Theres nothing so useful as a good theory' Kurt Lewin - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

1 / 34
About This Presentation

Theres nothing so useful as a good theory' Kurt Lewin


In psychology, there is never one agreed-upon theory. ... Cognitive dissonance studies- Safe sexual behaviors of college students. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:444
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 35
Provided by: csha6


Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: Theres nothing so useful as a good theory' Kurt Lewin

Theres nothing so useful as a good
theory.-Kurt Lewin
  • An overview of Psychology, academic
    considerations and practical applications for
  • Ms. Shapiro
  • October 11, 2006
  • Schalmont High School

Basic Overview
  • In psychology, there is never one agreed-upon
  • - Overall, psychology examines the human
    experience as a matter of interaction between the
    world and the self.
  • - The world gives us events we in turn give
    those events meaning by interpreting and acting
    upon them.

My BackgroundAn Overview
  • Undergraduate Psychology major (Plattsburgh
    State), English minor.
  • Started in doctoral program for Industrial
    Organizational Psychology, SUNYA.
  • Masters program, Secondary Education, English
    concentration, Saint Rose
  • Masters program, School Psychology, Saint Rose.
  • 1 year internship, Troy City School District,
    Sept. 2004 - June 2005.
  • Graduated in May 2005

Areas of Psychology(the many different theories)
  • Social Psychology (the power of the situation)
  • The scientific study of the way in which
    peoples thoughts, feelings and behaviors are
    influenced by the real or imagined presence of
    other people.
  • My undergraduate area of research in social
  • Cognitive dissonance studies-
  • Safe sexual behaviors of college students.
  • Smoking cessation in high school students.
  • Masters-level research project
  • - Correlation between attitude toward school and
    academic self-concept, SAS students, Albany High

Personality Psychology
  • The study of consistent behavior patterns and
    intrapersonal processes originating within the
    individual (individual differences).
  • Personality is consistent.
  • Personality Psychology vs. Social Psychology
  • (Nature vs. Nurture)

Developmental Psychology
  • A field of psychology that examines the impact of
    maturational processes and experience on
  • Focus on child development from infancy through
  • Adult development and aging.

Abnormal Psychology(Clinical Psychology)
  • An area of psychology that studies the four
    Ds deviance, distress, dysfunction, and
  • Deviant - different, extreme, unusual, or
  • Distressful unpleasant and upsetting to the
  • Dysfunctional disruptive to the persons
    ability to conduct daily activities in a
    constructive manner.
  • Dangerous potential to inflict harm on
    themselves or others.

  • The field that relates behavior to bodily
    processes, especially the workings of the brain.
  • The main goal of this area of study is to
    understand behavior and experience in terms of
    their biological source.

Cognitive Psychology
  • The study of mental processes such as perceiving,
    remembering, thinking and reasoning.
  • The study of mental processes is important
    because these processes are responsible for much
    of the behavior we find interesting.

Learning and Memory
  • A field that examines learning as a persisting
    change in human performance or performance
  • This means that learners are capable of actions
    they could not perform before learning occurred
    and this is true whether or not they actually
    have an opportunity to exhibit the newly acquired

Industrial Organizational Psychology
  • Social Psychology applied to the workplace
  • Studies individual differences in behavior and
    job performance, and with measuring and
    predicting such differences.
  • Topics include but are not limited to
    Motivation, performance appraisal, employee
    satisfaction, personnel, employee selection,
    work-family conflict.
  • My area of doctoral-level research
  • - Work-family conflict with work stress as a
    mediating factor using employees at The Endocrine
    Group, LLP.

  • An area of psychology that argued for actual
    behavior as the only event worthy of analysis.
  • The behaviorist approach is an orientation in
    psychology that emphasizes the importance of
    environmental determinants on behavior.

Counseling Psychology
  • A field of psychology that provides services to
    moderately disturbed patients.
  • Less clinical.
  • More working with people who just want to talk
    and less clients with psychological diagnoses.

Research DesignandStatistics
  • Various empirically sound designs,
    quasi-experimental research designs, and
    correlational research.
  • Designs get applied to research questions or
  • Descriptive statistics Used to summarize data
    and make understandable, to describe a group of
    numbers from a research study.
  • Inferential statistics Used to draw conclusions
    and inferences, which are based on the numbers
    from a research study (data), but go beyond these

School Psychology
  • A field of psychology involving psychoeduational
    testing and evaluating, and other related
    services in a school setting.

Job responsibilities as a School Psychologist
  • Conduct Psychological Evaluations using a wide
    range of cognitive, achievement and
    social-emotional instruments.
  • Complete written Psychoeducational Evaluations.
  • Interpret psychological findings for diagnostic
  • Interpret test scores for parents and teachers,
    and provide recommendations for courses of
  • Participate in consultation meetings with
    teachers, administrators, and parents.
  • Presented evaluation results and recommendations
    at Committee on Special Education (CSE) meetings.

  • Serve as a resource person for teachers,
    administrators, students and parents.
  • Develop and assist in the implementation of 504
  • Develop and implement individual and group
    counseling treatment plans .
  • Develop and implement Functional Behavioral
    Assessments and Behavior Intervention Plans for
  • Attended and participate in Manifistation
    Determination Hearings.

  • Scenario A student gets handed back an exam at
    school with a failing grade. The student bursts
    into tears and runs out of the classroom.
  • How would different areas of psychology interpret
    this event?

A Social Psychologist would say
  • This student maybe had a bad day up until this
    point. Perhaps they recently experienced an
    argument with a family member or friends. They
    were vulnerable to react in this manner due to
    situational influences (the power of the

A Personality Psychologist would say
  • This student individual has a tendency to
    overreact regardless of the situation. Even as
    an infant, their temperament could have predicted
    this type of reaction.

A Developmental Psychologist would say
  • This student is obviously less mature than other
    students their age. They are at a maturation
    level in which they are unable to put a poor
    grade in perspective. They are developing and
    maturing at a slower rate than their peers.

An Abnormal (or Clinical) Psychologist would say
  • This student is obviously suffering from major
    depression, generalized anxiety disorder, or
    bipolar disorder.

A Biopsychologist would say
  • This students parents probably behaved in a
    similar manner when they were students. This
    behavior is probably a result of genetics.
    Parents that overreact are bound to produce
    children who overreact.

A Cognitive Psychologist would say
  • This student was probably repeating maladaptive
    (negative) thoughts over and over in their head
    all morning. They were probably thinking
  • I am going to fail that test, and when I do, I
    will make a fool of myself and run out of the
    room crying. I just know I will cause a scene
    when I receive that failing test grade.

A Learning and Memory oriented Psychologist would
  • This is a result of social modeling that occurred
    at some point in this students life. They
    learned by watching another that this is a
    possible, acceptable, and/or normal reaction.

An I/O psychologist would say
  • A happy worker is a productive worker, and this
    student is not happy in school, therefore they
    are experiencing failure academically. The
    emotional reaction is due to work-stress.

A Behavior Oriented Psychologist would say
  • The failing grade is the unconditioned stimulus
    that provoked the unconditioned response (crying
    and running out of the room).
  • In the future when the teacher passes back tests
    or papers (conditioned stimulus) the student will
    continue to run out of the room crying
    (conditioned response).

A Counseling Psychologist would say
  • This is a reaction that needs to be addressed in
    individual or group counseling. Talking about
    and processing the incident through counseling
    will lead to individual growth.

A Statistician would say
  • We need to collect data on the frequency,
    duration, time of day, antecedents, and
    consequences of this particular incident and any
    proceeding incidents of similar nature. Perhaps
    through inferential statistics and regression
    equations, we can better understand and predict
    this type of behavior in the future.

A School Psychologist would say
  • It is important to determine whether or not this
    behavior is impacting this students ability to
    learn. A functional behavioral assessment should
    be conducted and a behavior intervention plan
    should be implemented. If this behavior
    continues to occur and negatively impact this
    students education, a CSE referral may be

Continuing Education in Psychology (Graduate
  • Masters, either stepping-stone to doctoral level
    study, or can lead to field specific jobs in
  • Counseling Psychology
  • Industrial Organizational Psychology
  • School Psychology
  • Jobs in Research

Doctoral-level programs
  • Doctoral programs in psychology usually are
    designed to graduate psychologists who become
    professors at universities and conduct research
    leading to publication (which generates field
  • Also
  • Teaching professor.
  • Applied fields Clinical, Counseling, I/O,

Careers in Psychology
  • As a psychology major, you can work in many
    fields even if graduate study is not your choice.
  • Human Services (counseling advocacy, mental
  • Administration
  • Teaching
  • Community Relations
  • Program Development
  • Research
  • Human Resources
  • Public Relations
  • Marketing
  • Education
  • Sales

Intro. to Psychology text
  • Research Stories for General Psychology.
  • Lary Shaffer and Matthew R. Merrens, Plattsburgh
    State University.
  • An introduction to Psychology through current and
    relevant research.
Write a Comment
User Comments (0)