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Introduction to New Media Interaction

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Title: New media paradigm Author: michael harry jowett Last modified by: Comp Created Date: 10/1/2002 12:02:04 PM Document presentation format: On-screen Show – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Introduction to New Media Interaction


1
Introduction to New Media Interaction
2
Spaces of Interaction
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Minority Report
Intelligent billboards
11
Aims of this lecture
  • Consider the implications of a paradigm shift in
    media communications
  • Considers five key elements of this paradigm
  • Historical view of interactivity
  • Modelling interactivity
  • Interactivity from a design perspective
  • User interaction (UCD UXD)
  • Ubiquitous interaction

12
Historical view of interactivity
13
from the old to the new
14
A paradigm shift Thomas Kuhns (1970) Structure
of Science
normal science
crisis
new science
revolution
15
A paradigm shift Structure of Media?
Analogue media
Digital media
  • Crisis
  • Information revolution
  • Digitization of print in 1980s
  • Impact of Internet on ad revenue for newspapers
    and TV in 2008

New media
Digitalization and convergence of media
16
Early computation had little to do with
interaction
17
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Paradigm Shift
  • Douglas Engelbarts 1968 demonstration at
    Augmentation Research Centre in San Francisco
  • Before Engelbart, human interaction with a
    computer was laughable

Link to videos of 1968 demonstration and
interview with Engelbart
19
User tools and collective intelligence
  • Douglas Engelbart 1968 Augmentation Research
  • Computers used to augment collective IQ
  • Demonstrates user tools
  • the mouse
  • keyboard
  • hypertext
  • dynamic file linking
  • hierarchical structuring of text
  • videoconferencing

20
bootstrapping
  • The augmentation of the human intellect via
    interaction understood as a collective
    bootstrapping process

21
1969
  • Engelbart would go on to hook up the second node
    of ARPANet in the following year and, during the
    next decade, would help to build an online
    community on that network, which has now become
    the Internet
  • (See the MIT New Media Reader, 2003).

22
What makes the Global Village is not the content
or the message of the medium, but the medium
itself
  • The medium shapes and controls the scale and
    form of human association and actions
  • (McLuhan 1964 p. 9)

23
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24
Not necessarily about Harmony. Not just about
glorious technological change. Big social and
political changes to the way we live, work and
play
Wapping video
25
Changing Our Relations to the Media and the
Economy
26
Modelling Interactivity
27
What is new about new media?
  • Differences between old media and new are greater
    user choice and control
  • Pavlik, 1998 New Media Technology Cultural and
    Commercial Perspectives

28
Interactivity defined
29
Interactivity
  • 1 mutually or reciprocally active
  • 2 of, relating to, or being a two-way
    electronic communication system (as a telephone,
    cable television, or a computer) that involves a
    user's orders (as for information or merchandise)
    or responses (as to a poll)
  • Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary

30
interactivity
Interactivity is based on changing roles of
sender/receiver
31
simple model of linear communication
message
transmitter
Receiver(s)
32
interactive communication
message
Transmitter Receiver
Receiver(s) Transmitter(s)
33
Interaction defined
message
Communicator A
Communicator B
Response/reaction
response
Communicator A
Bretz (1983) cited in Hanssen, Jankowski and
Etienne 1996 Contours of Multimedia
34
Three levels of interaction Rafaeli (1988)
  • Bidirectionality
  • (navigational, click-thru)
  • Reactiveness
  • (dynamic database)
  • Responsiveness
  • (face-to-face, email, artificial intelligence)

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Responsiveness
  • ELIZA was written at MIT by Joseph Weizenbaum
    between 1964 to 1966.
  • http//www-ai.ijs.si/eliza-cgi-bin/eliza_script
  • Richard Wallace began development of Alice in
    1995, while at Lehigh University
  • http//www.pandorabots.com/pandora/talk?botidf5d9
    22d97e345aa1

37
Meet Jen
38
Clever(er) Bots
  • See http//www.cleverbot.com/

39
Interactivity from a design perspective
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What should interaction designers strive for?
  • Tannenbaum argues that a good mix of
  • interactivity
  • social presence
  • Like face-to-face, interpersonal communication

42
Should interaction design strive to be
interpersonal?
  • How can designers make new media interpersonal?
  • Immediacy of response
  • Non-sequential access to information
  • Adaptability
  • High levels of feedback

43
Assumptions about face-to-face communication
44
Assumptions about face-to-face communication
  • Steve Jones (1999)
  • CMC has become a race to provide the most
    lifelike interaction possible
  • problems with face-to-face interaction
  • It does not necessarily break down barriers of
    communication.

45
Should all new media be interactive?
  • from the perspective of functionality, it is
    not necessary to always strive for a high degree
    of interactivity
  • Hanssen, Jankowski and Etienne, Contours of
    Multimedia 1996

46
User Research
  • What do users consider interactivity to be?
  • Control over sequence
  • Greater number of choices
  • However,
  • Too much control experienced negatively
  • Decision-making obstacle to use
  • A degree of linearity aided user orientation

47
User Interaction
48
Human Computer Interaction (HCI)
  • HCI uses cognitive psychology frameworks
  • HCI is about the design of computers, but from
    the user's point of view
  • In Draper and Norman (eds) "User-Centered System
    Design" 1986 p. 2

Donald Norman
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Three Paradigms Within HCI
  • 1. Ergonomic
  • 2. Cognitive

51
2nd paradigm HCI
52
2nd paradigm HCI and Mental Models
53
Cognitive Walkthrough
  • Making a Fried Breakfast
  • Write down a step-by-step (walk-through) of what
    you do to make breakfast

54
Making Breakfast
55
Get frying pan ready
56
Heat fat in pan
57
Break egg(s)
58
Fry eggs in pan
59
Make toast and butter
60
Put on a plate and eat
61
BreakfastMaker. version 3.5
62
User Centred Design
63
User Testing
64
User Centred Design
65
Paper Prototypes
http//www.youtube.com/watch?vykJ60H4Qkvgfeature
related http//www.youtube.com/watch?v4WbxisFDYk
4featurerelated
Videos on paper prototypes Paper Prototype
Paper Prototype IMP06 HR
66
See Bill Verplank on YouTube http//www.youtube.co
m/watch?vC3rxCLhzmXY
67
3rd Paradigm HCI
  • From Usability to User Experience (UXD)
  • Use and Social Context
  • Ethnography as design method
  • Emotions, Feelings and Affect
  • Task versus Non-Task
  • Ubicomp/Pervasive Computing

68
Ubiquitous Interaction
69
  • See Greenfield
  • Lectures
  • On Everyware

See Adam Greenfield on Youtube http//www.youtube.
com/watch?vGrbGBhzZPic
70
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71
Challenges for Interaction Design See Dan Saffer,
Designing for Interaction (2010) Berkeley New
Riders (Greenfield interviewed in chapter nine)
  • When a room, or a lamppost, or a running shoe
    is, in and of itself, an information gathering,
    processing, storage, and transmission device,
    it's crazy to assume that the keyboard or the
    traditional GUI makes sense as a channel for
    interaction

72
A Multiplicity of Interactions
  • The Space of Interaction
  • Interaction design will need to consider
    multiplicity.
  • Instead of the neatly circumscribed space of
    interaction between a single user and his or her
    PC, his or her mobile, we're going to have to
    contend with a situation in which multiple users
    are potentially interacting with multiple
    technical systems in a given space at a given
    moment.

73
Quality of User Experience
  • Networked information-processing devices are
    going to be deployed everywhere in the built
    environment rather strongly implies the
    inadequacy of the traditional user interface
    modalities most particularly keyboards and
    keypads.
  • The future is interaction based on voice,
    gestural and pervasive interfaces
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