EXPLORING THE DEVELOPMENTAL CURRICULUM, THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN, AND THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHERS TO PROMOTE CREATIVITY - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

Loading...

PPT – EXPLORING THE DEVELOPMENTAL CURRICULUM, THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN, AND THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHERS TO PROMOTE CREATIVITY PowerPoint presentation | free to download - id: 461e04-ZTIwY



Loading


The Adobe Flash plugin is needed to view this content

Get the plugin now

View by Category
About This Presentation
Title:

EXPLORING THE DEVELOPMENTAL CURRICULUM, THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN, AND THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHERS TO PROMOTE CREATIVITY

Description:

EXPLORING THE DEVELOPMENTAL CURRICULUM, THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN, AND THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHERS TO PROMOTE CREATIVITY Lecture notes comprise of gathered information from ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

Number of Views:428
Avg rating:3.0/5.0
Slides: 27
Provided by: Ruchika4
Learn more at: http://cstl-hhs.semo.edu
Category:

less

Write a Comment
User Comments (0)
Transcript and Presenter's Notes

Title: EXPLORING THE DEVELOPMENTAL CURRICULUM, THE NEEDS OF CHILDREN, AND THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHERS TO PROMOTE CREATIVITY


1
EXPLORING THE DEVELOPMENTAL CURRICULUM, THE NEEDS
OF CHILDREN, AND THE CHALLENGE OF TEACHERS TO
PROMOTE CREATIVITY
  • Lecture notes comprise of gathered information
    from the following areas
  • Chapter 1 4. Dodge, Colker, Heroman (2002).
  • Chapter 5. Mayesky (2002).

2
CHILDREN, TEACHERS AND CREATIVE ACTIVITIESKey
Themes For Consideration
  • Children possess both unique qualities and common
    characteristics which bind them to their
    environment.
  • Teachers must be certain that their practices do
    not compromise childrens uniqueness or their
    commonalities. Consequently, It is important for
    teachers to know the unique differences between
    each child and be aware of each childs level of
    development, strengths, abilities, and special
    personality.
  • Children are often challenged to discover their
    uniqueness while at the same time develop
    socially adaptable characteristics which enable
    them to integrate into their families,
    communities, and greater society.
  • Watching child at play helps an adult understand
    the young person.
  • Teacher plays a role of a facilitator in the
    creative process.
  • As facilitators we engage in scaffolding by
    helping them develop new competencies, guide and
    provide opportunities, and to be sensitive and
    caring without interfering.
  • Teacher needs to allow the young child to deal
    directly with materials (acting as an aide rather
    than a leader or judge).
  • Talking to children about their art can foster
    childrens ability to express themselves through
    the arts.

3
  • DEVELOPMENTALLY APPROPRIATE EARLY CHILDHOOD
    CLASSROOMS
  • Classrooms that demonstrate maximum interaction
    among children as they pursue a variety of
    independent and small groups.
  • The teachers prepare the environment with
    challenging and interesting materials/activities
    and then steps back to observe, encourage and
    deepen childrens use of them.
  • Teachers ask thought- provoking questions and
    make appropriate comments.

4
  • ATTENTION SPAN AND CHILDRENS PHYSICAL NEEDS
  • In general, the younger children the shorter the
    attention span however, it varies from
    individual to individual.
  • Teachers must consider attention span when
    developing activities.
  • DAP activities (not too easy not too
    challenging) promote greater attention out of
    children.
  • Young children make it quite obvious when their
    attention span is waning- by a yawn, fidgeting
    etc.
  • Teachers need to be able to read these obvious
    signs of lessening (or lost) attention.
  • Teachers need to note activities which capture
    the attention of children longer. This can be
    vital information for future program development.
  • By changing activities and equipment to keep
    children matched to their present developmental
    levels, you are helping the children attend to
    activities longer on their own.

5
  • Activity Patterns
  • Start with familiar resources/ activities then
    move to more complex.
  • Take into account childrens physical
    characteristics.
  • Balanced interplay of time for both large and
    small motor tasks.
  • Creative activities for young children must also
    have a good balance between active and quiet
    activities.
  • Both should be incorporated in a single learning
    setting since young children have a difficult
    time sitting still for long periods of time.
  • The younger the child, the greater the tendency
    to become over stimulated, so the amount of
    activities for young children should be limited.

6
  • Transition From Group Times
  • Transitions from group times to the next
    activities can be chaotic if group times are
    uninteresting, too long, or too demanding.
  • Improve transition stage by sharing the days
    schedule with the children at the beginning of
    the day.
  • Allow children to help with the plans and
    participate in setting the limits.
  • Give positive reinforcement when things go well,
    not just reminders when someone fails to remember.

7
  • Transitions To Free Choice Times
  • Assure children that they will have ample time
    for their favorite activities (This reduces mad
    dashes for resources).
  • When balance is inadequate, children behave
    aggressively (Misbehaving and unconstructive
    play).
  • Children who are bored or frustrated during free
    choice time are rarely cooperative during clean
    up.

8
  • CHILDREN EXPRESSING SOCIAL EMOTIONAL NEEDS
  • Important to help the child find acceptable ways
    to express their feelings.
  • By providing activities that are less structured
    and allow freedom of expression.
  • Children usually let the materials and their
    fantasies take care of the emotions they are
    feeling.
  • Flexibility and a broad range of available
    creative activities facilitates creativity.
  • Children need to know about limits (setting them
    when necessary) and need to be helped so that
    they can channel emotions in a more positive
    directions.
  • Behavior problems demand creative response from
    the teachers. A disciplinary situation usually
    requires divergent thinking on the part of the
    adult.
  • A young child should learn that the expression of
    some feelings can hurt others and must understand
    that it is the means of expression and not the
    feeling itself that may be harmful (Perspective
    taking).

9
  • Competition
  • Young children naturally compare their work to
    others and seek their teachers approval.
  • Teachers should respect childrens natural
    competitive spirit and/or parental values towards
    competition.
  • But avoid reinforcing competition.

10
STRATEGIES FOR SUCCESS
  • Guidelines for developing creative and
    developmentally appropriate activities
  • PREPARATION.
  • Try the activity before presenting it to the
    children.
  • Make sure all necessary equipments is present.
  • Think through the activity and modify the
    activity if necessary.
  • Explain the activity so that the children know
    how to begin and proceed.
  • After the children have started, circulate among
    them.
  • PRESENTATION OF CREATIVE ACTIVITIES. In planning
    for each activity, the teacher should
  • Identify goals and possible learning for the
    activity.
  • List the materials necessary for the activity/
    Determine how to set up the activity.
  • Decide how to stimulate and maintain the
    childrens interest.
  • Anticipate questions the children might ask.
  • Plan ways to evaluate the activity/ Consider
    follow-up activities.
  • Consider cleanup time and requirement.

11
HINTS TOWARDS FACILITATION OF ACTIVITIES
  • Dramatic play, creative movement, singing,
    outdoor activities, and small group projects
    should all take place within each week.
  • Do not move too fast when presenting new ideas or
    activities for young children.
  • Activities should be repeated so that the
    children learn new ways of approaching the
    materials expand their understanding through
    repetition.
  • Proper sequencing should be given close
    attention/ Activities should be build upon each
    other.
  • Once a child is involved in a creative activity,
    a few words of encouragement may be all that is
    needed to keep the child interested.
  • Children need enough time to finish an activity.
  • At end of each day, teachers needs to evaluate
    the days activities.
  • Ideas for the next day can be revised or created
    based on what then appears best.
  • A person who works with young children must
    always be open to new information and feedback.

12
  • COMPLETING A CREATIVE ACTIVITY
  • Finishing an activity involves clean up and young
    children can be very helpful with this.
  • Pro-social behaviors can be acquired if teachers
    take time to teach them about clean-up .
  • Young children usually want to help out and enjoy
    feeling needed.
  • Arrange the environment so that it is possible
    for the children to assist with cleanup.
  • Children can put away materials when they clearly
    understand where the materials belong.
  • Empower children by assigning roles during
    clean-up and rotating roles to guarantee
    fairness.
  • Give children ample notice before cleanup time
    approaches, giving them second and third
    reminders after about 5-9 minutes.
  • Teacher can circulate around the room giving
    quiet notice.

13
  • Completing an activity is important to young
    children and teachers have to allow time for
    individual differences in finishing creative
    activities.
  • Children stop when they are satisfied with what
    they have produced.
  • Teachers of young children realize that the
    decision to stop must be the childs.
  • To ask a child who has stopped working to add to
    what has been created or to evaluate the item for
    reworking would violate the childs creative
    integrity.

14
(No Transcript)
15
HOW PRESCHOOLERS DEVELOP AND LEARN
  • The preschool years (3-5 yrs) are a special time
    in the life of young children.
  • Children develop across multiple domains of
    development Socio/Emotional,
  • Social/Emotional Development
  • Socialization- the process by which children
    learn the values and behaviors accepted by
    society.
  • Three goals for social/emotional development
  • Achieving a sense of self.
  • Taking responsibility for self and others
  • Behaving in a prosocial way
  • Social and emotional competence are essential to
    childrens well-being and success in school and
    in life.
  • A child who is socially and emotionally ready for
    school is
  • Confident, friendly, able to develop good
    relationships with peers.
  • Able to concentrate on and persist at challenging
    task.
  • Able communicate frustrations, anger, and joy
    effectively.
  • Able to listen to instructions and be attentive.

16
  • Physical Development
  • Children master increasingly sophisticated tasks
    and gain personal responsibility for their own
    physical needs.
  • Two goals for physical development
  • Achieving gross motor control.
  • Achieving fine motor control.
  • In may ways, physical development promotes
    social/emotional development (The reverse is also
    true).
  • Physical education in early grades support
    childrens academic achievement, general health,
    self-esteem, stress management, and social
    development.
  • Cognitive Development
  • Three goals for cognitive development
  • Learning and problem solving.
  • Thinking logically.
  • Representing and thinking symbolically.
  • The ability to take on anothers perspective
    leads them into friendship where they can share
    feelings and experiences.

17
  • Language Development.
  • Language become the essential tool for
    establishing relationships with adults and other
    children.
  • Two goals for language development
  • Listening and speaking
  • Reading and writing
  • Between the ages of 3 5, childrens vocabulary
    can grow dramatically
  • Listening, speaking, reading, and writing develop
    interdependently in children.

18
  • Ages and stages of Development
  • Three-Years-Old
  • Social/Emotional Development
  • Are learning to trust people around, which gives
    them confidence to become independent.
  • At this age social competence does not develop
    fully.
  • Physical Development
  • The play is more sustained and focused than
    toddlers play.
  • Gross motor activities are great source of
    pleasure.
  • Cognitive Developmental
  • Three years olds are exploding with thoughts and
    ideas and use all of their senses to make sense
    of the world around them.
  • Can sort objects by only one characteristics at a
    time.
  • Are egocentric and many are able to show empathy.
  • Language Development
  • Most 3 yr olds can use plural terms, talk in
    sentence, recite simple rhymes , and ask
    questions
  • Love to share their thoughts with others and
    participate in conversation.

19
  • Five-Years-Old
  • Social Development
  • They are increasingly independent, self
    sufficient individuals.
  • They are dependable and responsible.
  • They are exceedingly social.
  • 5 year olds prefer cooperative play to solitary
    or parallel play.
  • Physical Development
  • They show more agility, balance and coordination
    both in gross and fine motor movements.
  • Cognitive Development
  • They learn new concepts through experimentation
    and discovery.
  • Are able to think in complex ways
  • Can categorize by two features, such as color and
    shapes.
  • Language Development
  • Show a significant growth in their communication
    skills.
  • They have adult-like word order, using
    pronunciation like a grown-up.

20
The Teachers Role
  • The teachers role is an ongoing cycle of
    interacting with children and making decisions
    about when and how to meet individual and group
    needs.
  • The cycle has 3 parts
  • 1. Observing children
  • 2. Guiding childrens learning
  • 3. Assessing childrens
  • learning

21
OBSERVING CHILDREN
  • Initial observations may be informal
  • Gradually make better observations in order to
    properly guide learning
  • Informal observations occur naturally throughout
    the day
  • Keep file cards or post-its handy in order to jot
    down what you hear and see
  • Should schedule regular formal observations
  • Watch one or more children systematically and
    record what you hear and see
  • Try to have another adult with children (parent,
    co-teacher) so that you can be free to do planned
    observations
  • Observation notes will provide rich information
    that can be used for evaluation and analysis
  • Observation notes should be objective and factual
    and should not reveal your impressions,
    interpretations, or assumptions. Notes should
    not include labels, intentions, evaluations,
    judgments, or negatives.
  • Notes should include descriptions of an action,
    quotations of language, descriptions of gestures,
    facial expressions, and creations.
  • The more familiar you are with the goals and
    objectives for the children, the more efficient
    you will be in observing and recording what you
    see.

22
GUIDING CHILDRENS LEARNING
  • Using a range of teaching approaches is most
    effective
  • Child initiated-learning
  • When you want children to explore and construct
    an understanding on their own
  • Children choose the activity and the action
  • Teachers intentionally create an interesting and
    rich environment that offers children choices
  • Furniture arrangement, daily routines, material
    selection, and social climate all are important
  • Teacher-directed learning
  • Involves planning how to teach a concept or
    skill, materials needed, and determining if it
    should be taught individually, to a group, or
    whole class
  • Life in the classroom requires a range of teacher
    involvement
  • Talk with children about their work
  • Ask children closed and open-ended questions
  • Adapt instruction to include all children
  • Gifted children
  • Stock interest areas with interesting and
    challenging materials
  • Follow childrens interests
  • Teach to the childs strengths

23
GUIDING CHILDRENS LEARNING contd
  • Children with disabilities
  • Use clear visual cues
  • Use transition-preparation techniques,
  • Use peer buddies as teaching models
  • Use visual and tactile props
  • Encourage active participation in outdoor and
    gross motor play, then have calming activities
    before returning to sedentary activities
  • Have childs attention before giving new rules
  • Assess and identify needs for assistive
    technology with a specialist
  • Second-language learners
  • Learn words in childs home language
  • Use concrete objects and gestures
  • Establish a classroom community
  • Use lots of repetition, running commentary, and
    actions as you talk
  • Establish familiar routines
  • Assist children in sociodramatic play
  • Be patient give them time to get their words
    together
  • Involve families

24
GUIDING CHILDRENS LEARNING contd
  • Promote learning in interest areas
  • Teachers teach content
  • Children explore materials
  • In depth or long-term studies allow teachers to
    integrate content areas and address developmental
    goals
  • Select an appropriate topic
  • Create a web of important ideas
  • Determine how content knowledge and process
    skills can be learned through this study
  • Discuss topic with children
  • Inform families of proposed study topic
  • Use forms to organize materials and plan
    activities
  • Assemble relevant materials and resources
  • Facilitate investigations
  • Document findings
  • Plan a special event to end the study

25
ASSESSING CHILDRENS LEARNING
  • Assessment is the process of gathering
    information about children in order to make
    decisions
  • Bowman et al.(2001) identified 4 purposes
  • Assessment to support learning
  • Assessment to identify special needs
  • Assessment for program evaluation and monitoring
    trends
  • Assessment for program/school accountability
  • Collecting facts
  • Documenting observations
  • Analyze and evaluate collected facts
  • Collecting childrens work in portfolios
  • Portfolios can be used to
  • Share information with families
  • Help children reflect on their work and recognize
    their own skills and progress
  • Review a childs progress, set goals, and plan
    instructional technologies

26
ASSESSING CHILDRENS LEARNING contd
  • Use what youve learned to plan
  • Plan for each child
  • Review progress in social/emotional development
  • Review progress in gross and fine motor
    development
  • Review progress in cognitive development
  • Review progress in language development
  • Plan for the group
  • Identify which children need more focused
    instruction on certain skills
  • Large group and small group instruction
About PowerShow.com