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CONDITION MONITORING THROUGH NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTINGS OF MACHINES AND PLANTS

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Title: CONDITION MONITORING THROUGH NON DESTRUCTIVE TESTINGS OF MACHINES AND PLANTS


1
WELCOME
2
CONDITION MONITORING THROUGH NON DESTRUCTIVE
TESTINGS OF MACHINES AND PLANTS
3
INTRODUCTION
  • CONDITION MONITORING
  • SIGNATURE ANALYSIS
  • NON-DESTRUCTIVE EVALUATIONS(NDE)
  • IN-SERVICE INSPECTIONS (ISI)
  • SAFTEY

4
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5
CONDITION BASED MAINTENANCE
6
NDE TECHNIQUES
1.VIBRATION MONITORING
2.ACOUSTIC EMISSION (AE)
3.INFRARED THERMOGRAPHY (IRT)
4.FERROGRAPHY
5.FIELD SIGNATURE MAPPING (FSM)
7
VIBRATION MONITORING INSTRUMENTATION
  • VIBRATION MEASURING AND ANALYSIS SYSTEM
  • MINI COMPUTERS
  • PROBABILITY DENSITY FUNCTION ANALYSIS
    (PDF)
  • BY INSPECTION

8
ANALYSIS OF RESULTS
1. VIBRATION CAUSE IDENTIFICATION
Sl No FAULT FREQUENCY DIRECTION OF VIBRATION
1 ROTATING UNBALANCE SAME AS RUNNING SPEED RADIAL
2 MISALIGNMENT OF BEARINGS 2SPEED RADIAL AND AXIAL
3 ROLLER BEARING DEFECT AT BALL OR ROLLER SPEEED ULTRA SONIC FREQUENCIES(20-60KHz) RADIAL AND AXIAL
4. OIL FILM WHIRL IN HIGHSPEED TURBO MACHINES 0.5SPEED RADIAL
5 DAMAGED OR WORN GEARS No OF TEETH RPM RADIAL
9
VIBRATION METER (HAND HELD)
SPM VIB-11 by SKF
Vibration Meter for imbalance, structural
weakness, loose parts etc
INDUSTRIAL MACINERY CLASSIFICATION Class 2
Medium size machines without special foundation
Class 3 Large machines on rigid foundations
Class 4 Large machines on soft foundations.
10
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11
APPLICATIONOF VIBRATION MONITORING IN PLANTS
  • MONITORING AT ROURKELA STEEL PLANT
  • maintenance cost 10-15 of prod cost

12
GROWTH THROUGH CBM ACTIVITIES AT RSP
BREAK DOWNS PREVENTED-10-102 EQUIPMENTS INCLUDED
- 40-140
No of machines
13
ACOUSTIC EMISSION MONITORING
AE sensors respond with amazing sensitivity to
motion in the low ultrasonic frequency range (10
kHz - 2000 kHz).  Motions as small as 10-12
inches and less can be detected
14
ACOUSTIC-EMISSION METHOD
This method is based on the registration of the
elastic compression waves that are emitted by the
defects developing in the stressed constructions.
15
ACOUSTIC EMISSION SYSTEMS
  • AE data collection systems
  • Laptop based AE system
  • DiSP Systems (any number of channels can be used)
  •  Portable AE test system (lunch box)

16
CASE STUDY
AE DURING HYDROTESTING OF A HORTON SPHERE
MAX PRESSURE 22 Kg/cm2
  • Pressurization (Stage 1)
  • Random AE activity due to
  • Mechanical rubbing between support structure and
    vessel
  • 2. Paint layer peel-off .
  • Re pressurization (Stage 2)
  • No significant AE activity
  • AE SIGANLS FROM NEWER AREA ( local plastic
    deformation )
  • NO SIGNAL DURING SUBSEQUENT
    PRESSURIZATION

Fig.2(f) AE monitoring during hydro testing of
Horton sphere
17
IR THERMOGRAPHY
  • Infrared thermography is based on the principle
    of detection and measurement of infrared
    radiations QR) arising from the natural or
    stimulated thermal radiation of an object21

18
I R MEASURING SYSTEMS
ThermaCAM S60 Real-Time Thermal
Type VARIOSCAN 3021 ST
Spectral range µm 8 ... 12
Detector material Hg, Cd, Te
Detector cooling Stirling-cooler
  • highly sensitive thermal imaging,
  • precision temperature measurement,
  • enhanced connectivity options including
  • high speed data transfer
  • extensive thermal analysis capabilities

19
CASE STUDY
raw thermo graphic data.
data after removing the noise and vertical
gradient.
correspond to low strength welds.
high strength welds
data processed for the local gradient in surface
temperature.
Fig setup for infrared testing of lap joints
20
FERROGRAPHY
1.WEAR DEBRIS ANALYSIS
MODE ABRASION, IMPACT, FATIGUE, EROSION,
CORROSION RATE CONCENTRATION OF WEAR DEBRIS
SEVERITY SIZE OF DEBRIS INDICATES LOCATION
COLOUR OF THE PARTICLES
2.SPECTROMETRIC ANALYSIS
  • OIL ELECTRICALLY EXCITED TO THE POINT WHERE LIGHT
    IS EMITTED.
  • ELEMENT EMITS A LIGHT OF ITS OWN PARTICULAR COLOR
    AND
    FREQUENCY.
  • SPECTROMETERS TRANSLATES THE INTENSITY OF THIS
    RAINBOW OF COLORS INTO A COMPUTERIZED
    READOUT.

21
HOW IS THE TEST PERFORMED
Tests Conditions Detected Conditions Detected Conditions Detected Conditions Detected Conditions Detected Conditions Detected Conditions Detected Conditions Detected
AbnormalWear FuelDilution Dirt Water Coolant IncorrectOil Oxidation AdditiveDepletion
Glycol Test              
Viscosity            
Appearance/Odor      
Spectrometric Analysis        
Alkaline Reserve            
Blotter Spot Test          
Water Content              
Distillation              
Flash Point              
22
WEAR METAL ORIGIN TABLE
METAL WEAR POSSIBLE ORIGIN.
ALUMINIUM BEARINGS,BLOCKS,BLOWERS,BUSHINGS, CLUTCHES,PISTONS.
CHROMIUM BEARINGS,PUMPS,RINGS,RODS.
COPPER BEARINGS,BUSHINGS,CLUTHES,WASHERS.
IRON BLOCKS,CRANK SHAFTS, CYLINDERS,DISCS.
SILVER SOLDERS.
TIN PISTONS.
23
MEASURING INSTRUMENT
ModelT2FMAnalytical Ferrograph. Bi chromatic
microscope. Video camera. Video capture
card. Image capture software. industrial standard
personal computer.
This measure the effects of Contamination and
electro-chemical changes that occur in
synthetic and petroleum based oils
24
FIELD SIGNATURE MAPPING
  • The FSM Inspection Tool (FSM) is a new technology
    for monitoring and inspection of metallic pipes
    and structures, pipelines and storage vessels
  • Reduce life cycle inspection costs
  • Reduce inspection time

25
FIELD PATTERN
Sensing pins (electrodes) in an array over the
monitored area to detect changes in the
electrical field pattern. The voltage the
signature.
Graphical plots indicating the severity and
location of corrosion, and calculates actual
corrosion and metal loss
26
INDUSTRIAL ARRANGEMENT
A typical refinery monitors high temperature
areas such as heater bends in the distillation
unit.
27
CONCLUSION
28
SUMMARY OF APPLICABILITY AND CAPABILITY OF
VARIOUS NDT TECHNIQUES
NDT TECHNIQUE DETECTION CAPABILITY NON CONTACT INSPECTION AUTOMATED INSPECTION DEFECT SIZING
VIBRATION VOLUMETRIC POSSIBLE POSSIBLE POSSIBLE
ACOUSTIC EMISSION VOLUMETRIC POSSIBLE POSSIBLE NOT POSSIBLE
I R THERMO- GRAPHY SURFACE , NEAR SURFACE POSSIBLE POSSIBLE POSSIBLE
FERROGRAPHY VOLUMETRIC POSSIBLE POSSIBLE POSSIBLE
F S M SURFACE, NEAR SURFACE POSSIBLE POSSIBLE POSSIBLE
29
THANK YOU
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