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Psychology Intro and Ch 1


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Title: Psychology Intro and Ch 1

PsychologyIntro and Ch 1
  • Times New Roman

  • Before the Bell 1/22
  • Find your seat in seating chart folder on table
    by the front door.
  • Type 1 Write down two things that are true about
    you and one thing that is a lie. Really try to
    make these as difficult as possible so even
    friends would have a hard time choosing which is
    the lie. Type1
  • Objectives
  • To introduce one another.
  • To describe the course
  • 2 truths and a lie

Understanding Psychology
  • Muller-Lyer illusion
  • Which line is longer?
  • We assume that people are hard wired to
    misperceive the length, but that is not
    necessarily true.
  • We cannot assume just because we behave a certain
    way all people behave that way.
  • Behavior must be studied objectively and

  • I. Psychology?
  • A. What is it? defined scientific study of
  • 1. Whats behavior? It is any action that
    people can observe or measure.
  • 2. Overt/Covert behaviors
  • a. OVERT obvious (easily seen or identified)
  • b. COVERTnot easily seen ( hidden covered
    or not directly observable.
  • B. What are the GOALS OF PSYCHOLOGY?
  • 1. To observe and describe behavior and mental
    process to better understand them.
  • 2. To predict and control behavior.

Before the Bell
  • Type 2 What is the goals of psychology? In
    addition write down the four observations and
    descriptions of people you made yesterday based
    on overt/covert behavior.

What is Multiple Intelligences?
  • http//

  • II. Psychology as a Science
  • A. Its a social science
  • 1. (history, anthropology, economics,
    political science and sociology) deal with the
    structure of human society and how individuals
    interact with those who make up society.
  • B. Research
  • 1. Two methods used primarily
  • a. surveys collecting data that asks people
    questions in a particular group.
  • b. Experimentation involves humans or

Our class survey
  • II. Psychology as a Science
  • C. Psychological Theories
  • 1. theory is a statement that attempts to
    explain why things are the way they are and
    why they happen the way the do.
  • 2. Psychological theories are based on
  • 3. Principle is a basic truth or lawi.e. if
    you study more you will get better grades.
    (Basic Truths WS)

  • After I take attendanceget up and find someone
    with the same color shirtwhat did you think of
    the test on racism we started watching? How
    comfortable do you feel talking about racism?

Psychological Testing
  • Research
  • 1. Need to conduct research so they can
    collect data.
  • 2. Research methodology scientific

racial bias
  • B. Experimental Research The Study of Cause
    and Effect
  • 1. The Theory most experimental research is
    generated by a theoryit is an unrelated set of
    concepts that explains a body of data and can be
    used to predict results of future experiments.
  • - not a guess explanations of behavior
    developed after extensive research and

https// Video
games in life
Happy Tuesday
  • At your table discuss the Milgram experiment on
    authority and decide if you agree or disagree
    with his hypothesis.

  Fridays Schedule 1st Hour 2nd Hour 3rd
Hour 5th Hour 4th Hour- LUNCH 6th hour Assembly
  • 2. The Hypothesis
  • a. possible explanation for a behavior
    being studied that is expressed as a prediction
    or a statement of cause and effect.

Stanley Milgram Obedience to Authority
  • 3. Independent and Dependent Variables
  • a. Independent variable factor that is
    selected and manipulated by the experimenter
    and is totally independent of anything the
    subject does
  • In Miligram the IV the manipulated factors
    proximity of the learning, whether or not
    experimenter was present, gender, and others to
    determine their effect on obedience these are
    independent variables.

  • 3. Independent and Dependent Variables
  • a. Dependent variable measureable behavior
    exhibited by the participant.
  • In Miligram the IV the highest level of shock
    administered by participant. .

  • 4. Control Condition part of an experiment in
    which participants are treated identically to
    participants in the experimental condition except
    that the independent variable is not applied to

  • 5. Experimental Condition part of an experiment
    in which the independent variable is applied to
    the participants.

  • 6. Placebo substance that would normally produce
    no physiological effect that is used as a control
    technique, usually in drug research.
  • 7. Placebo effect - a change in participants
    behavior brought about because they believe thy
    have received a drug that elicits a change.

  • 8. Experiment Bias tendency of experimenters to
    influence the results of research in the expected
  • 9. Double blind study experiment in which
    neither the participant nor the experiment knows
    which treatment is being given to the participant

  • 10. Sample a selected group of participants that
    is representative of a larger population.
  • 11.Population the total of all possible cases
    from which a sample is selected.
  • 12. Sample Bias the tendency for the sample of
    participants in a research study to be atypical
    of a larger population.

  • C. Nonexperimental research Techniques
  • 1. Naturalistic Observation systematically
    record the behavior of participants in their
    natural state or habitat.
  • 2. Surveys nonexperimental research that
    sample behaviors and attitudes of a population.
  • 3. Case-study in depth study of a single
    research subject.

  • III. What do Psychologist Do?
  • A. There are a variety of fields that involve
  • 1. Clinical Psychology (largest group) what
    most people think of when they think of
    psychologist. (specialty areas child mental
    health, adult mental health, learning
    disabilities, geriatrics, and general health.
  • a. trained to evaluate mental health, help
    people overcome problems and adjust to
    demands in their lives.
  • b. Work environment hospitals, prisons,
    university clinics, private practice. Note
    Psychiatrist - a medical doctor who specializes
    in the treatment of psychological problems and
    who can prescribe medication for clients.

Happy Wednesday 1/30New Seats
  • Type 2 what is the difference between a dependent
    and an independent variable?
  • Type 1 Brainstorm as many different jobs you
    know that are related to psychology.

  • III. What do Psychologist Do?
  • A. There are a variety of fields that involve
  • 2. Counseling Psychology
  • a. uses interviews and test to determine
  • b. generally treat persons with adjustment
    problems not serious psychological
    disorders. (decision about career, hard
    time making friends, conflict resolution)
  • 3. School Psychology http//
  • - Peer and family issues, learning challenges,
    observe in classroom, recommends placement
    in programs.
  • 4. Educational Psychology
  • a. Focus on course planning and instructional
    methods for an entire school rather than a

  • 5. Developmental Psychology
  • a. changes that occur in a persons life
    (physical, emotional, cognitive, social)
  • b. special interest in adolescence
  • 6. Personality Psychology
  • a. identify human characteristics or traits
    and study their developments.
  • b. special interest in anxiety, aggression,
    and gender roles.

  • 7. Experimental Psychology
  • 1. conduct experimental research
  • 2. explore biological and psychological
    reasons for cognitive behavior. (biological
    psychologist ) combine the bio and the
    psychological relationships
  • 3. BASIC RESEARCH has no immediate
    application and is done for its own sake
    (often their findings are used by other
  • 4. Applied research conducted to answer
    specific real- world questions about behavior
    (done in almost all psychological disciplines)

  • 8. Applied fields of psychology
  • a. Industrial and Organizational Psychology
    (how businesses and org. work)
  • b. Human Factors Psychology (related to
    above) best ways to design products for
    people to use
  • c. Community Psychology - create social
    systems that promote individual well-being
    (mental health centers, hospital programs,
    school based programs)
  • d. Forensic Psychology work within cjs
    select police officers, job stress, how to
    handle dangerous situations,
  • e. Health Psychology health care
  • f. Rehabilitation Psychology disabled
  • g. Cross-Cultural Psychology mental process
    under different cultural conditions.

  • Before the Bell
  • After attendance move with your partner.
  • Youll have ½ to prep for presentation.
  • Objectives
  • List the different fields of psychology.
  • Describe the advantages of conduction an
    experiment to study a research question.

  • Before the Bell
  • Objectives
  • To finish presenting types of jobs in psychology.
  • To begin research the schools of psychological

  • Before the Bell 9/12
  • Type 1 What three things are you worried about
    as you anticipate this project today?
  • Objectives
  • To research theories of psychology

Write these Down
  1. Structuralism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Psychoanalytic Theory
  4. Gestalt Psychology
  5. Behaviorists
  6. Humanistic Psychology
  7. Cognitive Psychology
  8. Psychobiology
  9. Eclectic View

Write these Down
  1. Structuralism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Psychoanalytic Theory
  4. Gestalt Psychology
  5. Behaviorists
  6. Humanistic Psychology
  7. Cognitive Psychology
  8. Psychobiology
  9. Eclectic View

As a Group/individual
  • Research your psychology school of thought. You
    can use any resources you want.
  • We are going to compare/contrast the different
    schools of thought.

School Founder/s Main Ideas Critics Extras

  • Before the Bell 9/13
  • Type 2 Explain your school or theory of
    psychology in three sentences.
  • Objectives
  • To research theories of psychology

  • Before the Bell 9/14
  • Get your posters.
  • Objectives
  • To jigsaw our theories of psychology.
  1. Structuralism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Psychoanalytic Theory
  4. Gestalt Psychology
  5. Behaviorists
  6. Humanistic Psychology
  7. Cognitive Psychology
  8. Psychobiology
  9. Eclectic View

  • Before the Bell 9/17
  • Get your posters.
  • Objectives
  • To jigsaw our theories of psychology.
  1. Structuralism
  2. Functionalism
  3. Psychoanalytic Theory
  4. Gestalt Psychology
  5. Behaviorists
  6. Humanistic Psychology
  7. Cognitive Psychology
  8. Psychobiology
  9. Eclectic View

FCAs on Poster
  • Use less than 10 words on the poster (30 points)
    other than listing name, founder, and critics
  • Represent at least three ideas behind the
    psychological school in picture or
    illustrations/diagrams. (50)
  • Is large enough to read across the room and is
    with no misspelled words (20)

  1. Which school used the phrase stream of
  2. Which school focused on objective sensations and
    subjective feelings?
  3. Which school was considered talk therapy and
    had three separate personalities?
  4. Which man/school said behavior must be
    measurable and observable to be psychology?
  5. This man/school used reinforcement over and over
  6. This school said the brain looks to make things
    into whole pictures.
  7. Which school or thought is used the most in
    psychology today?

  • Pioneers in Psychology
  • (the scientific revolution lead to the birth of
    modern psychology in the 1800s)
  • A. Wilhelm Wundt Structuralism (1832-1920)
  • 1. Structuralists concerned with discovering
    the basic elements of consciousness.
  • 2. Objective sensations and subjective
  • a. objective sensations assumed to
    accurately reflect the outside world.
  • b. subjective feelings thought to include
    emotional responses and mental images.
  • 3. Thought the mind functioned by combining
    the two.
  • 4. Relied on introspection
  • 5. What are the elements of the psychological

  • Pioneers in Psychology
  • B. William James and Functionalism
  • 1. Experiences is a continuous stream of
  • 2. Focused on the relationships between the
    experience and behavior
  • 3. The Principles of Psychology 1890 (first
    modern psychology book)
  • 4. Functionalism - concerned with how mental
    process help organism adapt to their environment
  • 5. Relied on behavioral observation in the lab
    and introspection
  • 6. What are the functions of the psychological
  • 7. Adaptive behavior patterns are learned and
    maintained because they are successful.

Happy Hump Day
  • Before the Bell 9/19
  • Get out your notes
  • Review at your table the schools weve looked at
  • Objectives
  • To discuss schools of thought on Psychology

  • Pioneers in Psychology
  • C. Sigmund Freud and Psychoanalysis (1856-1939)
  • 1. The importance of unconscious motives and
    internal conflicts in determining and
    understanding human behavior.
  • 2. Theory became part of pop culture. (ie
    interpret slip of the tongue or dreams?)
  • 3. While structuralists and functionalists did
    most of their research in the lab, Freud did
    his with patients.
  • 4. Talking cure talk through your problems.
  • 5. Believed unconscious process (sexual and
    aggressive urges) more important than conscious
  • 6. Psychodynamic thinking - assumed most of
    what exists in a persons mind is unconscious
    and has conflict impulses, urges and wishes.
  • 7. Psychoanalytic theory used hypnosis,
    dream analysis, and fee association to revel
    unconscious thoughts.

  • Pioneers in Psychology
  • D. John B. Watson and Behaviorism (1878-1958)
  • 1. Agreed with functionalism's focus on
    importance of learning, but he believed that it
    was unscientific to study a construct like
    consciousnessbelieved only an individual can
    know that.
  • 2. Stressed if it was to be a science must
    focus on observable and measurable behavior.
  • 3. Regardless of who we think we really are
    inside, we can be totally conditioned by
    external events. Our belief in individual
    choice is just an illusion.

  • Pioneers in Psychology
  • F. B.F. Skinner and Reinforcement (1904-1990)
  • 1. added to the behaviorist tradition by
    introduction the concept of reinforcement.
  • 2. Animals is rewarded he will do it again.
  • 3. Thought it was dumb to try to understand the
    inner person believed we are the external causes
    of behavior .
  • 4.Thinking is behaving
  • 5. The mistake is an allocating the behavior
    to the mind.

  • Pioneers in Psychology
  • G. The Gestalt School (Gestalt Psychology)
  • 1. Developed as an alternative to behaviorism
    and structuralism.
  • 2. German psychologists Max Wertheimer, Kurt
    Koffka, and Wolfgang Kholer felt that
    behaviorism was only concerned with treating a
    specific problem outside of this larger context.
  • 3. Formed their school. Gestalt (shape or form)
    is based on the idea that our perceptions of
    objects are more than sums of their parts.
  • 4. Reject the structurilaists idea that
    experience can be broken down into parts or
  • 5. Principals of Gestalt
  • a. similarity objects look similar, people
    tend to recognize a pattern and perceive them
    as a united whole.
  • b. closure people fill in the missing
    information when enough of the shape of an
    object is indicated.

  • Pioneers in Psychology
  • G. The Gestalt School (Gestalt Psychology)
  • 6. Reject the behaviorist notion that
    psychologist should only concentrate on
    observable behavior.
  • 7. Believe that learning is a active and
  • 8. Demonstrated that much learning (problem
    solving( is accomplished by insight.

  • Pioneers in Psychology
  • H. Psychology Today Eclectic View
  • 1. Most modern psychologists talk about the
    eight basic perspectives that influence the
    topics psychologists study, how they conduct
    their research, and what information they
    consider important. (different than your book)
  • 2. Biological, Evolutionary, cognitive,
    humanistic, psychoanalytic, learning,
    sociocultural, biopsychosocial.
  • 3. Most psychologist today recognize the value
    of each orientation and believe that no one view
    has all the answers.
  • 4. Most use an eclectic approach using
    different perspectives as they suite the
    situation at hand.

Perspective Subject Matter Key Assumption Influenced By
Biological Nervous system, glands and hormones, genetic factors Biological process influence behavior and mental process. Associations and neuroscience.
Evolutionary Physical traits, social behavior Adaptive organisms survive and transmit their genes to future generations. Charles Darwin and evolution
Cognitive Interpretation of mental images, thinking, language Perceptions and thoughts influence behavior Structuralism, functionalism, and Gestalt psychology
Humanistic Self-concept People make free and conscious choices based on their unique experiences. Introspection and belief in free will
Psychoanalytic Unconscious processes, early childhood experiences Unconscious motives influence behavior. Sigmund Freud
Learning Environmental influences, learning, observational learning Personal experiences and reinforcement guide individual development. John B. Watson and behaviorism
Sociocultural Ethnicity, gender, culture, religion, socio-economic status Sociocultural, biological, and psychological factors create individual differences Social, environmental, and cross-cultural psychology
Biopsychosocial Biology, psychology, social factors Mental processes are influenced by the interaction of biological, psychological, and social factors. Holistic health and social psychology
  • V. Cultural Psychology
  • A. What is it?
  • 1. Study influence of culture and the practice
    on peoples behavior to determine which
    behaviors are universal to all human beings and
    which are specific to individual cultures.
  • B. What is Culture?
  • 1. Shared way of life of a group of people.
  • 2. Includes ideals, values, and assumptions
    about life that guide behaviors.

  • C. Ethnocentrism
  • 1. Considering your own cultures practices as
    the "standard of comparison with other
  • 2. To avoid ethnocentrism, observe differences
    and respect them, but do not judge them.
  • D. Individualism/Collectivism
  • 1. Individualist cultures- (Europe, N. America)
    work toward their own goals and focus on
    themselves and their immediate families.
  • 2. Collectivist cultures (Asia, Africa,
    Central/South America) work toward the goals of
    a valued groupoften extended family and are
    willing to sacrifice their own interests for the
    sake of the group.

  • E. Universal and Culturally Specific Behaviors
  • 1. Much of the research had only been done in
    U.S. and Europe until recently.
  • 2. Research in Africa shows they are much less
    susceptible to
  • optical illusions such as the one below.

  • VI. Pseudopsychologies - separating Fact from
  • A. False psychologies that attempt to explain
    behavior or personality differences using
    nonscientific methods.
  • Examples palmistry, psychometry (ability to
    determine facts about an object by handling it),
    psychokinesis (movement of objects by the mind),

Type 3
  • Project Summary This assignment requires you
    write a test for the class which you are going to
    give to someone else in the class.
  • Purpose All the questions should be clear and
    easy to understand.
  • Role You will be writing as if you were the
    teacher. Your goal is to create a fair test that
    asks the most important questions about this
  • Audience high school psychology students.
  • Form Your test must have 20 objective questions
    (not more than 5 true/false). You may choose from
    multiple choice, matching, T/F, and fill in the
    blank. You must also include one essay question
    on the test. You decide the type. You cannot
    use all one type of questions. i.e. they cannot
    be all true and false.
  • FCAS
  • 1. 20 objective questions (40 pts)
  • 2. Written in test format with headings for each
    section (T/F , matching, short answer etc) (20
  • 3. A key must be provided on a separate sheet of
    paper. (20 pts.
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