is paying
    between 1113 of the market value of tuna.
  3. In comparison, Japan and Korea pay approximately
    6 of the market value of their tuna catch under
    agreements in the Pacific Ocean (MRAG 2012).
  4. The US pays approximately 22 of the catch value
    (Mwikya 2006).
  5. Compared with other natural resources such as
    minerals, forestry and crude oil (usually 30)
    and also bearing in mind that investment in
    fishing is much less compared to mining

17
Figure 3 Comparison of the total community and
ship owner contribution for tuna (/tonne) with
the world market price for whole tuna (skipjack
and yellow fin) (/tonne) (Source (MRAG 2012)
18
Why are Fisheries Resources Wealth?
  • What do we mean by wealth? In economic terms,
    wealth is the value of assets owned by a person
    or community.
  • Africas fish resources represent renewable
    natural capital capable of generating substantial
    amounts of wealth over time and into the future
  • Therefore, well-managed fisheries can produce
    significant economic returns resource rent
    (surplus value or profitability) and be part of
    a portfolio of wealth-producing assets, and
    contribute to economic growth and welfare

19
Wealth Generation Potential of African Fisheries
  • Initial economic valuation undertaken by the
    NEPAD Agency and endorsed by the Conference of
    African Ministers of Fisheries Aquaculture
    (CAMFA) is as follows
  • Africas fisheries as a whole has the first sale
    value of about US 4,861 million per year
  • Well-managed fisheries can produce annual
    resource rents (Profitability) between 30 and
    70 of the first sale value.
  • Our estimate used a conservative rule of thumb of
    40 of turnover, to give potential annual fish
    resource rent generation for Africa is about US
    2 billion.
  • However, capitalising this annual value at a
    discount rate of 9 gives an estimate of the
    wealth value of US22 billion.

20
Fisheries Opportunities for SIDS
  1. Demand for fish is rising globally, including
    Africa (rising middle-class)
  2. The fisheries constraints of SIDS were first
    recognized by the 15th Session of COFI in 1983
    (Special Problems of the SIDS in the Management
    and Development of Fisheries under the New Regime
    of the Oceans)
  3. The special case of SIDS within the context of
    sustainable development was first formally
    recognized by the UN (UNCED) in Rio de Janeiro in
    1992.
  4. More awareness among SIDS (and trading partners)
    of the need for good fisheries governance
  5. International agreements provide for better
    management of fisheries resources (UNCLOS 1982
    including the right to exploit EEZs FAO Code of
    Conduct for Responsible Fisheries (1995) and the
    UN Agreement on Straddling and Highly Migratory
    Stocks (1995)

21
Fisheries Opportunities for SIDS
  1. Collaborative regional management of fisheries
    (e.g. Tuna RMFOs, ICCAT in the Atlantic, IOTC in
    the Indian Ocean and WCPTC and IATTC in
    combination with the Forum Fisheries Association
    in the Pacific
  2. The Global Island Partnership (GLISPA) (launched
    in 2006) is a global entity working to help
    islands around the world conserve and sustainably
    utilize their invaluable natural resources

22
Options for better returns
  1. Fishing should contribution toward Sustainable
    Exploitation (MEY vs. MSY)
  2. The need to improve knowledge of the fishery
    (better data collection and analysis)
  3. Good governance aimed at elimination of IUU
    Fishing
  4. Support integration of the national fisheries
    sector into the global economy (e.g. Via Joint
    Ventures rather than FFA). Good examples are
    Namibia
  5. To realize the massive wealth-generating
    potential, it is important to create an enabling
    environment that provides fishers with incentives
    and confidence to invest in the fish resource
    itself

23
Estimation of rent using octopus Mauritania
fisheries
OPTION 1 keep 10 boats and reduce f à fMSY
CA119m
34.000t
Rent 26m
Price 3.500/t
26.600t
93m
Cost 93m
100
24
Estimation of rent using octopus Mauritania
fisheries
OPTION 2 Reducing f by reducing the number of
boats
Price 3.500/t Cost/ boat 0,93m
CA119m
34.000t
Rent54m
Cost65m
70
100
25
Best Practices among SIDS
  1. Western and Central Pacific Ocean (WCPO) tuna
    fisheries capture 2.4 million tons annually
  2. The fishery is managed by the Western and Central
    Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC)
  3. Pacific Island Countries (PICs) maintain the
    sovereign right of coastal States to determine
    catches within their EEZs
  4. WCPFC develops measures for the high seas
  5. Eight PICs have organized as the Parties to the
    Nauru Agreement (PNA Federated States of
    Micronesia, Kiribati, Marshall Islands, Nauru,
    Palau, Papua New Guinea, Solomon Islands and
    Tuvalu).
  6. The PNA are managing the WCPO purse seine
    fishery, maximizing economic returns from their
    members coastal resources and developing their
    domestic industries and economies.
  7. Vessel Day Schemes (VDS) are used, resulting in
    revenues from fishing access fees to comprise
    over 40 of some of the PNA members GDP.

26
Where are Best Practices?
  1. A Vessel Day Scheme (VDS) for controlling purse
    seine tuna fishing effort within the national
    waters of eight members of the Parties to the
    Nauru Agreement was implemented in December 2007.
  2. While originally conceived as a mechanism to
    control fishing effort, the VDS has the capacity
    to complement and possibly replace historical
    bilateral access agreements through creation of
    an economic instrument capable of optimising
    rents from foreign fishing by defining, selling
    and trading a limited supply of harvesting rights
    owned by coastal States (MRAG 2012).
  3. To supplement the VDS, the PNA adopted further
    conservation and management measures for foreign
    fishing vessels in 2008 which included 100 purse
    seine observer coverage, a three-month closure of
    FAD fishing, and prohibition of fishing by
    PNA-licensed vessels in high seas pockets.

27
Conclusion and way forward
  1. Increases awareness amongst key policy makers of
    the true value of the fish resources
  2. Can create an enabling environment that provides
    fishers with incentives and confidence to invest
    in and manage the fish resources
  3. Develops practical strategies that can help
    realise wealth generation potential of fish
    resources
  4. Strategies for adaptation to climate change
    (NAPAS) should include fisheries
  5. SIDS should adopt collective bargaining position
    on international negotiations
  6. SIDS should share information on the market value
    of their fish resource
  7. SIDS should be more integrated into the mainland
    economies in order to tap into regional markets
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