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Chapter nine

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Chapter nine Language and literature 9.1 introduction The history of style The definition of stylistics The features of stylistics in different periods: 1960s 1970s ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Chapter nine


1
Chapter nine
  • Language and literature

2
9.1 introduction
  • The history of style
  • The definition of stylistics
  • The features of stylistics in different periods
  • 1960s
  • 1970s
  • 1980s
  • 1990s
  • Remarks of ??plural-heads developments
  • Different schools of stylistics compete for
    development and new schools emerge now and then.

3
9.2 some general features of the literary language
  • Features of literary language are displayed in
    the following three aspects
  • 1. phonology
  • 2. grammar
  • 3. semantics
  • Literay language differs from non-literary
    language in that the former is foregrounded in
    the above three aspects.

4
The term foregrounding
  • Definition
  • Deviation of language involves all levels of
    language vocabulary, sound, syntax, meaning,
    graphology,etc.
  • Repetition is also a kind of deviation.
  • Alliteration, parallism, and many figures of
    speech are the examples of foregrounding in
    literary language.

5
9.2.1 foregrounding and the grammatical form
  • In literary texts, the grammatical system of the
    language is often exploited, experimented with,
    or in Mukaroskys words, made to deviate from
    other, more everyday, forms of language, and as a
    result creates interesting new patterns in form
    and in meaning.

6
9.2.2 literal language and figurative language
  • The definitions of the two
  • Is non-literary language the same as literal
    language?
  • Is literary language the same as figurative
    language?
  • What the difference of the two groups of ideas?
  • Literary language
  • Non-literary language
  • Literal language
  • Figurative language

7
Trope
  • It is another word for the figurative use of
    language, which refers to language used in a
    figurative way for a rhetorical purpose.

8
Some forms of trope
  • Simile
  • Metaphor
  • Metonymy
  • Synecdoche

9
Why people use language in a figurative way?
  • The figurative use of language has the effect of
    making the concepts under discussion more
    domestic and acceptable. Readers can

10
9.2.3 the analysis of literay language
  • Procedures we should follow when we analyze the
    grammatical structure and meaning of a literary
    text.
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.
  • 7.
  • 8.

11
The function of the figurative use of language
  • It might be to make the abstract seem concrete
    to make the mysterious or frightening seem safe,
    ordinary and domestic, or to make the everyday
    usage seem wonderful and unusual.

12
9.3 the language in poetry
13
9.3.1 sound patterning
  • Rhyme is salient feature of poetry.
  • End rhyme occurs at the end of a line in a poem,
    the pattern is cVC. The last word of a line has
    the same final sounds as the last word of another
    line, sometimes immediately above or below,
    sometimes one or more lines away.
  • End rhyme is very common in some poetic styles,
    and particularly in childrens poetry.
  • It is also a feature in plays and songs.

14
9.3.2 different forms of sound patterning /
different rhymes
  • Internal rhyme
  • Alliteration the initial consonants are
    identical in it (Cvc).
  • Assonance it describes syllables with a common
    vowel (cVc).
  • Consonance it describes syllables with the same
    consonants (cvC). It is also called half-rhyme.
  • Reverse rhyme syllables sharing the vowel and
    initial consonant, CVc, rather than the vowel and
    the final consonant as is the case in end rhyme,
    Cvc.
  • Pararhyme two syllables having the same initial
    and final consonants, but different vowels (CvC),
    they pararhyme.
  • Repetition two exactly same syllables.

15
9.3.3 stress and metrical patterning
  • Stressed syllable
  • Unstressed syllable
  • Which syllable is stressed is decided by two
    elements
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • Rhyme the repetition of a sound or sound
    combination. (?)
  • Rhythms (??)come out of the arrangment of
    stressed and unstressed syllables.
  • When stress is organized to form regular rhythms,
    the term used for it is meter. (??)
  • Units of meter are called feet. (??)

16
The types of feet
  • Iamb
  • Trochee
  • Anapest
  • Dactyl
  • Spondee
  • Pyrrhic

17
Lines with different numbers of feet
  • Dimeter a line with two feet.
  • Trimeter
  • Tetrameter
  • Pentameter
  • Hexameter
  • Heptameter
  • Octameter

18
9.3.4 conventional forms of meter and sound
  • Couplet
  • Quatrains
  • Blank verse
  • Sonnet
  • Free verse
  • Limericks
  • ? What is the difference of blank verse and free
    verse?

19
The poetic functions of sound and metre
  • Why do poets use sound and metrical patterning in
    their poetry?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.

20
9.3.6 how to analyse poetry?
  • Areas of discussion should be covered when we
    analyse poetry?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • -a
  • -b
  • -c
  • -d
  • -e
  • -f

21
9.4 the language in fiction
  • Three levels of discourse to account for the
    language of fictional prose( i.e. a novel or
    short story)
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • At least there are six viewpoints to analyse the
    discourse structure of a fictional prose.

22
I-narrators/ the first person narration
  • ??????????,?????????????????The Catcher in the
    Rye, Wuthering Heights, Moby Dick.
  • Strong points of it
  • Weak points of it

23
Third-person narration
  • ??????????,???????????,?????????????????Tom
    Jones by Henry Fielding

24
Schema-oriented language
25
Given and new information
26
deixis
27
9.4.2 speech and thought presentation
  • (1) speech can be presented in five ways
  • 1)
  • 2)
  • 3)
  • 4)
  • 5) free indirect speech
  • examples

28
Thought presentation
  • (2) thought can be presented also in five ways.
  • As the effects associated with NRT, NRTA or IT
    are roughly the same as those associated with
    speech presentation, attention will be focused on
    the discussion of DT and FIT.

29
Direct thought
  • The usage of it
  • The difference of direct thought and soliloquy.

30
Free indirect thought
  • The typical effect of it
  • The marked difference of FIS and FIT

31
stream of consciousness writing
  • Limited point of view of the third-person
    narration

32
The features of stream of consciousness writing
  • The most free version of DT
  • Highly elliptical sentence structure

33
Prose style
  • Authorial style
  • Text style

34
9.4.4 how to analyse the language of fiction
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.
  • 4.
  • 5.
  • 6.

35
9.5 the language in drama
  • A play exists in two ways---- on the page, and on
    the stage.
  • The different features of the two types of play

36
9.5.1 how should we analyse drama?
  • Drama as poetry
  • Drama as fiction
  • Drama as conversation

37
9.5.2 analyze the dramatic language
  • 1. turn quantity and length
  • 2. exchange sequence
  • 3. production errors
  • 4. the cooperative principle
  • 5. status marked through language
  • 6. register
  • 7. speech silence

38
9.5.3 how to analyze dramatic texts?
  • 1.
  • 2.
  • 3.

39
9.6 the cognitive approach to literature
40
9.6.1 theoretical background
  • Three cognitive tools
  • Figure and ground
  • Image schemata
  • Cognitive metaphor

41
9.6.2 an example of cognitive analysis
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