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Human Physiology


Unit 6 Human Physiology Systems Review CALIFORNIA CONTENT STANDARDS: Physiology BI9. As a result of the coordinated structures and functions of organ systems, the ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Human Physiology

Unit 6 Human Physiology Systems Review
a result of the coordinated structures and
functions of organ systems, the internal
environment of the human body remains relatively
stable (homeostatic) despite changes in the
outside environment. As a basis for understanding
this concept a. Students know how the
complementary activity of major body systems
provides cells with oxygen and nutrients and
removes toxic waste products such as carbon
dioxide. b. Students know how the nervous system
mediates communication between different parts of
the body and the bodys interactions with the
environment. c. Students know how feedback loops
in the nervous and endocrine systems regulate
conditions in the body. d. Students know the
functions of the nervous system and the role of
neurons in transmitting electrochemical
impulses. e. Students know the roles of sensory
neurons, interneurons, and motor neurons in
sensation, thought, and response.
Organisms have a variety of mechanisms to combat
disease. As a basis for understanding the human
immune response a. Students know the role of
the skin in providing nonspecific defenses
against infection. b. Students know the role of
antibodies in the bodys response to
infection. c. Students know how vaccination
protects an individual from infectious
diseases. d. Students know there are important
differences between bacteria and viruses with
respect to their requirements for growth and
replication, the bodys primary defenses against
bacterial and viral infections, and effective
treatments of these infections. e. Students know
why an individual with a compromised immune
system (for example, a person with AIDS) may be
unable to fight off and survive infections by
microorganisms that are usually benign.
I. Anatomy and Physiology
A. Anatomy- study of the structure and shape of
the body and body parts and their relationship to
each other (from Greek ana-apart and tomy-to cut)
B. Physiology- study of how the body and its
parts work or function (from Greek physio- nature
and ology- the study of)
II. Levels of Structural Organization- biologist
have identified levels of organization that make
it easier to classify and describe the cells
within an organism
Atoms ?cells ? tissues ? organs ?organ systems
III. Organ System Overview- 11 systems in the
human body
A. Integumentary System- external covering of
the body (the skin)
1. Largest organ of the body
2. Waterproofs body and protects deeper tissues
from injury
3. Secretes salts and urea (waste products) in
perspiration (regulates body temperature
4. Sensory receptors in skin (temp, pressure,
pain, etc.)
5. Serves as barrier against infection and
protection from UV rays from sun
B. Skeletal System- consists of bones,
cartilages, ligaments and joints
1. Supports the body
2. Provides framework for skeletal muscles
3. Protection
4. Produces blood in cavities of skeleton
5. Storehouse for minerals
C. Muscular System- to produce movement by
1. Skeletal muscles- allows body to move
2. Heart muscle and of other hollow organs- move
fluids (blood, urine) and other substances (such
as food, wastes, hormones, etc.)
D. Nervous System- brain, spinal cord, nerves,
and sensory receptors
1. Allows body to respond to stimuli (light,
sound, temperature, pressure, etc.)

2. Operates on electrochemical impulses
3. Responds to internal and external changes by
activating appropriate muscles or glands
E. Endocrine System- controls body activities,
but acts more slowly than nervous system
(pituitary, thyroid, adrenals, pancreas, pineal,
ovaries, testes)
1. Endocrine glands produce hormones and release
them into the bloodstream
2. Regulates other structures (growth,
reproduction, food use by cells, etc.)
3. Regulated by feedback controls that function
to maintain homeostasis
Feedback mechanism of endocrine system
F. Circulatory System- composed of the
cardiovascular and lymphatic systems
1. Heart and blood vessels make up
cardiovascular system
2. Blood carries oxygen, nutrients, hormones,
and other substances around the body
3. Lymphatic system picks up fluid (lymph)
leaked from blood, filters it, and returns it to
the blood via network of vessels
G. Respiratory System- nasal passages, pharynx,
larynx, trachea, bronchi, lungs
1. Keeps blood constantly supplied with oxygen
and removes carbon dioxide (waste product).
2. Gas exchange occurs through walls of the air
sacs of the lungs
H. Digestive System- basically a tube running
from mouth to anus (mouth, oral cavity,
esophagus, stomach, small and large intestines,
rectum and anus
1. Breaks down food (with help of digestive
enzymes) and delivers products to the blood
2. Reclaims water
I. Urinary System- rids body of
nitrogen-containing wastes (urea and uric acid)
includes kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra
1. Maintains bodies homeostatic balance of
water, salt, nitrogenous wastes
2. Regulates acid-base balance of the blood
J. Reproductive System- exists primarily to
produce offspring
K. Immune System- your bodies primary defense
against pathogens (disease causing agent)
1. Non-specific defenses
a. First line of defense- your skin, mucus,
sweat, and tears.
b. Second line of defense- inflammatory response
2. Specific defense- called immune response
Homeostasis- as a result of coordinated
structures and functions of organ systems, the
internal environment of the human body remains
relatively stable (homeostatic), despite changes
in the outside environment.
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