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New Media Research

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New Media Research July 11, 2012 * * According to Kiousis, the concept of interactivity is largely ambiguous; he mentions that past research has emphasized this ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: New Media Research


1
New Media Research
  • July 11, 2012

2
What is Interactivity?
  • What would be your definition?

3
Lets broadly define Interactivity
  • allowing or relating to continuous two-way
    transfer of information between a user and the
    central point of a communication system, such as
    a computer or television
  • (of two or more persons, forces, etc.) acting
    upon or in close relation with each other
    interacting
  • Source
    Dictionary.com

4
Lets break it down
  • inter-
  • a prefix occurring in loanwords from Latin, where
    it meant between, among, in the midst of,
    mutually, reciprocally, together, during
  • active
  • engaged in action characterized by energetic
    work, participation, etc.
  • being in a state of existence, progress, or
    motion
  • characterized by action, motion, volume, use,
    participation, etc.
  • Source
    Dictionary.com

5
Interactivity and New Media
  • But what does it mean in the realm of new media?

6
Spiro Kiousis
  • University of Florida
  • Professor and Chair - Department of Public
    Relations
  • Director of Distance Education - College of
    Journalism and Communications

7
Interactivity a concept explication (Kiousis,
2002)
  • Aim of this study
  • to explicate, in detail, what interactivity is
  • Why?
  • to bring about a consensus of how it should be
    theoretically and operationally defined
  • (p.
    355)

8
Common questions in theoretical discussions
  • Is interactivity a characteristic of the context
    in which messages are exchanged?
  • Is it strictly dependent upon the technology used
    in communication interactions?
  • Is it a perception in users minds?

  • (p. 356)

9
Background of Interactivity
  • Associated with new media technologies (Internet
    WWW)
  • Level of interactivity varies across media
  • Overall lack of theoretical consensus of the
    meaning of interactivity
  • p.
    356-7

10
Question
  • Should interactivity be solely used as a way to
    describe relationships based on new media?

11
General understanding of Interactivity
  • Operational definitions revolve around measuring
    specific dimensions or subconcepts
  • Used as a descriptive characteristic of new media
  • Feedback is key
  • Different communication types exist (two-way,
    one-to-many, many-to-many)

12
Principal domains of Interactivity definitions
  1. Technological properties
  2. Communication context
  3. User perceptions

13
Tentative definition of Interactivity
  • Interactivity can be defined as the degree to
    which a communication technology can create a
    mediated environment in which participants can
    communicate (one-to-one, one-to-many, and
    many-to-many), both synchronously and
    asynchronously, and participate in reciprocal
    message exchanges (third-order dependency).
  • p.
    372

14
Tentative definition (cont.)
  • With regard to human users, it additionally
    refers to their ability to perceive the
    experience as a simulation of interpersonal
    communication and increase their awareness of
    telepresence.
  • p.
    372

15
Operational definition
  • Operationally, interactivity is established by
    three factors technological structure of the
    media used (e.g. speed, range, timing ?exibility,
    and sensory complexity), characteristics of
    communication settings (e.g. third-order
    dependency and social presence), and individuals
    perceptions (e.g. proximity, perceived speed,
    sensory activation, and telepresence).
  • p. 379

16
Operational definition (cont.)
17
Edward J. Downes Sally J. McMillan
Associate Professor, Public Relations at Boston
University
Vice Provost for Academic Affairs at University
of Tennessee - Knoxville
18
Defining Interactivity (Downes McMillan, 2000)
  • Aim of this study
  • To formulate an operationalized concept of
    interactivity in computer-mediated environments
  • Why?
  • To fill the gap that has formed as a result of
    assumptions made about the definition of
    interactivity
  • p. 127

19
Common themes associated with Interactivity
  • User effort
  • Sender and receiver roles
  • Timeliness
  • Characteristics of both the medium and the
    communicator
  • Control
  • Activity tracking
  • Advantages and disadvantages
  • Potential threats

20
Qualitative approach
  • Based on concepts/themes found in the literature,
    10 elite individuals who were involved with
    emerging communication technologies were asked to
    provide their insights about interactivity in
    computer-mediated environments
  • p. 161

21
What did they find?
  • Three major categories of findings
  • Impacts
  • Messages
  • Participants

22
Impacts
  • Revolution
  • No clear consensus about revolutionary nature
    (viewed as something old, something new,
    something borrowed)
  • Consequences
  • General agreement that computer-mediated
    interaction has far-reaching consequences
    potential to change entire industries and forge
    new paradigms
  • Uncertainty
  • Overall unsure of the meaning of interactivity,
    regarding computer-mediated communication
    technologies
  • General agreement that the concept is
    multi-faceted
  • p. 163-5

23
Messages
  • Nature direction
  • Benefits of interactive messages recognized, in
    addition to perceived limitations of
    computer-based interactivity a sense of
    falseness
  • Time
  • Consensus that digital media (e.g. Internet)
    allow interaction to occur at different times no
    clear consensus as to whether real time is
    necessary for interactivity
  • Place
  • Consensus that the more interactive a
    computer-mediated communication environment
    becomes, the more likely the individual will feel
    transported
  • p. 165-9

24
Participants
  • Control
  • Consensus that sender has control over sending
    message, receiver has control over feedback loop
    (similar to mass media)
  • Responsiveness
  • May require more effort and/or activity than
    passive message receptions unanimous consensus
    that responsive communication has many benefits,
    outweighing effort exerted
  • Perceived goals
  • Individual perceptions recognized as an important
    aspect of interactivity response choices seen as
    consistent with perceptions, as opposed to
    content creators goals
  • p. 169-172

25
Question
  • Out of the three major categories of findings
    (impacts, messages, participants), which two do
    you think had the most significant implications?

26
So, what the heck is their definition?
  • Conceptual definition of interactivity based on
    six dimensions (message-based and
    participant-based)
  • Message-based
  • p. 173

27
So, what the heck is their definition? (cont.)
  • Conceptual definition of interactivity based on
    six dimensions (message-based and
    participant-based)
  • Participant-based
  • p. 173

28
The Microscope and the Moving Target (McMillan,
2000)
  • Aim of this study
  • To examine how researchers have begun to apply
    content analysis to the WWW
  • Why?
  • To provide researchers with a potential way/s to
    adapt a stable research technique to a dynamic
    communication environment
  • p. 80

29
Advantages of content analysis
  • Unobtrusive
  • Accepts unstructured material
  • Context sensitive, able to process symbolic forms
  • Can cope with large volumes of data
  • All apply to the web

30
Quantitative approach
  • 19 published and unpublished studies identified
    that applied content analysis techniques to the
    web were analyzed to determine if stable research
    techniques could be applied to a dynamic
    environment

31
Key themes found
  • Diversity found at web sites (in content, funding
    sources, communication models)
  • Commercialization of the web
  • Many developers were not found to be using the
    web to its full potential (as a multimedia
    interactive environment)

32
Question
  • Do you think the key themes found in this 2000
    would still ring true today? Why or why not?

33
New media research publication trends and
outlets in communication, 19902006
  • Tami K.Tomasello, Youngwon Lee, April P. Baer

34
Research Trends
  • Researching research
  • Our study assesses publication patterns and
    outlets for new media research articles focusing
    on the Internet and related contemporary digital
    technologies.

35
Theoretical Framework
  • Mediamorphosis (Fidler, 1997)
  • Diffusion of Innovations (Rogers, 2003)

36
Mediamorphosis
  • Widespread adoption takes 1 human generation
    (20-30 years)
  • Takes 30 years to go from

You dont have that!?
What is that?
to
Examples???
37
Mediamorphosis
  • Delayed adoption
  • Coevolution and Coexistence
  • Metamorphosis
  • Propagation
  • Survival
  • Opportunity and Need

38
Literature Review
  • Increase in
  • Internet related articles published
  • Articles about applying theory to new media
  • Research topic shift
  • Media effects studying how people
    adapt to new media

39
Results
Phasing out?
40
Discussion
  • Top keywords used
  • Computer
  • Digital
  • Internet
  • Online
  • Web

41
Discussion
  • Journals shift focus from
  • mass media all media
  • Why do you think this is so?

42
Theoretical Explanation
  • New media research mimics Rogers S curve

Rogers
Research
43
Theoretical Explanation
  • Coevolution and Coexistence
  • Metamorphosis
  • Propagation
  • Survival
  • Opportunity and Need
  • Delayed adoption

44
Methodological challenges in measuring online
news content
  • Helle Sjøvaag and Eirik Stavelin
  • The University of Bergen, Norway

45
Introduction
  • Content Analysis of Norwegian Broadcasting
    Corporation (NRK)
  • Mixture of qualitative andquantitative

nrk.no
46
Goals
  • Continuous and updated online news agenda?
  • Patterns in the geographical and thematic
    distribution of its news content
  • What the focus of the front page?
  • The depth and perspective of the news content
  • Interactive tools used?

47
Content Analysis
Then Now
Newspapers Hand-coded Online News Sites Automated through text filters.
Bonus of this study does not try to categorize
content through the words of the stories, but
through the structured markup and URL structure
of the website.
48
Separating content
Actual News Content Dynamic Elements
49
Filtering the Content
  • Date stamp
  • Misleading because of updating
  • Selectors
  • Specify certain elements of the page to extract

50
Categorization
  • This difference between the GUI categories and
    the URL structure indicates the front page of a
    website does not necessarily reflect what is
    published inside.
  • 71 Local News
  • Latent content variables contained up to eight
    sub-variables

51
Quantitative Content Analysis of Online News
  1. Operationalize research questions or hypotheses
  2. Design the coding scheme
  3. Define the sample
  4. Write the selectors
  5. Run a pilot study
  6. Start the coding process
  7. Review the codebook continuously
  8. Perform coding spell-check
  9. Establish inter-coder agreement

52
Results for nrk.no
  • Online news tends to be more varied thematically
    than traditional news
  • More local news online than printwhy?

53
Social Science Research in the Time of the
Internet
  • David Karpf

54
Introduction
  • The Internet is unique among Information and
    Communications Technologies (ICTs) specifically
    because the Internet of 2002 has important
    differences from the Internet of 2005, or 2009,
    or 2012.

2012
2002
55
Introduction
  • Social science research has lagged behind
  • New media demands new methods
  • Ceteris paribus not so much

56
1. What Blogosphere?
  • 2003 Blogging was for early adopters. They were
    citizen-journalists
  • Innovation of the web created many ways for
    people to contribute content online
  • Karpf-No longer a categorical distinction to be
    drawn between bloggers and other web readers.

57
2. Year for the Internet
  • Every election year is the year for the
    Internet
  • 2000 Bimber and Davis The Internet would have
    minimal effect on politics
  • Political science research on the Internet has a
    shelf life

really?
58
3.TMI
  • Over abundance of data
  • Historical data harder to come by
  • We have to consciously save the data that is good
    for research

59
4.Spambots
  • 10 20 percent of all blogs are splogs, or
    spam-blogs
  • Newt bought his followers
  • Any metric of digital influence that becomes
    financially valuable, or is used to determine
    newsworthiness, will become increasingly
    unreliable over time.

60
5. Private Data
  • Although data is plentiful, the good data is
    unavailable to researchers.
  • Analytics are kept internal

61
Possible Solution
  • Transparency Researchers should admit to
    limitations in data
  • Dont bury in the footnotes
  • Use peer reviews
  • Kludginess A workaround
  • Doesnt have to be pretty, it just has to work
  • Use a convenience sample
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