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AMERICA: 1864-1914

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... displacement of native ameri- cans & spanish settlers racial inequality (legacy of slavery) rise of a new literature emergence of new themes, forms, subjects, ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: AMERICA: 1864-1914


1
AMERICA 1864-1914
  • A HISTORICAL LITERARY OVERVIEW

2
WESTWARD EXPANSION
  • TRANSCONTINENTAL RR1869 (FOUR BY 1885)
  • TRANSFORMATION OF AMERICAN WILDERNESS,
    CONSUMPTION OF NATURAL RESOURCES.
  • SPREAD OF ELECTRICITY, TELE-PHONE

3
INDUSTRIALIZATION
  • VAST WEALTH ACQUIRED BY A FEW INDIVIDUALS
    (ROBBER BARONS ANDREW CARNEGIE, J. P. MORGAN,
    JOHN D. ROCKEFELLER, ETC.) WHO CONTROLLED THE
    MAJOR INDUS-TRIES (STEEL, RR, OIL, MEAT PACK-ING,
    BANKING, FINANCE).

4
URBANIZATION IMMIGRATION
  • NEW YORK, 1850-1900 1/2 MILLION TO 3.5 MILLION
  • CHICAGO, 1850-1910 29,000 TO 2 MILLION
  • BY THE END OF WWI, HALF OF U.S. POPULATION LIVED
    IN A DOZEN OR SO CITIES (ROLE OF IMMIGRATION).

5
PROSPERITY AT A PRICE
  • DECLINE OF SMALL, INDEPENDENT FARMS
  • RISE OF URBAN JUNGLE
  • WORKPLACE ABUSES (LOW WAGES, LACK OF SAFETY,
    CHILD LABOR)

6
PRICE OF PROSPERITY (cont.)
  • POLITICAL CORRUPTION, W/ POLITI-CIANS SERVING THE
    INTERESTS OF INDUSTRY THEMSELVES (E.G., BOSS
    TWEED, WHO LOOTED NYC TREASURY).

7
PRICE OF PROSPERITY (cont.)
  • DISPLACEMENT OF NATIVE AMERI- CANS SPANISH
    SETTLERS
  • RACIAL INEQUALITY (LEGACY OF SLAVERY)

8
RISE OF A NEW LITERATURE
  • EMERGENCE OF NEW THEMES, FORMS, SUBJECTS,
    REGIONS, AUTHORS, AUDIENCES (IN PART DUE TO THE
    PROLIFERATION OF NEWSPAPERS MAGAZINES).

9
REALISM
  • ATTEMPTED TO TRUTHFULLY DEPICT LIFE AS IT WAS
    LIVED BY ORDINARY AMERICANS.
  • MAJOR REALISTS WERE MARK TWAIN, HENRY JAMES,
    EDITH WHARTON, WILLIAM DEAN HOWELLS.

10
REALISM (cont.)
  • INVOLVED THE REALISTIC PORTRAY-AL OF LANDSCAPE
    SOCIETY
  • VERNACULAR STYLE
  • EXPLORATION OF THE LITERARY POSSIBILITIES OF THE
    LIFE OF THE MIND IN ALL ITS SUBTLETY COM-
    PLEXITY.

11
NATURALISM
  • A PESSIMISTIC FORM OF REALISM.
  • INCORPORATED DARWINS THEORIES (ORIGIN OF
    SPECIES, 1859 DESCENT OF MAN, 1870) ABOUT THE
    SHAPING EFFECTS OF ENVIRONMENT ON INDI-VIDUALS
    GROUPS.

12
NATURALISM (cont.)
  • CHARACTERS ARE SHOWN AS CONDI-TIONED BY SOCIAL,
    ECONOMIC, ENVI-RONMENTAL, OTHER FORCES BE-YOND
    THEIR CONTROL (WHAT IS CALLED DETERMINISM).

13
NATURALISM (cont.)
  • WRITERS ASSOCIATED W/ THIS LIT-ERARY MOVEMENT
    INCLUDE AM-BROSE BIERCE, STEPHEN CRANE, JACK
    LONDON, AMONG OTHERS.

14
REGIONAL WRITING
  • PRESENTS THE DISTINCTIVE NATUR-AL, SOCIAL,
    LINGUISTIC FEATURES OF REGIONS OF THE COUNTRY NOT
    PREVIOUSLY ASSOCIATED W/ WORKS OF LITERATURE
    (E.G., MAINE, THE MISS. RIVER VALLEY).

15
REGIONAL WRITING (cont.)
  • OFTEN EXPRESSES NOSTALGIA FOR A SIMPLER PAST IN
    THE FACE OF CER-TAIN HARSH REALITIES THE
    HOMO-GENIZING FORCES OF INDUSTRIALI-ZATION.
  • ALSO CALLED LOCAL COLOR WRIT-ING.

16
REGIONAL WRITING (cont.)
  • IMPORTANT REGIONAL WRITERS IN-CLUDE BRET HARTE,
    MARK TWAIN, KATE CHOPIN, HAMLIN GARLAND, SARAH
    ORNE JEWETT.

17
FEMINISM
  • FEMINIST LIT. (SUCH AS THE WORK OF CHARLOTTE
    PERKINS GILMAN) PROTESTED AGAINST OFFERED AN
    ALTERNATIVE TO MALE INTERESTS VALUES.

18
SOCIAL PROTEST
  • NON-FICTION ANALYZING SOCIAL, ECONOMIC,
    POLITICAL INSTITU-TIONS CONDITIONS.
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