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Unit Nine


Teaching Objectives Enlarge vocabulary Talk about the brain drain of the developed country Learn to read fro the key idea in a sentence Learn to write paragraphs of ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Unit Nine

Unit Nine
Teaching Objectives
  1. Enlarge vocabulary
  2. Talk about the brain drain of the developed
  3. Learn to read fro the key idea in a sentence
  4. Learn to write paragraphs of contrast

  • Section A Stop Brain Drain
  • Section B Borderline Ridiculousness
  • Section C We Share the Same Heritage

Section A
  • Stop Brain Drain

Table of Contents
  • Background Information
  • Warming-up Activities
  • Text Analysis
  • Vocabulary and Structure
  • Vocabulary Test
  • Writing

Background Information (1)
Sputnik was the project name for three
man- made satellites (sputnik means traveling
companion in Russian) launched (i.e., sent into
space) by the USSR in 1957 and 1958. Their
purpose was primarily the scientific
study of outer space, and they were used to
discover if living organisms could survive space
conditions. They also played a political role,
however. Their launching marked the opening of
the space race between the United States and
the Soviet Union.
Background Information (2)
Jawaharal Nehru (1889 - 1964) was
the first prime minister of independent India.
Nehru studied at Cambridge and was admitted to
the English bar (????????) and then returned to
India very westernized. After World War
II he participated in the discussions between the
United Kingdom and Indias leaders that
eventually created the separate states of India
and Pakistan. When independence came in 1947,
Nehru became Prime Minister of India.
Background Information (3)
Eton College, founded by King Henry VI in 1440,
is a private secondary school for boys in Eton,
Berkshire, England. Etons academic and social
importance is so great that
children are registered at birth to attend the
institution when they are older. Many of
Englands most famous and admired men were
educated there. Eton has an educational system
similar to those at Oxford and Cambridge
universities, in which each student (or small
group of students) has a single, private teacher.
Background Information (4)
Silicon Valley is an area that located on the
San Francisco, California, peninsula, radiates
outward from Stanford University. It is contained
by the
San Francisco Bay on the east, the Santa Cruz
Mountains on the west, and the Coast Range to the
southeast (Carolyn E. Tajnai). It is best known
for its high tech industry.
Warming-up Activities(1)
Peer discussion
1. For what reasons do you think some immigrant
countries like Canada and Australia grant green
card to people with advanced degrees and skills?
2. One of your friends wants to accept a job
overseas. What advice would you give him/her?
1. What would the bill now give before American
Warming-up Activities(2)
Comprehension checking of the text
2. How did the Indian people react to economic
imperialism in the post-independence era?
3. What defeated the Indian leaders purposes
when they wanted their foreign graduates to come
home to fulfill their promises?
4. What is the focus of the entire education
system in India now, according to the author?
Warming-up Activities(2)
5. How can India create a social structure needed
in the next century, according to the author?
1. The bill would give preferential treatment to
foreign students with advanced degrees in science
and engineering who want to work in the United
Key to Question 1
2. They strongly reacted against economic
imperialism. One example is that they threw
Coca-Cola out and made a new brand of drink
called Thumbs Up.
Key to Question 2
3. The leaders failed to realize that the
emphasis on science subjects at IIT could lead to
students lack of room for social thought.
Key to Question 3
4. The focus of the entire education system in
India now has shifted to meet the demand of the
American computer industry.
Key to Question 4
5. Indian institutes should aim at training
students not only in skills but in social
Key to Question 5
Text Analysis(1)
Thesis idea
America officially approves of a bill aiming at
giving preferential treatment to foreign students
with advanced degrees in science and engineering
who want to work in the U.S.A.. This is actually
stealing brains from the developing countries.
While the brains educated in India serve for
American computer industry, India falls behind
other countries, with its conditions worsening.
The best solution to the problem is to train
students both in skills and in social thought.
Text Analysis(2)
Main idea of each part
Part I (Paras. 1-4)
America officially approves of a bill aiming at
giving preferential treatment to foreign students
with advanced degrees in science and engineering
who want to work in America. That results in the
brain drain in developing countries such as
American preferential policy to foreign brains
has attracted the brains educated in India to
serve for America industry, but the conditions in
their native land are worsening.
New institutes should be set up with the purpose
of training students not in symbol manipulation,
but in social thought.
Part II (Paras. 5-18)
Part III (Paras. 19)
Vocabulary and Structure(1)
Words Expressions
reference pledge appetite in
general to foot the bill in the hope
that/of gtgtgtmore
Vocabulary and Structure(2)
1. reference 2. pledge 3.
appetite 4. abandon 5. integrate

1. in general 2. to foot the bill 3. in the
hope that/of 4. at the expense of 5. to keep
pace with 6. in other words 7. in the meantime
8. to hold water 9. in favor of 10. to fall
apart 11. to call for 12. to drain sb./sth. of
reference (1)
  • reference n. ??,????,???
  • ?,???????(??),???
  • (??)
  • ??refer v.
  • ??with reference to??,???

reference (2)
  • The library contains many popular
  • works of reference.
  • ????,?????????????
  • ?????????????
  • 2) With reference to this question, I
  • have nothing to say.
  • ??????,??????

pledge (1)
  • pledge vt. ??,?? n. ??,??
  • ??make a pledge to do sth. /
  • pledge to do sth. ??????
  • ?????

pledge (2)
  • They make a pledge to stand by me
  • whatever happens and at whatever time.
  • ????????????????????
  • 2) He pledged never to come back until he
  • had distinguished himself.
  • ???????????

appetite (1)
  • appetite n. ??,????
  • ??appetizer n. ???
  • appetizing adj.
  • ??appetite for sth. ???????
  • ???
  • have a good/poor appetite ?
  • ??(??)

appetite (2)
  • If you catch a cold, it is likely that you
  • will lose your appetite.
  • ?????,?????????
  • 2) She has a great appetite for hard work,
  • which is really incredible.
  • ????????,???????????
  • ??

abandon (1)
  • abandon vt. ??,????,?
  • ???
  • ??abandon oneself to ???
  • with abandon ???,???
  • ???

abandon (2)
  • You are not supposed to abandon your
  • car on the motorway.
  • ?????????????
  • 2) The scientist abandoned his research
  • for lack of fund.
  • ??????,?????????

integrate (1)
  • integrate v. ???,???????
  • ??integration n. integrated adj.
  • integrity n. ??,??
  • ??? disintegrate
  • ??integrate into ???
  • integrate with???,???
  • ?

integrate (2)
  • I have a contemptible opinion of those
  • who attempt to disintegrate rather than
  • unify a country.
  • ?????????????????????
  • ??
  • 2) They have taken some measures to help
  • immigrants integrate quickly into the
  • community.
  • ?????????????????????

In general ?????????
In general, the 21st Century Technology
Resources (L.6)
? ?
1. In general, Japanese cars are very reliable
and breakdowns are rare.
2. This is a crucial year for your relationships
in general and you love life in particular.
foot the bill ??
Indian taxpayers footed the bill in the ... (L.25)
? ?
1.His parents footed the bill for the wedding.
2.Once again it will be the taxpayer who has to
foot the bill.
in the hope that/of ?????
Indian taxpayers footed the bill in the hope
that one day(L.25)
? ?
1.I didnt phone till 4 oclock in the hope that
youd be finished.
2. We left the house early in the hope of
avoiding traffic jams.
at the expense of ????????????
, IIT graduates educated at the expense of
Indian taxpayers... (L.37)
? ?
1. He took a trip at the expense of the company.
2.He became a brilliant scholar but only at the
expense of his health.
keep pace with ?????
, we would be unable to keep pace with Demand
in the decades to come. (L.41)
? ?
1.I cant keep pace with you at this rate. Go
2. We must make sure that we keep pace with new
developments in computer technology.
in other words ????????
In other words, the legislation would benefit Not
immigrants, ... (L.42)
? ?
1. They asked him to leave in other words he
was fired.
2. Your performance in the exam did not reach the
required standard, - in other words, you failed.
in the meantime (??)??
In India in the meantime, the entire
education System has shifted gears (L.43)
? ?
1.Ill talk to you tomorrow in the meantime have
a good evening.
1.????????,???? ?
2.My first novel was rejected by six publishers.
In the meantime I had written a play.
hold water ?????????
Comments about Brain Drain dont hold much
water (L.49)
? ?
1. None of his arguments seemed to me to hold
2. Im sorry, but your story just doesnt hold
in favor of ??,???
This new leadershipin favor of market
economics. (L.55)
? ?
1. The original plan was abandoned in favor of a
new idea.
2. I am all in favor of equal pay for equal work.
fall apart ??,??
, but its interior framework is fast falling
apart (L.61)
? ?
1. The book was old and soon fell apart.
2. Their marriage finally fell apart.
call for ??,??
Perhaps it is time to pass legislation
calling For a Brain Trust. (L.64)
? ?
1. Its the sort of work that calls for a high
level of thought and mental energy.
2. Youve been promoted? This calls for a
drain sb./sth. of sth. ?????
which have drained India of its brains
for decades... (L.65)
? ?
1. The war drained the country of its resources.
2. I felt drained of energy.
notbut (1)
  • ..., I would dream, not of India, but of American
  • , the land of opportunity. (L.28)
  • ???????not ?but?????,?????
  • ?????
  • 1) They want not your pity but your help.
  • 2) You should pay attention not to what they say
    but to what they do.
  • 3) The President of Canada paid an official visit
    to America not by plane but by train.

  • ??a. ??????????????

The most important thing in the Olympic Game is
not to win but to take part.
  • b. ??????????????

It was not that I overslept but that the bus was
Vocabulary Test (1)
Choose one that best fills the blank from the
four choices given.
  • 1. Dont spoil your _____ by eating between
  • A) desire B) flavor
  • C) diet D) appetite

D) appetite
2. People often simply _____ their pets when they
go abroad. A) sacrifice B)
transport C) abandon D) remove
C) abandon
Vocabulary Test (2)
3. New _____ on the sale of drugs will be
introduced next year. A) guideline B)
legislation C) convention D)
B) legislation
4. The course had been _____ towards the specific
needs of its members. A) geared B)
cancelled C) transformed D) ranged
A) geared
Vocabulary Test (3)
5. These ideas have ____ in Freuds thoughts
too. A) relation B) proportion C)
parallels D) provision
C) parallels
6. The care of the environment is of ______
importance. A) prime B) primitive C)
preliminary D) previous
A) prime
Vocabulary Test (4)
7. There were over 500 _____ for the job. A)
accountants B) clerks C)
applicants D) participants
C) applicants
8. My mothers hospital expenses were slowly ____
my income. A) draining B)
discharging C) disposing
D) distributing
A) draining
Vocabulary Test (5)
9. She made no ____ to her illness but only to
her future plans. A) statement B) mention
C) reference D) comment
C) reference
10. The ____ is very much on learning the
spoken language. A) point B)
emphasis C) key D) problem
B) emphasis
Vocabulary Test (6)
Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below.
Change the form where necessary.
hold water in other words in favor
of call for in general on top
foot the bill in the hope that/of
drain sb. /sth. of sth. keep pace with
throwout speak of
  • Until now, wage increases have always
  • 2. The situation ________ prompt action.
  • 3. He argued ___________ a strike.
  • 4. Your argument concerning the extinction of
    dinosaurs doesnt __________.

kept pace with
calls for
in favor of
hold water
Vocabulary Test
hold water in other words in favor
of call for in general on top
foot the bill in the hope that/of
drain sb. /sth. of sth. keep pace with
throwout speak of

on top
  • 5. He remained_________ for the rest of the
  • 6. I dont need that you can _____ it _____.
  • 7. I called early_____________ catching her
    before she went to work.
  • 8. _________ traveling, are you going somewhere
    exciting this year?
  • 9. His parents____________ for the marriage.
  • 10. _________, people like her.

in the hope of
Speak of
footed the bill
In general

A way to develop a paragraph Comparison and

writing model(1) ???????
Background introduction of the topic
Para. I (????)
Two things (A and B) to be compared
As advantages disadvantages
Your preference
Para. II (????)
Para. III (??)
Grounds for your choice
Bs advantages disadvantages

writing model(2) ???????(sample writing ?)
General background of the topic
Para. I (????)
Two things (A and B) to be compared
Your preference for B over A
As disadvantages only
Para. II (????)
Para. III (??)
Deepening of the authors standpoint
Bs advantages only

Sample of Model 1
How to Solve the Housing Problem in Big
(1990?6???????) Directions For suggested
solutions to this problem are listed below. You
are supposed to write in favor of one suggestion
and against another. 1. ?????? 2. ????? 3.
?????? 4. ??????

(s1) As city population in China goes up by
more than 10 percent every year, a nationwide
need for more housing has become one of the most
momentous problems every big city is confronted
with. (s2) To seek a better way out of the
present straits, city planners have come up with
two solutions erection of more high-rise
buildings or development of satellite towns.
(s1) ?????????????? (s2) ?????????? (erection
of more high-rise buildings development of
satellite towns)

(s3) In many large cities, residence
buildings under construction are a great deal
taller than those that stood there before, thus
not merely making more use of the space in the
air but saving the precious space on the ground.
(s4) And furthermore, with the cluster plan
being correctly applied to new housing
developments, these high-rise structures lend
color and variety to the growth of cities. (s5)
But this solution has also brought along with it
some unavoidable problems such as overburden on
public transportation, discomfort of crowded
living environment, and residents helplessness
against power failure. (s6) So, the other
solution, development of satellite cities, has
emerged as the times demand so as to offset
disadvantages that all buildings create. (S7)
Living far away from hearts of crowded and noisy
cities, people are free to enjoy the spaciousness
of their dwellings as well as much benefit from
pure and fresh air in their quiet neighbourhood.
(s8) In terms of convenience, however, this plan
has its own drawback, too, for advanced medical
facilities, social service and business relations
are still concentrated in the centers of
cities. (s3-5) tall residence
buildings???? (s6) ?????????? satellite
towns (s7-8) satellite towns????

(s9) Of the two solutions, I prefer the first
despite the positive defects of its own. (s10)
The only reason for my choice is that the fertile
land, already scarce in our country, no longer
affords any large-scale extension of cities.
(s11) Under a high value is to be set upon each
inch of cultivated land from today on, the land
left over for farming will be far from enough to
support the human race of the future. (s12)
Besides, the shortcomings caused by high-rise
buildings will be remedied through steady
improvement in both city planning and supporting
services. (s9) ???????,?????? (s10-12)
Section B
  • Borderline Ridiculousness

Table of Contents
  • Reading Comprehension
  • Vocabulary Study
  • Vocabulary Test

Reading Comprehension(1)
Q. According to the author, what is the hardest
thing about getting into Britain?
A. It is walking the excessive distances around
Q. What does the author think of the procedures
of going through U.S. customs?
A. They are too complicated and make you feel
Reading Comprehension(2)
Q. What will happen if U.S. immigration officials
cant get you for pushing drugs?
A. They can deport you for denying you pushed
drugs before.
Q. Whats the authors view about question
concerning Nazis asked by U.S. immigration
A. It sounds legal and precise, but ridiculous
Reading Comprehension(3)
Q. Is it as difficult to get a resident permit
in Italy as in U.S.?
A. No. It just take the author less than two
hours to receive his resident permit.
Q. How does the author think going to American on
A. It is challenging enough.
Reading Comprehension(4)
Q. What do U.S. immigration offers assumptions
about a marriage between Americans and
A. They normally assume such unions are tricks to
obtain the green card.
Q. Was the authors wife finally permitted to get
into U.S.?
A. Yes, but to be safe, she arrived there on his
Vocabulary Study
1. to engage in 2. to participate in
3. on account of 4. now that 5. to keep
out 6. to drop in 7. good for 8.
ahead of time 9. as it happens 10. on (the)
grounds of 11. to get away with sth.

1. oblige 2. violate 3. origin 4.
legal 5. fuss 6. inquire 7. assume

Oblige (1)
  • oblige vt. ?????
  • ?? obligation n. ??,??
  • obliged adj. ???
  • ?? oblige sb. to do sth. ?????
  • ??
  • be obliged to do sth. ?????

Oblige (2)
  • He did not feel obliged to conform to
  • the rules that applied to ordinary people.
  • ?????????????????????
  • ??
  • 2) They were obliged to sell their house in
  • order to pay their debts.
  • ????????????

violate (1)
  • violate vt. ??,??????,
  • ??
  • ??violent adj. violence n.
  • violation n.
  • ??violate peoples interest ???
  • ????
  • violate ones privacy ?????
  • ??

violate (2)
  • If you dont deliver the goods by next
  • Monday, youll be violating the contract.
  • ?????????????,????
  • ????
  • 2) The mine owners have violated the
  • laws countless times and they deserve the
  • most severe penalty/punishment.
  • ????????????,????????
  • ?????

origin (1)
  • origin n. ??,??,??(???
  • ?)??,??
  • ??original adj. originate v.
  • originally adv.

origin (2)
  • The origin of the Olympic Games can
  • be traced back to the eighth century B. C.
  • ??????????????????
  • 2) She has risen from humble origins to
  • immense wealth.
  • ?????,?????

legal (1)
  • legal adj. ??????,???
  • ??legally adv.
  • illegal???

legal (2)
  • The sovereignty of developing
  • countries should be respected and every
  • country's legal rights should be protected
  • ??????????????,??????
  • ??????????
  • 2) People in the village disclosed the
  • illegal activities of the drug smugglers.
  • ?????????????????

fuss (1)
  • fuss n. ??,????,????
  • vi. ????,????????
  • ?,????
  • ??make a fuss of/over/about sth.
  • ???????,????

fuss (2)
  • If only he could see things in
  • proportion he would not make such a fuss
  • about trivialities.
  • ??????????,??????????
  • 2) Dont make a fuss over things that are
  • of little importance to you.
  • ????????????????

inquire (1)
  • inquire v. ??,??
  • ??inquiry n. ??,??
  • acquire, require???
  • ??inquire sth. of sb. ???????
  • inquire about ?,??(????)
  • inquire after ?? ??,??
  • inquire into ??,??,??

inquire (2)
  • The new director inquired of me
  • concerning our work.
  • ??????????????????
  • 2) You can inquire after any information
  • you need in the library when you prepare
  • for your final paper.
  • ?????????????????????
  • ???

assume (1)
  • assume vt. ??,?? ??(?
  • ?)??(??),??(??)
  • ??assumption n.
  • ???consume, presume, resume
  • ??assume that ??
  • assume sb. to do sth. ???????
  • assume responsibilities ????

assume (2)
  • Some people assume that there is life
  • on other planets when they see UFOs.
  • ????????,????????????
  • ?????
  • 2) He who assumes the great task at this
  • critical moment should be praised.
  • ?????????????????????
  • ??

engage in / be engaged in (L.11) ??,??

? ?
  • ?????????????????
  • Even in prison, he continued to engage in
    criminal activities.
  • ??????????????

They are engaged in talks with the Irish
participate in (L.14) ??,??

? ?
  • ????????

She didnt participate in the discussion.
  • ???????????????????

We want to encourage students to participate
fully in the running of the college.
on account of (L.26)
  • ??

? ?
  • ????????????????????????

Shes angry on account of what you said over
lunch about her husband.
  • ????????,?????????

We had to move to London on account of my job.
now that (L.28)
  • ??

? ?
  • ??????????,??????????

Now that we have gone so far, we might to a
little further.
  • ???????,???????

Now that everyones here, we can begin the
keep out (L.30)
  • (?)???(?)??

? ?
  • ??????,??????????

Take this raincoat it should at least keep the
rain out.
  • ?????????!

Keep that dog out of my study!
drop in (L.32)
  • ????

? ?
  • ????????????????

He usually drops in at my place on his way home.
  • ???????,???????????

When you have the time, why dont you drop in
(on me)?
good for (L.33)
  • ???

? ?
  • ??????????

The ticket is good for three months.
  • ???????????

Her drivers permit is good for five years.
ahead of time (L.34)
  • ??,??

? ?
  • ???????,??????????

If he arrives for work ahead of time, he gets no
extra pay for it.
  • ????????,??????????

Whenever I have an appointment, I always like to
arrive a little ahead of time.
as it happens (L.35)
  • ??,??

? ?
  • ???????????

As it happens, I have left the book at home.
  • ???????????????

As it happens, I have a spare set of keys in my
on (the) grounds of (L.46)
  • ?? ???

? ?
  • ??????????????

He had been fired from his job on (the) grounds
of incompetence.
  • ??????

He quit the job on (the) grounds of ill health.
get away with sth. (L.58)
  • ???????

? ?
  • ???????????????????????

He was the only child in the class who could be
rude to the teacher and get away with it.
  • ??,????????????????,???????

Yesterday I managed to get away with parking
right outside the theatre in a no parking zone.
Vocabulary Test (1)
Fill in the blanks with the phrases given below.
Change the form where necessary.
on vacation get away with sth.
have no intention of participate in drop
in on grounds that ahead of time be
engaged in keep out on account of
get into
  • 1. The case was dismissed______________
    there was not enough evidence.
  • 2. Dont be tempted to cheat youll never
    ______________it .
  • 3. Theyre __________ in Hawaii right now.
  • 4. We finished 15 minutes ____________.

on grounds that
get away with
on vacation
ahead of time
Vocabulary Test (2)
on vacation get away with sth.
have no intention of participate in drop
in on grounds that ahead of time be
engaged in keep out on account of
get into
  • 5. I thought Id _________ on you while I
    was passing.
  • 6. She retired early ___________ ill health.
  • 7. Warm clothing will __________ the cold.
  • 8. He ___ now __________ his second novel.
  • 9. I ________________ going to the wedding.
  • 10. The shy girl was encouraged to
    ____________ the class discussion.

drop in
on account of
keep out
engaged in
have no intension of
participate in
Vocabulary Test (3)

Complete each of the following sentences with the
proper form of the word given in brackets.
  • I asked him what the plans were, but he didnt
    really know so he replied with___________
  • 2. The meal was _____________(ridicule)

Vocabulary Test (4)
3. They were in open __________(violate) of the
4. The _____________(terror) are threatening to
blow up the plan.
5. Let us __________(assumption) for a moment
that the plan succeeds.
Vocabulary Test (5)

6. For the sake of ____________(simple), lets
divide the discussion into two parts.
7. Its _________(legal) to drive through a red
8. There would be some benefit, however
__________(direct), to the state.
Vocabulary Test (6)

9. The possibility that Vitamin E may help slow
the rate of ____________(destroy) of the human
body is under study.
10. Please make a written___________ (declare)
of all the goods you bought abroad. .
Section C
  • We Share the Same Heritage

Reading Comprehension (1)
  • Read the following statements carefully,
  • and decide whether they are true (T) or
  • false (F) according to the text.
  • 1. Before the author left for China, her mother
    told her the story of her great-grandmother and
    grandfather, hoping she could learn something
    about them.

Reading Comprehension (2)
  • 2. According to the authors great-grandmother,
    she lived such a long life because she had been
    very well looked after.
  • 3. At the end of the passage, the writer felt
    that the dragon had become a part of her because
    she was fond of Chinese dragon.

Reading Comprehension (3)
  • Read the text first and then provide
  • short answers to the following questions.
  • 4. According to the passage, what does the dragon
    on the vase symbolize?
  • A The dragon on the vase symbolizes the same
    Chinese heritage that connects the four
    generations together.

Reading Comprehension (4)
  • 5. Can you give one example to show the
    grandfathers devotion to his own children?
  • A The grandfather gave the writers mother (his
    daughter) all that he could give-----nine years
    of love and fifty years of savings. It was very
    difficult for him to send his daughter to America
    for her education, fearing the same separation.
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