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Research Career Development- Intro to Careers and the Doctorate

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Title: Research Career Development- Intro to Careers and the Doctorate


1
Research Career Development- Intro to Careers and
the Doctorate
  • Gail P. Taylor
  • Fall 2010

09/19/2013
2
Dr. Gail P. Taylor
  • Asst. Program Director MBRS-RISE
  • Research Training Program Specialist
  • Professional Development Coordinator

3
  • Acknowledgements
  • Beyond the Beakers SMART Advice for Entering
    Graduate Programs in the Sciences and
    Engineering. Gayle R. Slaughter, Ph.D. Baylor
    College of Medicine/National Science Foundation.
    2005
  • Survival Skills and Ethics Program
  • Beth Fischer
  • Michael Zigmond
  • www.pitt.edu/survival
  • The Leadership Alliance
  • Graduate School Guide http//www.theleadershipall
    iance.org/pdf/grad_guide.pdf
  • Tips on Preparing for and Applying to Graduate
    School
  • http//www.theleadershipalliance.org/pdf/tips.pdf
  • Careers in Science and Engineering A Student
    Planning Guide to Grad School and Beyond (1996).
    Committee on Science, Engineering, and Public
    Policy (COSEPUP) http//books.nap.edu/books/03090
    53935/html/11.html

4
What do I want to do to earn a living???
5
Assumption of this Course You are all interested
in going all the way to a Doctorate! What is
it? How do I get there? Then What?
6
Focus of This Lecture
  • What is a career?
  • Focusing on the Ph.D.
  • Highest Degree that can be earned
  • Examines match between careers and
    personality/values
  • Introduction to Biology/Chem/Engineering options
  • Personality type can select path within a
    particular field
  • Examines match between career direction and
    personality/values
  • Examines Scientist Attributes

7
What is the Difference between a Career and a Job?
8
What is a Job?
  • A set of tasks or performances to earn the money
    necessary to survive.
  • The individuality of the person in the Job is
    often irrelevant.
  • Emotional buy-in is not necessary

9
What is a Career?
  • Your lifework or walk of life
  • A chosen pursuit a profession or occupation.
  • A calling/vocation, that is tailored to, and
    requires, an individuals talents and strengths
  • Often requires additional schooling

10
Many Questions will Influence Career
11
Getting Good Answers
  • Arise from Good Questions you ask
  • Must be based on CORRECT information
  • Must arise from adequate self-knowledge
  • Time should be loosely considered, compared to
    dreams
  • Should NOT be based on fear

12
How to Find out about a Career
  • Family history
  • Personal History
  • Teacher impacted you
  • Doctor helped you
  • Mentor, friends acquaintances
  • Television
  • Internet
  • Counselors/Career Center
  • Take courses/classes
  • Summer programs internships
  • Shadowing someone
  • Advertisements
  • Or

13
Training Programs, Like RISE and MARC
14
Which do You Want?
  • Job or Career?
  • You have decided Career.

15
Attributes of a Successful Scientist
  • Depends on whom you ask.

http//www.nap.edu/readingroom/books/careers/appb.
html
16
What do you think are the primary attributes of
successful scientists?
  • Get together into groups and discuss for 5
    minutes

17
How does the Media Portray Scientists?
18
Characteristics of Scientists
  • Scientists are people of very dissimilar
    temperaments doing different things in very
    different ways. Among scientists are collectors,
    classifiers and compulsive tidiers-up many are
    detectives by temperament and many are explorers
    some are artists and others artisans. There are
    poet-scientists and philosopher-scientists and
    even a few mystics. PETER MEDAWAR, Pluto's
    Republic, Oxford University Press, New York,
    1982, p. 116.

19
Characteristics of Scientists
  • "When most people think of science, they think of
    white coats, laboratories, and high-powered
    computers. But science is science even without
    such superficial trimmings. At its heart is a
    very simple idea "check it out." People who
    approach the world as scientists do are
    skeptical. They are not content to take someone
    else's word that anything is so, no matter how
    eminent an authority that someone may be.
    Scientific knowledge is based not on hearsay, but
    on reality. Scientists take nothing on faith."
  • Thomas Easton, Careers in Science, 2004

20
Attributes of a Scientist I
  • One does not have to be terrifically brainy to
    be a good scientist
  • Yes, if hooked
  • Exhilaration of discovery
  • Satisfaction of solved problems
  • Virtues
  • Common sense
  • Application
  • Diligence
  • Sense of purpose
  • Concentration
  • Perseverance in adversity

Peter Medawar, Advice to a Young Scientist
21
Scientist Characteristics II
  • 1. imagination
  • 2. concentration
  • 3. integrity
  • Peter Faletra Ph.D. Office of Science Department
    of Energy

Newton Website, DOE http//www.newton.dep.anl.gov/
askasci/gen99/gen99983.htm
22
Scientist Characteristics IV
  • 1. A keen sense of curiosity
  • 2. Natural skeptic-
  • strong reliance on "the data
  • show me your numbers".
  • 3. Tenacity
  • 4. Analytical skills
  • 5. Critical thinking

23
Training for a Doctoral Degree
24
What is Graduate School?
  • Additional education beyond undergraduate years
  • To obtain a degree higher than a bachelor's
    degree.
  • Degrees range from
  • Master's degrees (M.A., M.S./M.Sc., M.Ed., etc.),
  • Doctorate (Ph.D., Ed.D., D.A., D.Sc., D.M.A.,
    Th.D., etc.)
  • Other postgraduate qualification (MBA), such as a
    graduate certificate, as well as some
    professional degrees.
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graduate_school

25
Training
  • All of the careers requiring a Doctorate come out
    of basic training as a research scientist,
    chemist or engineer, in an academic institution

26
Standard Ph.D. Training Path
1-2 Yrs
Post Bacc Research
3 - 6 Yrs
Academics
Academic Postdoc
4 - 7 Yrs
Government Postdoc
UG Biological Chemistry
Government
Doctoral Studies
Industry Postdoc
UG Engineering
Industry
Continue Education
M.S. Degree
Other Career
Other
Engineering
Work
27
Training
  • Undergraduate
  • Postbacc/MS/Work
  • Interim-
  • Greater training
  • Maturity/confidence
  • Experience needed
  • Doctorate or Combined Degree
  • Initial training- research and otherwise
  • Postdoctoral Work
  • advanced apprenticeship/training
  • Greater independence
  • Can Change Fields

28
What is a Doctoral Degree and Why Would you want
to Earn One?
29
What is a Doctorate (Ph.D.)?
  • Latin Philosophiae Doctor
  • A doctorate or doctoral degree is
  • An academic degree of the highest level.
  • Recognition of the candidate as an equal by the
    university faculty under which he studied.
  • Usually research doctorates are awarded in
    recognition of academic research
  • Is of a publishable standard (even if not
    actually published)
  • Represents at least a modest contribution to
    human knowledge
  • Is usually assessed by submission and defense of
    a doctoral thesis or dissertation, though in some
    cases a coherent body of published literature can
    be accepted instead.
  • en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Graduate_school

30
History of the Doctoral Degree
  • Originally from the Greek ??d??t?? F???s?f?a?,
    meaning "Teacher of Philosophy"
  • Latin Doctor philosophiæ
  • Definition Philosophy
  • "love of wisdom" or "friend of wisdom".

31
History of Ph.D.
  • Originally
  • a degree granted by a university
  • For learned individuals
  • Had achieved the approval of their peers
  • had demonstrated a long and productive career
  • It indicated a life dedicated to learning, to
    knowledge, and to the spread of knowledge

32
Ph.D. History II
  • Popularized in the 19th century
  • Friedrich Wilhelm University in Berlin
  • Granted to someone who had undertaken original
    research in the sciences or humanities.
  • Spread to the United States, arriving at Yale
    University in 1861.

33
Nomenclature Getting a Doctorate
  • Doctoral training
  • Training towards doctorate
  • Pre-doctoral training / Predoctoral training
  • Graduate Training
  • Combined Degrees
  • MD/Ph.D.
  • MSTP (Medical Scientist Training Program)
  • DDS/Ph.D.
  • DVM/Ph.D., etc

34
Why Earn a Doctorate
  • Career fits your values/strengths/priorities
  • Kids who ask why - Thrive on intellectual
    stimulation
  • Explorers, Inventors, Builders
  • Benefit world/humanity Disease, Hunger,
    Pollution, Green Chemistry
  • Prestige/authority
  • Highest degree, allows you to be in charge
  • Learn to perform research
  • Further field
  • Love doing it
  • Skills sets
  • Specific
  • Laboratory techniques
  • Non-specific
  • Critical thinking
  • Administration
  • Planning, etc.

35
Why Earn a Doctorate II
  • Financial
  • Companies
  • Not hugely rich, but comfortable
  • Educators
  • Only way to be 4 yr college fac.
  • Want to educate others
  • Want to mentor others
  • Want to have influence
  • Public Policy
  • Want to impact nation
  • Long Term Opportunities
  • Autonomy
  • You carry your career
  • Develop own ideas
  • As Ph.D., can possibly
  • Set your own hours
  • Choose your own topic
  • Opportunity
  • Can be in charge
  • Teach at College/Univ.
  • Required for running research programs
  • Required for advancement

36
Personal and Financial Costs of Doctoral Education
  • Delay Career entry
  • Standard of Living
  • Live on 21 27K salary
  • Some add in loans
  • Health Insurance?
  • Family hardship
  • Location issues
  • Financial Losses
  • Engineering likely not make up missed income
  • Biology Likely will make up missed income
  • Relationships
  • Can be hard- long hours
  • Can delay childbearing
  • Location
  • During training
  • After training
  • Stress
  • Are several difficult times
  • Qualifying exams (2nd year)
  • Experiments not working
  • Midway- Did I make a mistake?

37
Why NOT to enter Doctoral Program
  • Boost weak ego
  • Impress others
  • Job guarantee (not)
  • For your parents
  • Personal intelligence test
  • Delay entry to work force
  • Wealth

38
Time to Degree
  • All 2003 doctorates in Science
  • With MS data included
  • 8.3 yrs since BS
  • 6.9 yrs enrolled to degree
  • 31.2 Years old for Life Sciences
  • People who did not earn MS
  • 7.1 yrs since BS
  • 6.1 in degree
  • 29.9 Years old

http//www.nsf.gov/statistics/infbrief/nsf06312/
39
Age of Those Getting Doctorates
  • Average age of Science and Engineering Doctorates
    (1995 1999) 31.8 years.
  • My duration 5 years 9 months
  • 837,000 Ph.D.s in SE
  • (1995 1999) U.S. Minorities 14

http//www.nsf.gov/statistics/nsf06319/chap3.cfm
40
Which Direction Should I Go WITH a Doctorate?
41
General Directions in the Sciences and
Engineering
  • Proportions vary by Field
  • Academia
  • Colleges, Universities, Med Schools Education
    taking place
  • Industry
  • Private Corporations
  • Government
  • Federal NIH, National Laboratories, Army Corp of
    Engineers
  • State Texas Parks and Wildlife, TxDOT
  • Local Paid by city
  • Non-Traditional
  • Self-employed/Contractor
  • HS Teacher, etc.

42
Careers in Biology
  • Research
  • All levels
  • Healthcare
  • Big Pre-health degree
  • Education
  • Secondary
  • College Lecturer
  • Professor
  • Environmental Work
  • Sales
  • Biotechnology
  • Forensic science
  • Politics and policy
  • Business and industry
  • Economics
  • Insurance
  • Patent Work/Law
  • Mathematics/Comp. Sci
  • Bioinformatics, etc
  • Science writing and communication
  • Art/Museums
  • Etc

http//www.aibs.org/careers/index.html
43
Careers in Chemistry
  • Basic and Applied Research
  • Analytical Chemistry
  • Environmental Chemistry
  • Organic
  • Polymer
  • Medicinal/Pharmaceutical
  • NMR
  • Education
  • HS
  • College Lecturer
  • Professor
  • Marketing
  • Product Development
  • Government Projects
  • Management
  • Forensics
  • Insurance
  • Chemical Information Services
  • Patent/Law School
  • Health and Safety
  • Teaching
  • Consulting
  • Museum
  • Archaeology
  • Art history
  • Business

http//www.chem.duke.edu/bonk/Careers/ChemCareers
.html
http//www.chem.duke.edu/bonk/Careers/ACSartcl.ht
ml
44
Careers in Engineering
  • Great diversity- Depends on Field
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Chemical Engineering
  • Mechanical Engineering
  • Civil Engineering
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Structural Engineering
  • Production Engineering
  • Aviation Engineering
  • Plastics Engineering
  • To advance, usually get an M.S.
  • Ph.D. for universities

http//www.answers.com/topic/fields-of-engineering

45
Selecting a Career - Caveats
  • May be like entering the unknown
  • Must take some risk
  • Dont freak out!
  • May be accidental or intentional
  • Path often not straight or predictable
  • My have serial careers
  • May be intentional or accidental
  • Planning helps!
  • L. Pasteur Chance favors the prepared mind
  • May learn more about self and values over time

46
Personal Attributes and Career Path Personal
Attributes and Direction
47
Careers within a Career
  • All Ph.D.s trained as researchers
  • Multiple Fields to Focus on in Graduate School
  • What will you do with your degree?
  • Science paths have different characteristics
  • Must consider of Strengths, Passions, Motivators,
    Values
  • Field
  • Basic vs applied Translational Human Impact
  • Activities
  • Autonomy
  • Hours
  • Responsibility
  • Pay
  • Location
  • Etc

48
Career Selection and Satisfaction Influenced by
two aspects YOU and the Career!
  • Personal Attributes
  • Inborn characteristics
  • Innate Passions
  • Strengths
  • Temperament
  • Experience
  • Background
  • Education
  • Mentoring
  • Opportunities
  • Values/Priorities
  • Life responsibilities
  • Work Environment
  • Job Impact
  • Challenge/growth
  • Recognition
  • Hours/stress
  • Human interaction
  • Buy-in on direction
  • Overall job stability
  • Annual income
  • Percent growth/job availability

49
Graduate School Fields/Programs
  • Neurobiology/Neuroscience
  • Physiology
  • Microbiology/Immunology/Endocrinology
  • Cell/Molec./Dev. Biology
  • Biochemistry/Biological chemistry
  • Biomedical Engineering
  • Chemistry
  • Green
  • Organic
  • Manufacturing
  • Pathology/Molecular Toxicology
  • Pharmacology
  • Radiological Sciences
  • Biostatistics
  • Electrical Engineering
  • Ecology and Evolutionary Biology
  • Environmental Health Sciences
  • Epidemiology
  • Oral Biology
  • Biological and Medical Informatics
  • Biophysics
  • Civil Engineering
  • Genetics
  • Computational Biology/Bioinformatics
  • Pharmacogenomics
  • Forestry
  • Integrative Biology
  • Molecular and Biochemical Nutrition
  • Plant Biology
  • Vision Science
  • And Many MORE!!

50
What is a Good Field?
  • What inspires you?
  • Matches your passion?
  • Matches your skills?
  • Matches your values?
  • Matches your favored place to work?

51
Current Hot Fields
  • Biodefense?
  • Microbiology
  • Cell Biology
  • Health?
  • Age-related illnesses (in neuro, diabetes,
    cancer, etc)
  • Obesity
  • Memory
  • Cardiovascular disease
  • Pharmacology/toxicology
  • Cancer
  • Biomedical applications of Genetics
  • Pharmacogenomics and pharmacogenetics
  • Proteomics kinase activities, etc
  • Theranostic drugs remedies targeted at
    specific populations of patients
  • Immunology good for future biotech industry
  • Computational Biology Any biology w physical
    sciences/mathematics
  • Translational Medicine Basic research into
    medical problems
  • Signal pathways and chemistry are important

http//sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_develo
pment/previous_issues/articles/ 2005_11_11/job_mar
ket_outlook_hot_careers_for_2006/
52
Basic vs Applied Research
  • Basic ? Applied ? Industry - Some believed
    but see people doing all now.
  • Basic Curiosity driven. No known application
  • Applied Designed to solve practical problems of
    world. Improve world
  • The distinction between basic and applied
    research isn't always clear.
  • "How long will it be before some practical
    application results from the research ?"
  • Applied - If a practical use is only a few years
    away
  • Basic - Practical use cannot be envisioned in the
    foreseeable future, then the work can be
    described as purely basic research.
  • NOW Translational Research- Translational
    research transforms scientific discoveries
    arising from laboratory, clinical, or population
    studies into clinical applications.
  • Nowthese definitions are less clearand have
    translational research

http//www.lbl.gov/Education/ELSI/research-main.ht
ml
53
Good Directions for Training
  • Need more interdisciplinary training (often at
    Postdoc Level)
  • Between fields
  • Computational abilities
  • Biology with..
  • Physics
  • engineering, computer science, math
  • For business
  • understanding of the product development cycle
  • the ability to work in a multifunctional arena
  • Knowledge of business language
  • For drug development
  • growth of jobs involved with getting drugs into
    clinical trials
  • drug safety,
  • Qualifications in regulatory affairs, validation,
    and quality control
  • Teamwork will predominate
  • Leadership/team management/motivational skills
  • Negotiation
  • Delegation
  • Hire people

http//sciencecareers.sciencemag.org/career_develo
pment/previous_issues/ articles/2005_11_11/job_mar
ket_outlook_hot_careers_for_2006/
54
Matching Person and Path
  • Love Biology/appreciation for nature
  • Enjoys Politics
  • Hugely social
  • Get Ph.D.
  • Authority, Position
  • Work in Science Policy!

55
Matching Person and Path
  • Love Biology
  • Love computers
  • Dont like bench work terribly much
  • Analytical, Achiever, deliberative
  • Get Ph.D.
  • Authority, Position
  • Work in Computational Biology!

56
We will look at your Values, and Personal
Strengths at the End of the Class!
57
Assessing Personal Values and Strengths
58
Matching Passions, Values and Strengths with a
Career can keep you Motivated, day after day.
59
What is Your Passion?
  • What have you loved since Childhood?
  • What stirs or motivates you?
  • Keep this in mind for Personal Statement, in
    subsequent class
  • May roughly know, but may home in with
    experience

60
Brainstorm Passions
  • In Class Discussions What drives your desire for
    research?
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