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HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (ANATOMI DAN FISIOLOGI MANUSIA) Compiled by Sheikh Kamaruddin Sheikh Ahmad Skeleton System . Muscle System (Back) Circulatory System ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY


1
HUMAN ANATOMY AND PHYSIOLOGY (ANATOMI DAN
FISIOLOGI MANUSIA) Compiled by Sheikh
Kamaruddin Sheikh Ahmad
2
Skeleton System
The human skeleton is a strong, flexible
framework of 206 bones that supports the body and
protects internal organs. In addition, the bones
of the skeleton store calcium, a mineral
essential for the activity of nerve and muscle
cells. The soft core of bone, the bone marrow, is
where red blood cells, certain white blood cells,
and blood platelets form. Bones come in different
shapes and sizes, each adapted to perform
specific functions. The breastbone, for example,
is a flat plate of bone that helps to protect the
heart and lungs in the chest. The fused bones of
the skull safely encase the brain. The short,
delicate bones in the wrist and hand enhance
dexterity, providing flexibility for small,
precise motions. The long, heavy femur bone in
the leg acts as a strong lever for powerful or
speedy movement. Cartilage is flexible connective
tissue that provides support to skeletal bones
and allows joints to move without rubbing against
each other.
3
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Muscle System (Front)
This illustration shows the bodys complex
network of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles
attach to bones of the skeleton and control all
voluntary movements. A skeletal muscle crosses a
joint between two bones and is attached to each
bone either directly or by means of a tendon or a
fibrous sheet or band called a fascia. Bones move
when muscles contract, or shorten, across the
joint.The size of a muscle depends on the
function it performs. Where dexterity is
required, as in the fingers, the muscles are
typically very small. Where strength is needed,
as in the thigh, the muscles are large
4
Muscle System (Back)
This illustration shows the bodys complex
network of skeletal muscles. Skeletal muscles
attach to bones of the skeleton and control all
voluntary movements. A skeletal muscle crosses a
joint between two bones and is attached to each
bone either directly or by means of a tendon or a
fibrous sheet or band called a fascia. Bones move
when muscles contract, or shorten, across the
joint. The size of a muscle depends on the
function it performs. Where dexterity is
required, as in the fingers, the muscles are
typically very small. Where strength is needed,
as in the thigh, the muscles are large.
5
Circulatory System
The circulatory system uses blood to deliver
oxygen and nutrients to body tissues and remove
waste products from tissue cells. This
illustration shows the heart and the different
types of blood vessels in the bodys circulatory
system. Red vessels indicate oxygenated blood,
usually carried by the arteries. Blue vessels
show oxygen- poor blood carried by veins. Tiny
vessels called capillaries connect veins and
arteries and permit the exchange of substances
between the blood and body tissues.
6
Respiratory System
The respiratory system consists of the lungs, a
pair of elastic organs housed in the chest
cavity, and the air passages leading to them. The
air inhaled into the lungs provides oxygen to
cells throughout the body. Air forced out of the
lungs removes carbon dioxide from the body. Air
enters the respiratory system through the nose or
mouth. It then travels through the larynx (voice
box) and into the trachea (windpipe). At about
the middle of the chest, the trachea divides into
two tubes, the right and left bronchi. The right
bronchus carries air to the three lobes of the
right lung. The left bronchus supplies air to the
two lobes of the left lung.
7
Nervous System
  • The human nervous system oversees the activity
    of all other body systems. The central nervous
    system is composed of the brain and spinal cord.
    The peripheral nervous system is made up of a
    network of nerves connecting the brain and spinal
    cord with the rest of the body. Together, the
    central and peripheral nervous systems control
    both voluntary and involuntary functions in the
    body.

8
Endocrine System
The endocrine system is made of many
glandsgroups of cells that release chemical
substances called hormones into the bloodstream.
Hormones influence and regulate diverse
activities such as metabolism, growth, mental
development, and emotional behavior.
9
Urinary System
The urinary system eliminates waste products from
the body and helps regulate the bodys water and
chemical balance. The organs of the urinary
system include two oval-shaped kidneys, each with
a long, slender tube, called the ureter, that
connects to the bladder. Another tubular vessel,
the urethra, extends from the bladder to an
opening out of the body.
10
Digestive System
The organs of the digestive system break down
food into simpler substances for absorption into
the bloodstream. These organs also remove
indigestible matter and waste products from the
body through excretion.
11
Immune System
The immune system defends the body from invading
organisms that may cause disease. One part of the
immune system uses barriers to protect the body
from foreign substances. These barriers include
the skin and the mucous membranes, which line all
body cavities and protective chemicals, such as
enzymes in saliva and tears that destroy
bacteria. Another part of the immune system uses
lymphocytes, specialized white blood cells that
respond to specific types of foreign invaders. B
lymphocytes produce proteins called antibodies,
which circulate in the blood and attack specific
disease-causing organisms. T lymphocytes attack
invading organisms directly.
12
Reproductive System (Male)
The primary function of the male reproductive
system is to form sperm, the male reproductive
cells, and deliver them to the female. Unlike the
reproductive structures of females, the male
reproductive structures are located outside of
the pelvis. This external location keeps the
temperature of sperm slightly below body
temperature, which is necessary for their healthy
development and survival.
13
Reproductive System
(Female)
The female reproductive system is more complex
than that of the male reproductive system. In
addition to producing female sex cells, known as
ova (eggs), the female body also protects and
nurtures a developing baby for about nine months
while it grows within the womans uterus (womb).
A womans breasts can provide nourishment for
newborns.
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