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Consequences of War and Militarism

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Title: Consequences of War and Militarism


1
Consequences of War and Militarism
  • Martin Donohoe

2
Outline
  • The history and epidemiology of war
  • Nuclear weapons
  • Chemical weapons
  • Biological weapons

3
Outline
  • Economic and environmental consequences of
    militarism and war
  • Health consequences of militarism and war
  • Contemporary conflicts
  • Afghanistan, Iraq, War on terror
  • Solutions

4
History of War
  • Violent conflict ubiquitous in the animal
    kingdom
  • Interspecies conflict food, territory
  • Intraspecies conflict food, territory, mates
    (usually not directly fatal)
  • Violence among non-human primates
  • Gorilla infanticide
  • Chimpanzee killing bands

5
History of war
  • 10,000 yrs ago agriculture
  • Stable populations, division of labor, warrior
    class
  • 3500 yrs ago bronze weapons and armor
  • 2200 yrs ago iron
  • 1900 yrs ago widespread use of horses

6
History of war
  • Ninth Century China - bombs developed
  • Thirteenth Century China rockets
  • Forgotten until the 19th Century
  • 1783 Balloon
  • Montgolfier brothers
  • Prussian general JCG Heyne used for bombing

7
History of War
  • 1803-1814 (Napoleonic Wars) English General
    Henry Shrapnel fills cannonballs with bullets and
    exploding charges to increase killing capacity
  • 1903 Wright brothers/Kitty Hawk airplane
  • 20th Century nuclear submarines, predator
    drones, weaponization of space

8
History of War
  • Belief that each new invention would eliminate
    warfare
  • Instead, increased casualties, killing at a
    distance

9
Epidemiology of Warfare
  • Deaths in war
  • 17th Century 19/million population
  • 18th Century 19/million population
  • 19th Century 11/million population
  • 20th Century 183/million population
  • Increasing casualties to civilians
  • 85-90 in 20th Century (vs. 10 late 19th Century)

10
War Deaths, 1945-2000
11
Legacies of Colonial Exploitation
  • Christopher Columbus log entry upon meeting the
    Arawaks of the Bahamas
  • Theybrought usmanythingsThey willingly
    traded everything they ownedThey do not bear
    armsThey would make fine servantsWith fifty men
    we could subjugate them all and make them do
    whatever we want.

12
Legacies of Colonial Exploitation
  • Winston Churchill (speaking in favor of RAFs
    experimental bombing of Iraqis in 1920s, which
    killed 9,000 people with 97 tons of bombs)
  • I am strongly in favor of using poisoned gas
    against uncivilized tribes to spread a lively
    terroragainst recalcitrant Arabs as an
    experiment

13
Legacies of Colonial Exploitation
  • Cecil Rhodes (Rhodesia, Rhodes Scholarship,
    DeBeers Mining Company)
  • We must find new lands from which we can easily
    obtain raw materials and at the same time exploit
    the cheap slave labour that is available from the
    natives of the colonies. The colonies would also
    provide a dumping ground for the surplus goods
    produced in our factories.

14
Contemporary Wars
  • 250 wars in the 20th Century
  • Incidence of war rising since 1950
  • Most conflicts within poor states
  • 27 separate civil wars currently underway
  • 19 involve U.S.-supplied weapons

15
War Deaths
  • Korean War 3 million
  • Vietnam War 1.7 million
  • Iran-Iraq War 700,000
  • Soviet War in Afghanistan 1.5 million
  • Second Congo War 3.8 million
  • Second Sudanese Civil War 1.9 million

16
War Deaths (as of 12/1/12)
  • Second Iraq War
  • 4,485 U.S. soldiers
  • 17,000 Iraqi military
  • Estimates of civilian deaths range from 150,000
    violent deaths to 1 million deaths
  • U.S. Afghan War
  • Over 2,000 U.S. soldiers 1,200 coalition forces
  • Estimated 20,000 civilians

17
Contemporary Wars
  • 72 million lives lost in 20th Century wars,
    another 52 million through genocides
  • WW II first war with more battle deaths than
    deaths from other causes, such as accidents,
    disease, and infections

18
Vietnam War
  • US dropped the equivalent of one 500 lb. bomb on
    every person in Vietnam
  • Vietnam War 1.5 to 3 million Vietnamese
    casualties 58,000 American
  • More US soldiers died of suicide after Vietnam
    than died in combat during the war.
  • Gulf War I U.S. planted one land mine for every
    Iraqi citizen

19
Contemporary Wars
  • Gulf War I US planted one land mine for every
    Iraqi citizen
  • 310,000 direct war-related deaths in 2000 (0.5
    of worldwide mortality) indirect deaths much
    larger
  • Use of child soldiers by 19 countries

20
Wars Promoted Through Militarism
  • Military buildups
  • Exceptionalism
  • Imperialism
  • Glorification of war
  • Unrealistic expectations

21
Consequences of War
  • Deaths, injuries, psychological sequelae
  • Collapse of health care system affecting those
    with acute and chronic illnesses
  • Famine

22
Consequences of War
  • Environmental degradation
  • Refugees, migrants, internally-displaced persons
  • 26 million displaced
  • Increasing poverty and debt
  • All lead to recurrent cycles of violence

23
Atomic Weapons - History
  • Hiroshima, August 6, 1945
  • The day that humanity started taking its final
    exam Buckminster Fuller
  • 15 kiloton bomb, 140,000 deaths
  • Nagasaki, August 9, 1945
  • 22 kiloton bomb, 70,000 casualties

24
The Hiroshima Bomb
25
Atomic Explosion
26
Atomic Weapons Other Victims
  • Hundreds of thousands of hibakusha atomic bomb
    survivors
  • 1054 U.S. nuclear tests since 1940s, 331 in
    atmosphere

27
Atomic Weapons Other Victims
  • 80,000 cancers (15,000 fatal) in US citizens as a
    result of fallout from atmospheric testing
  • NCI/CDC
  • Thousands of illnesses and deaths, higher CA risk
    in 600,000 former employees
  • - DOE

28
Atomic Weapons Today
  • Approximately 23,360 nuclear weapons at 11 sites
    in 14 countries (1/2 active or operationally-deplo
    yed)
  • Down from over 71,000 at height of Cold War
  • 5,200 active U.S. warheads today (more than ½ on
    hair-trigger alert) 8,000 in Russia
  • Several thousand megatons (100,000 Hiroshimas)

29
Atomic Weapons Today
  • Vastly redundant arsenal
  • 150-200 weapons adequate to destroy all major
    urban centers in Russia

30
Atomic Weapons Today
  • Accidental intermediate-sized launch of weapons
    from a single Russian submarine would immediately
    kill 6.8 million Americans in 8 cities

31
Nuclear Weapons Oops!
  • Pentagon 32 nuclear weapons accidents since 1950
  • GAO 233
  • Since 1950, 10 nuclear weapons lost and never
    recovered
  • All laying on seabed, potentially leaking
    radioactivity

32
Effects of a Nuclear Explosion
  • Immediate
  • Vaporized by thermal radiation
  • Crushed by blast wave
  • Burned and suffocated by firestorm

33
Effects of a Nuclear Explosion
  • Intermediate
  • Suffering, painful deaths
  • Health care personnel/resources overwhelmed
  • Famine
  • Refugees
  • Devastated transportation infrastructure

34
Effects of a Nuclear Explosion
  • Late effects
  • Cancer
  • Psychological trauma (PTSD, anxiety, depression)
  • nuclear winter (mass starvation due to disruption
    of agricultural, transportation, industrial and
    health care systems)

35
Effects of a 20 megaton nuclear explosion
  • Ground zero - 2 miles
  • Within 1/100 second fireball hotter than sun
    everything vaporized
  • 2 - 4 miles
  • 25 psi pressures 650 mph winds
  • Buildings ripped apart and leveled

36
Effects of a 20 megaton nuclear explosion
  • 4 - 10 miles
  • 7 10 psi 200 mph winds
  • Sheet metal melts concrete buildings heavily
    damaged (all others leveled)
  • 16 miles
  • 100 mph winds, firestorm, T 1400 C
  • 100 mortality

37
Effects of a 20 megaton nuclear explosion
  • 21 miles
  • 2 psi 100 mph winds
  • Shattered glass, flying debri
  • 29 miles
  • 3 burns over all exposed skin
  • 40 miles
  • Retinal burns blind all who witness explosion

38
Effects of a 20 megaton nuclear explosion over
Boston (1998 study)
  • Death toll
  • 1,000,000 within minutes
  • 1,800,000 survivors
  • 1,100,000 fatally injured
  • 500,000 with major injuries
  • 200,000 without injuries

39
Types of Injuries
  • Burns
  • Blindings
  • Deafenings
  • PTX
  • Fxs
  • Shrapnel wounds

40
Radiation Sickness
  • Very high dose cerebral edema, N/V/D, speech
    and gait difficulties, convulsions, coma, death
    within 1-2 days
  • Medium doses N/V/D ? resolves ? recurrent
    hematemesis, bloody D ? majority die
  • Low doses BM failure, infections, bleeding,
    sores, death

41
Effects on health professionals
  • 70 killed or fatally wounded
  • 15 injured
  • lt 1000 survive

42
Effects on health care system
  • Most major hospitals destroyed
  • EMS system debilitated
  • No X-ray machines, electricity, water,
    antibiotics or other meds, blood/plasma, bandages
  • 2000 burn unit beds in US (100 per major city)
    essentially destroyed

43
Effects on Health Care System
  • 1500 patients/doctor
  • 10 min/pt
  • 4 hours sleep/noc
  • 2 weeks to see all injured

44
Ultimate Outcomes
  • Boston (pop. 2.8 million in 1998)
  • gt 2.5 million dead after one month
  • More than 6x as many Americans as died in WW II

45
Abolition of Nuclear Weapons
  • Supported by
  • APHA
  • AMA
  • ACP
  • IPPNW
  • PSR
  • Global political and military leaders

46
Health hazards of the Nuclear Cycle
  • Ecosystem degradation e.g., Bikini Island
  • Uranium mining 5-fold increase in lung cancer
  • Depleted uranium
  • increased stillbirths, birth defects, childhood
    leukemias, other cancers in Southern Iraq
  • Possible increase in lung CA in U.S. soldiers
    (data sparse)

47
Nuclear Waste Disposal
  • On-site storage
  • 118 commercial reactors
  • 10 weapons plants
  • 37 research reactors

48
Nuclear Waste DisposalHanford, WA
  • Site of plutonium production for first atom bomb
    (and most of U.S. nuclear arsenal)
  • Decommissioned at end of Cold War (1971)
  • More than 210 million liters of radioactive and
    chemical waste stored in 177 deteriorating
    underground storage tanks at Hanford, WA
  • 60 have leaked on site
  • Potential risks to nearby Columbia River

49
Nuclear Waste DisposalHanford, WA
  • Plan vitrification and underground storage
  • Most complex and costly environmental restoration
    ever attempted (current price tag 12.3 billion
    and increasing finish date 2019?)
  • Site plagued by leaks, cost overruns

50
Nuclear Waste Disposal
  • Skull Valley, Goshute Indian Reservation, Utah
  • Private fuel storage consortium
  • Temporary storage of 44,000 tons of high-level
    nuclear waste
  • Bribes to tribes environmental injustice
  • Waste Isolation Pilot Plant, New Mexico
  • Defense Dept. waste

51
Nuclear Waste Disposal Yucca Mountain
  • On DOE land claimed by Western Shoshone Nation
    under the Ruby Valley Treaty of 1863
  • 100 miles from Las Vegas
  • Near aquifer and earthquake fault

52
Nuclear Waste Disposal Yucca Mountain
  • Est. 100,000 shipments of 70,000 120,000 tons
    of waste over 25 yrs
  • Coming within ½ mile of 50 million Americans
  • Est. 200-350 accidents
  • Nuclear roulette
  • After 9 billion spent, plan cancelled (2010)
    other options being considered

53
Nuclear Power Plants
54
Nuclear Power Plants
  • 104 plants in US
  • Aging, equipment failures (8 from 3/00-4/01 ?
    shutdowns)
  • 2011 40 failed basic fire safety standards 12
    have not fully implemented terrorism prevention
    requirements
  • 435 plants worldwide (generate 16 of planets
    electricity)
  • 60 plants in Russia
  • ? Condition, safety

55
Nuclear Power
  • Supply of uranium for fission to run out by 2050
  • Alternate sources
  • MOX (mixed oxide) fuel (reprocessed spent fuel
    plutonium and uranium)
  • Breeder reactors make more fuel (plutonium)
    than they consume
  • Fission currently impractical

56
Nuclear Power Plant Accidents
  • Three Mile Island (1979)
  • 50,000 to 100,000 excess deaths
  • Chernobyl, USSR, 1986 - nuclear power plant
    explosion
  • 200 times the radiation of Hiroshima Nagasaki
  • 25-100 died immediately, up to 1,000 injured
    acutely, NCI estimates 10-75K thyroid cancers
    (other estimates much lower)
  • Some estimates as high as almost 1 million deaths
  • NY Acad Sci, 2010

57
Chernobyl
  • Higher risk of neural tube defects and childhood
    leukemia among those living near nuclear power
    plants
  • Anxiety a major problem
  • Ukraine still spends 6 of its GDP each year on
    Chernobyl-related matters
  • 2.1 billion structure will seal off reactor for
    100 yrs.

58
Nuclear Accidents Fukushima
  • 2nd largest nuclear power plant disaster after
    Chernobyl
  • 50 early casualties
  • Reactor built by GE (also responsible for Indian
    Point plant, 40 miles from NYC)

59
Nuclear Accidents Fukushima
  • GE has built 91 nuclear power plants in 11
    countries, including 23 plants at 11 sites in
    U.S.
  • Full, long term costs and consequences still
    unknown
  • Yet in 2012, Nuclear Regulatory Commission allows
    Southern Company to build and operate 2 new
    nuclear power plants in Georgia

60
Nuclear Power Plants
  • For every US plant that has its license renewed,
    12 additional cancer deaths (NRC)
  • Plus any deaths from accidents, non-routine
    releases, high level waste and spent fuel

61
Nuclear Power Plants
  • Nuclear power industry receives billions of
    dollars in taxpayer subsidies
  • Since 1948, federal government has spent 95
    billion on nuclear R and D (4 times the amount
    spent on solar wind geothermal biomass, biofuels,
    and hydropower combined)
  • Nuclear power non-viable compared to green power
    without subsidies

62
Nuclear Power Plants
  • Prior to London Convention(1972, revised 1993),
    which prohibits dumping of radioactive waste at
    sea, U.S. considered dumping decommissioned
    nuclear reactors into the worlds oceans
  • Precautionary principle

63
Nuclear Terrorism
  • Attack on nuclear power plant or other nuclear
    installation
  • 47 of nuclear plants failed to repel mock
    terrorist attacks conducted by the NRC in the
    1990s
  • Axles of Evil
  • 600 employees, 250 million, weekly shipments of
    nuclear material along major US highways
  • Potential for accidents, terrorist attacks

64
Nuclear Terrorism
  • Dirty bomb
  • Potential tens to hundreds of thousands of
    deaths, billions of dollars of damage, chaos
  • Numerous radiation sources left over from Cold
    War in post-Soviet countries

65
Nuclear Terrorism
  • Collapse of Soviet Union 15,000 nuclear warheads
    and enough highly-enriched uranium and plutonium
    to make 60,000 more
  • More than 90 of Russias fissile materials are
    located in 171 buildings, only 11 of which have
    been fully secured
  • 175 cases of nuclear trafficking from 1993 2001
    (NRC)

66
Nuclear Terrorism
  • Reports of weapons missing from Soviet arsenal
  • Non-proliferation efforts, including the DOEs
    Nuclear Cities Initiative, get a fraction of 1
    of the defense budget, further cuts planned
  • The Nth Country experiment (1964) 3 science
    post-docs with no nuclear know-how designed a
    working atom bomb

67
Nuclear Accidents
  • Pentagon Over 550 mistakes, malfunctions, and
    false alarms as of 2012
  • 8 nuclear submarines at bottom of sea leaking
    uranium and plutonium
  • 11 nuclear weapons lost (most on bottom of ocean)

68
Chemical Weapons
  • 428 BC Athenians and Spartans burned wax, pitch
    and sulfur
  • DaVinci arsenic and sulfur shells
  • WW I
  • Italians vs. Ethiopians
  • Japanese vs. Chinese
  • Germans vs. Allies
  • Fritz Haber chlorine gas
  • 91,000 deaths and 1.3 million injuries

69
Chemical Weapons
  • Egypt vs. South Yemen (1963-7)
  • Agent Orange (contains carcinogenic, feto-toxic
    dioxin)
  • Defoliant herbicide
  • Manufacturer Dow Chemical
  • Six lbs per person dumped by US on South Vietnam
  • Millions of victims

70
Chemical Weapons
  • Iran/Iraq War (1980s)
  • Gulf War (versus Kurds, ? Others)
  • Gulf War Syndrome
  • Real per Congressionally-mandated scientific
    panel, 2008
  • Up to 25 of vets affected per VA study
  • Symptoms Memory loss, lack of concentration,
    neuropathic pain, depression

71
Chemical Weapons
  • 1995 Tokyo subway attack by Aum Shrinko cult
    using sarin
  • 12 dead, 5000 injured or incapacitated
  • 2012 Libya (mustard gas) and Syria (sarin)

72
Types of Chemical Weapons
  • Nerve gasses / paralytics
  • E.g., sarin, VX
  • S/S paralysis (incl. resp. muscles), headache,
    dizziness, N/V
  • Rx gas masks, pretreatment with
    pyridostigmine, decontamination, antidotes
    (atropine, pralidoxime, diazepam, tropicamide)

73
Types of Chemical Weapons
  • Blistering agents
  • E.g., sulphur mustard
  • S/S burns, blindness, pulmonary toxicity, BM
    suppression, N/V/D
  • Rx decontamination, analgesia, pulmonary and eye
    care

74
Types of Chemical Weapons
  • Pulmonary toxicants
  • E.g., chlorine, phosgene
  • S/S pneumonitis, laryngeal spasm, pulmonary
    edema, ARDS
  • Rx O2, bronchodilators, corticosteroids,
    ?ibuprofen, ?acetylcysteine

75
Chemical WeaponsVietnam and Napalm
76
Chemical WeaponsVietnam and Napalm
77
Chemical WeaponsVietnam and Napalm
78
Chemical Weapons
  • 1972 Biological and Toxic Weapons Convention
    prohibits development, production, and
    stockpiling
  • US and Russia still have significant stockpiles
  • 480 US chemical facilities each put 100,000 or
    more Americans at risk of poison gas disaster

79
Other Chemical WeaponsTear gas
  • Use in civil and political unrest
  • Causes eye, skin and pulmonary toxicity, N/V,
    photophobia and headache, trauma due to blast
  • Rx wash skin, flush eyes, IVF, humidified O2,
    bronchodilators prn, prophylactic antibiotics

80
Other Chemical WeaponsPepper Spray
  • Derived from cayenne peppers (contains 10-15
    oleoresin capsicum)
  • 1.5-2 million Scoville unit heat rating
  • Jalapeño pepper 2500-5000 Scoville units
  • Habañero pepper (worlds hottest) 300,000
    Scoville units
  • Use in civil and political unrest

81
Other Chemical Weapons
  • Calmatives mind-altering or sleep-inducing
    weapons (benzo-, SSRI-, and anesthetic
    derivatives)
  • Cramp-inducing agents
  • Stink bombs (?Race specific?)
  • Colored smoke as an obscurant
  • Crowd control vs use in warfare
  • US pilot amphetamine use

82
Biological Weapons - History
  • Sixth Century BC Assyrians poison wells with rye
    ergot
  • 300 BC Greeks pollute wells
  • Later Romans and Persians, Classical, Medieval
    and Renaissance periods, US Civil War (General
    Johnson at Vicksburg)
  • 14th Century Tatars catapulting plague-infested
    corpses

83
Biological Weapons - History
  • Kochs postulates anthrax first linkage of a
    specific disease with a specific pathogen
  • Louis Pasteur anthrax and cholera vaccines

84
Biological Weapons - History
  • Sir Jeffrey Amherst (French and Indian Wars -
    smallpox) You would do well to try to inoculate
    the Indians, by means of blankets, to extirpate
    this execrable race
  • WW I Cholera, plague, glanders, anthrax

85
Biological Weapons WW II
  • Unit 731, Manchuria, Shiro Ishii
  • British Operation Vegetarian (anthrax cakes /
    Germany)
  • US military personnel received typhoid, smallpox,
    yellow fever and tetanus vaccines
  • Those who refused subject to court martial
  • c.f., Gulf War pyridostigmine, botulism vaccine

86
Biological Weapons WW II
  • Unlicensed yellow fever vaccine contaminated with
    hepatitis B
  • 330,000 infections
  • 51,000 cases of symptomatic hep B
  • Long term outcomes good

87
Biological Weapons Post WWII
  • Swerdlosk
  • Zimbabwe
  • False alarms

88
Biological Weapons Today
  • 17 countries possess ( Al Qaeda?)
  • US role in supplying other nations
  • e.g., 1985-1989 US companies sold to Iraq
  • Bacillus anthracis, Clostridium botulinum,
    Histoplasma capsulatum, Brucella melitensis,
    Clostsridium perfringens, Clostridium tetani, and
    E. coli
  • Despite evidence of use of chemical weapons
    against Kurds

89
Biological Weapons Today
  • 1972 Biological Weapons Protocol signed by 158
    nations
  • Lacks adequate enforcement mechanisms
  • US has rejected enforcement (wary of foreign
    inspectors discovering military secrets and/or
    trade secrets of biotechnology and pharmaceutical
    companies)

90
Biological Weapons - Agents
  • Anthrax Brucellosis Cholera
  • Glanders Pneumonic plague
  • Tularemia Q Fever Smallpox
  • Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis
  • Viral Hemorrhagic Fevers (e.g., Ebola)
  • Botulism Staph enterotoxin B
  • Ricin Mycxotoxins

91
Biological Weapons Today
  • 1999 FBI at least once a day a politician,
    school, abortion clinic, or other controversial
    person or institution receives an envelope from a
    dissident containing a powder and a note
    announcing a lethal dose of anthrax

92
Biological Weapons Today
  • Genetic weapons targeted at specific ethnic
    groups
  • Synbio (synthetic biology)
  • Publication of details re creation of novel,
    dangerous agents

93
Biological Weapons Today
  • Use, along with chemical weapons, in The Drug
    War
  • Fusarium oxysporum fungus to eradicate coca pants
    in Columbia Fusarium oxysporum and Pleaspora
    papaveracea fungus to eradicate opium poppies in
    Central Asia
  • ? Marijuana
  • Food crops also destroyed
  • US, UN Drug Control Program, others

94
Biological Weapons Today
  • Quarantine Issues
  • Quarantine versus Isolation
  • National versus foreign outbreaks / border
    control
  • Adverse consequences increased risk of disease
    transmission in quarantined population, violence,
    mistrust of government, ethnic bias

95
Smallpox
  • DNA virus decimated native American populations
    eradicated by WHO vaccination campaign in 1972
    genome sequenced in 1992 recreation of virus in
    lab possible in 2002
  • ?Only remaining viral stocks at CDCP and in
    Siberia?
  • WHO Executive Board recommended retaining stores

96
Smallpox
  • Incubation period 7-17 days (avg. 12)
  • Spread by droplet infection highly contagious
  • Symptoms abrupt onset of F/HA/myalgias ?
    non-specific erythematous rash (most prominent on
    face and extremities, simultaneous varicella
    most prominent on trunk, successive waves) ? MSOF
    ? death

97
Smallpox
  • Dx clinical, EM of vesicular fluid
  • Rx isolation, post-exposure vaccination,
    supportive care, ?antivirals
  • 30 fatality rate

98
Smallpox
99
Smallpox Vaccination
  • Vaccinia
  • US ended in 1972
  • Waning (?negligible) immunity
  • Effects local reaction. Lymphadenopathy

100
Smallpox Vaccination
  • Side effects postvaccinial encephalitis
    (1/300,000), progressive vaccinia eczema
    vaccinatum, generalized vaccinia
  • Vaccinia immune globulin may modulate
  • New vaccine (Imvamune) may be safe for those with
    atopic dermatitis

101
Smallpox Vaccination
  • Current recommendation isolation and vaccination
    / VIG for close contacts
  • Vaccination of all US citizens not feasible
  • Inadequate supplies
  • Several hundred deaths
  • ? Diversion of resources from usual childhood
    vaccines
  • ? vaccinate health professionals, public servants
  • Infectivity, disability, workmans comp issues

102
Anthrax
  • Bacillus anthracis, aerobic, G, spore-forming
    rod
  • Zoonosis
  • Invisible and odorless when aerosolized

103
Anthrax
  • 1979 accidental release at Swerdlosk (USSR) 250
    cases, 100 deaths, town abandoned due to
    contamination
  • 1997 Aum Shrinko cult attempted aerosol
    dispersal unsuccessful

104
Anthrax
  • Est. 50kg release over urban center of 5 million
    people would sicken 250K and kill 100K
  • 100 kg release would have the same of
    casualties as a hydrogen bomb explosion

105
Cutaneous Anthrax
  • 2000 cases/yr worldwide
  • Due to exposure to infected animals / animal
    products
  • Epidemic in Zimbabwe, 1989-1995 10,000 cases

106
Cutaneous Anthrax
  • Incubation period 1-10 days (avg. 5)
  • Pruritic macule or papule day 1
  • Round ulcer day 2
  • Black eschar follows resolves over 1-2 weeks
  • Painful lymphadenopathy

107
Cutaneous Anthrax
  • Antibiotic Rx (doxy, cipro, pcn) decreases
    likelihood of systemic disease
  • Fatality rate 20 without antibiotics rare with
    antibiotics
  • Following 9/11 11 cases

108
Cutaneous Anthrax - Ulcer
109
Cutaneous Anthrax - Eschar
110
Gastrointestinal Anthrax
  • From ingestion of poorly cooked, infected meat
  • Oropharyngeal ulcers LAN edema sepsis
  • Terminal ileal / cecal lesion - N/V/bloody
    D/acute abdomen/ascites/sepsis
  • Rx Abx (doxy, cipro, pcn), supportive care

111
Inhalational Anthrax
  • Stage I
  • begins 2-43 days post-exposure
  • F/dyspnea/cough/HA/V/Ch/weakness/AP/CP
  • Lasts a few hours to a few days

112
Inhalational Anthrax
  • Stage II
  • F/dyspnea/diaphoresis/shock
  • CXR with widened mediastinum due to
    lymphadenopathy
  • pleural effusions
  • 50 develop hemorrhagic meningitis meningismus,
    delirium and obtundation
  • Rapid progression to cyanosis, hypotension and
    death

113
Inhalational AnthraxWidened Mediastinum
114
Inhalational Anthrax
115
Inhalational Anthrax
  • Dx blood cultures, XR/CT, post-mortem serology
    not helpful
  • Case fatality rate approx. 50
  • Rx
  • post-exposure antibiotics (doxycycline,
    ciprofloxacin, penicillin)
  • Supportive care

116
Anthrax Vaccine
  • 3 or 4 dose series
  • US armed service members
  • Side effects HA 0.4, local rxn 3.6, mild
    systemic SEs in 1
  • Manufacturer Bioport
  • Contract to produce 4.6 million doses for the DOD

117
Anthrax Vaccine
  • Pre/post exposure vaccination
  • Improved vaccine under development
  • Testing considered unethical
  • ?Groups to vaccinate?
  • Antibody testing may help guide

118
Anthrax The Band
119
Non-lethal weapons
  • High-power microwaves (crammed into cruise
    missiles, discharge a huge energy pulse to damage
    electronics)
  • Soft bombs
  • E.g., carbon fiber showers to short circuit
    electrical power grids (used in former Yugoslavia
    and in Gulf War I)

120
Non-lethal Weapons Proposed and Under
Development
  • Acoustic weapons
  • Acoustic bullets
  • Curdler unit shrieks, clangs
  • Infrasound penetrates most buildings and
    vehicles, causes nausea, diarrhea,
    disorientation, internal organ damage and even
    death
  • Squawk box intolerable ultrasound pulses

121
Non-lethal Weapons Proposed and Under
Development
  • Optical weapons
  • Photic driver ultrasound plus stroboscopic
    infrared flasher to penetrate closed eyelids and
    cause seizures
  • Psycho-correction devices send subliminal
    visual and aural messages

122
Non-lethal Weapons Proposed and Under
Development
  • Barrier Weapons
  • Slick coatings slippery like ice
  • Sticky foam (used by US in Somalia)
  • Obscurants
  • Colored smoke felt to cause more psychological
    panic than white smoke
  • Markers
  • Fluorescent powder visible under UV light
  • Sponge grenades impregnated with infrared dye
  • To mark targets

123
Non-lethal Weapons Proposed and Under
Development
  • Riot Control
  • Invisible tear gas
  • Electrical
  • Police or soldiers jacket which jolts anyone who
    touches it
  • Cattle prods (malicious and accidental use by
    civilians)

124
Non-lethal Weapons Proposed and Under
Development
  • Biotechnical
  • Biodegrading microbes (to destroy fuel)
  • Genetic code alterations (to create
    less-than-lethal but long-term disablements,
    perhaps for generations, thereby creating a
    societal burden)
  • Neuro-implants for behavior modification
  • Project Agile (1996) race-specific stink bombs
  • Pheromones (to impair human and animal
    reproduction mark individuals for assaults by
    killer bees, other animals or pests)

125
Non-lethal Weapons Proposed and Under
Development
  • Holograms
  • God/gods/other religious figures or symbols
  • Soldier forces
  • Death, dead comrades
  • Others

126
Other WMDs
  • Small arms
  • 90 of the 300,000 yearly deaths from violent
    conflict
  • Land mines
  • 24,000 deaths/yr, tens of thousands more disabled
  • Cluster bombs

127
Cyberwar
  • Internet viruses, worms, etc. designed to disable
    water and power systems, air traffic control,
    communications, etc.
  • E.g., Stuxnet computer worm Iranian nuclear
    facilities
  • Weapons of the future (?present?)

128
Health Care System Preparedness for Weapons of
Mass Destruction
  • Congressional panel estimates gt 50 chance of
    terrorist act involving WMDs by 2013
  • ERs/hospital systems inadequately prepared
  • Funds low

129
Health Care System Preparedness for Weapons of
Mass Destruction
  • US public health / emergency care system already
    in disarray
  • 80 of states facing budget cuts or holdbacks
  • Medicaid over budget in 23 states

130
Costs of Militarization
  • US over ½ of discretionary tax dollars spent on
    the military
  • Increased spending on nuclear weapons
  • Inadequate spending to prevent the spread of
    chemical, biological, and nuclear weapons

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U.S. Discretionary Spending
133
Missile Defense ShieldThe Militarization of Space
  • Star Wars program proceeding, despite
  • Astronomical cost est. 100 billion
  • Strong opposition by scientific community
  • Spectacular failures in 2/4 tests, despite highly
    structured conditions
  • Abandonment of ABM Treaty by Bush administration

134
Missile Defense ShieldThe Militarization of Space
  • Shield or very porous umbrella
  • Easily overwhelmed and fooled by inexpensive
    decoys
  • No protection against internal accidents or
    terrorists bringing weapon onto US soil or dirty
    bomb
  • Proposed use of moon for spy observatories and
    weapons

135
Dwight Eisenhower
  • The problem in defense spending is to figure out
    how far you should go without destroying from
    within that which you are trying to protect from
    without

136
Meanwhile...Social Injustices Abound
  • 51 million Americans lack health insurance
  • 25 of US children live in poverty
  • Homelessness, public educational system a
    shambles, increasing jail populations, AIDS, etc.
  • Mass extinction, global warming
  • 2.5 billion people worldwide live in abject
    poverty (earn less than 500 per year, lack
    access to clean drinking water)

137
Environmental Consequences of Militarization
  • Worlds single largest polluter
  • 8 of global air pollution
  • 2-11 of raw material use
  • Almost all high and low level radioactive waste

138
The US Military
  • Owns an amount of land equal to North Korea or
    Kentucky (25 million acres)
  • Much of it polluted
  • Cleanup cost estimates in the hundreds of
    billions
  • 2000 abandoned firing ranges
  • E.g., Kahoolawe
  • 60 people killed by unexploded ordnance since WWII

139
Health Costs of Militarization
  • 3 hours of world arms spending annual WHO
    budget
  • ½ day of world arms spending immunization for
    all the worlds children
  • 3 days of US arms spending amount spent on
    health, education and welfare programs for US
    children in one year

140
Health Costs of Militarization
  • 3 weeks of world arms spending primary health
    care for all in poor countries, including safe
    drinking water and full immunizations
  • Brain drain 2/3 of US scientists work in
    military-industrial complex (although much work
    has widespread applicability)

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Skewed Priorities
  • The world spends 1.7 trillion/year on military
    goods and services
  • For 25 of this, we could
  • Eliminate starvation and malnutrition
  • Provide shelter for all
  • Eliminate illiteracy
  • Provide clean and safe water
  • Prevent soil erosion

143
Skewed Priorities
  • Prevent global warming
  • Stop deforestation
  • Aid all refugees
  • Retire developing nations debt
  • Provide clean, safe energy (through efficiency
    and renewables)

144
Skewed Priorities
  • Prevent acid rain
  • Fix the ozone hole
  • Stabilize world population
  • Provide basic universal health care and AIDS
    control
  • Eliminate nuclear weapons and land mines

145
!
  • Pentagon Lacks Funding to Fix Public Schools on
    Military Bases
  • DOD, September, 2011

146
Dwight Eisenhower
  • Every gun that is made, every rocket fired,
    signifies in the final sense a theft from those
    who hunger and are not fed, those who are cold
    and not clothed

147
Dwight Eisenhower
  • This world is not spending money alone. It is
    spending the sweat of its laborers, the genius of
    its scientists, the hopes of its children. This
    is not a way of life at all, in any true sense.
    Under the cloud of threatening war, it is
    humanity hanging from a cross of iron.

148
Martin Luther King
  • A nation that continues year after year to
    spend more money on military defense than on
    programs of social uplift is approaching
    spiritual death.

149
Military Spending
  • US ½ of discretionary tax dollars spent on the
    military
  • US military budget represents 34 of total world
    military budget (1.5 trillion in 2009)
  • Iraq/Afghanistan Wars likely to cost 4-5 trillion

150
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152
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153
Arms Exports
154
Arms Imports
155
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157
US Foreign Aid
  • US ranks 21st in the world in foreign aid as a
    percentage of GDP (0.16, versus UN recommended
    0.07)
  • Foreign Aid
  • 1/3 military
  • 1/3 economic
  • 1/3 food and development
  • US worlds second largest arms exporter

158
Top Pentagon Prime Contractors Fiscal Year 2009
  • Lockheed Martin Corp.
  • Northrop Grumman Corp.
  • Boeing Corp.
  • Raytheon Corp.
  • General Dynamics Corp.
  • KBR, Inc.

159
September 11, 2001
160
World Trade Center Bombing
  • 3300 fatalities - foreign nationals outnumbered
    Americans
  • Over 18,000 people suffering health problems
    linked to attack and rescue
  • Multiple toxins in air and rubble
  • Zadroga Act (2010) provides funds for monitoring,
    treatment, and victim compensation

161
World Trade Center Bombing
  • Environmental health consequences unknown
  • 300-400 tons asbestos
  • 130,000 gallons of transformer oil contaminated
    with PCBS
  • Lead, sulfuric acid, silicon
  • Fine dust particles

162
September 11, 2001
  • Pentagon 286 casualties
  • Pennsylvania approximately 100 casualties

163
The War on Terror(The War on Afghanistan, Iraq,
and ?)
  • May last 50 or more years Cheney
  • Afghanistan
  • Ruled by repressive
  • human-(womens-)rights-abusing Taliban, then
    corrupt quasi-democratic kleptocracy
  • Potential transit route for oil and gas pipeline
    from Central Asia
  • Strategic importance in Middle East

164
Afghanistan
  • Population 27 million
  • Life expectancy 46 years
  • Literacy rate 32
  • Avg. annual income 280

165
Afghanistan
  • Negligible infrastructure secondary to decades of
    civil war
  • 1 of every 230 persons is a land mine amputee
  • Infant mortality 146/1000
  • 50 of children malnourished 33 are orphans

166
Afghanistan/Iraq Parallels
  • 10 years of sanctions, bombings resulting in
    500,000 to 1,000,000 deaths (per UN)
  • UN Devt. Index 126/174
  • Infant mortality rates jumped from 65/1000
    (pre-Gulf War I) to 103/1000 (2003)
  • Life expectancy decreased from 62 to 56

167
Afghanistan/Iraq Parallels
  • Literacy decreased from 89 to 57
  • Infrastructure devastated, environment degraded
  • Rebuilding post-war?

168
What goes around comes around
  • 1980s CIA arms Afghan rebels with hundreds of
    Stinger missiles
  • Late 2002 Terrorists using a similar
    Russian-made version of Stinger almost bring down
    Israeli passenger airline over Kenya
  • CIA trying to buy back, but most unaccounted for
  • Can shoot down a plane at up 6000-8000 feet
  • 24 diverted to Iran

169
Before Gulf War I
  • US sells weapons to Iraq/Hussein
  • Including components to produce WMDs
  • Rumsfeld visits Baghdad to promote US weapons
    sales
  • US minimally perturbed when Hussein gasses 4000
    Kurds, torpedoes US naval vessel

170
Gulf War I
  • 105,000 military and 110,000 civilian deaths
    (almost all Iraqis)
  • Over 2.25 million refugees
  • 2/3 of US casualties from friendly fire
  • Cost 61 billion (82 billion in 2003 dollars)
  • US pays only 1/6 of cost (most from Saudi Arabia,
    Kuwait, Germany and Japan)
  • Environmental devastation
  • 48 billion in claims to UN

171
Kuwaiti Oil Fires
172
War Deaths (as of 12/1/12)
  • Second Iraq War
  • 4,485 U.S. soldiers
  • 17,000 Iraqi military
  • Estimates of civilian deaths range from 150,000
    violent deaths to 1 million deaths
  • U.S. Afghan War
  • Over 2,000 U.S. soldiers 1,200 coalition forces
  • Estimated 20,000 civilians

173
Gulf War II
  • Financial cost of war 4-5 trillion (est.)
  • Includes fighting, rebuilding, veterans health
    care, economic losses, etc.
  • Global travel industry expected to lose over 500
    billion
  • Distraction from North Korea, other threats
  • Shock and awe battle plan targeting
    infrastructure explicitly prohibited by the
    Geneva Conventions

174
Gulf War II - Iraq
  • 96 of of the 9.1 billion allocated to the
    Development Fund for Iraq unaccounted for
  • Special Inspector General for Iraq
    Reconstruction, 2010
  • Ongoing audit of another 53 billion fund
    ongoing, but has already uncovered numerous
    instances of waste, fraud, and abuse (total for
    Iraq and Afghanisatan between 31 billion and 60
    billion as of 2011)

175
Contemporary Wars
  • Casualties among soldiers, civilians continue
  • More US soldiers have committed suicide than have
    died in Afghan War
  • Veteran health care needs massive (TBI,
    psychiatric disorders, etc.)

176
Contemporary Wars
  • Libya War
  • Coming Soon Iran?
  • Privatization of war and national security
    enterprises

177
George W Bushs Military Record
  • February, 1968 States desire to be pilot scores
    in 25th percentile in pilot aptitude section of
    Air Force officers test.
  • May, 1968 Enlists in Texas Air National Guard
    jumps list with assistance of Texas House
    Speaker pledges two years of active duty and
    four years of reserve duty

178
George W Bushs Military Record
  • June, 1968 Student deferment expires
  • September, 1968 Pulls inactive duty to serve on
    Florida Senators re-election campaign
  • November, 1968 Re-activated

179
George W Bushs Military Record
  • November, 1970 Promoted to First Lieutenant,
    rejected by UT Law School
  • Spring, 1970 Hired by Texas agricultural
    importer to shuttle plants to/from Florida
  • June, 1970 Joins Guards Champagne Unit,
    flying with sons of Texas elite

180
George W Bushs Military Record
  • May, 1972 Transfers to Alabama Guard unit so he
    can work on Senator Blounts re-election campaign
  • His commanding officer states he never showed up
    for duty
  • Grounded for missing a mandatory physical

181
George W Bushs Military Record
  • Returns to Houston but never reports for Guard
    duty
  • December, 1972 DUI arrest
  • October, 1973 Air National Guard relieves him
    from commitment 8 months early, allowing him to
    attend Harvard Business School

182
US Nuclear Weapons PoliciesUnder GW Bush
  • Nuclear Posture Review expands scope of use of
    nuclear weapons, including first-strike against
    non-nuclear states
  • Withdrawal from ABM Treaty
  • Boycotted Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty
    Conference
  • Budgeted money to resume nuclear testing and
    development
  • Possible use of nuclear-powered predator drones

183
U.S. Nuclear Policy Under Obama
  • U.S. retains first strike option against nuclear
    states
  • START treaty signed by Obama, Putin
  • Awaiting Senate approval
  • Will limit US and Russia to 1,550 long-range
    warheads (still overkill)

184
Phillip Berrigan
  • Nuclear weapons are the scourge of the earth to
    mine for them, manufacture them, deploy them, use
    them, is a curse against God, the human family,
    and the earth itself.

185
Disturbing TrendsThe Patriot Act
  • Passed with minimal debate, most Congresspersons
    acknowledge not reading
  • Increased governmental and corporate secrecy
    polluters subject to decreased public scrutiny
  • Erosion of civil liberties deportations,
    accused held without charge/access to legal
    counsel
  • 70,000 individuals on governments list of
    suspected terrorists

186
National Defense Authorization Act
  • Signed by President Obama in 2012
  • Grants Pentagon right to kidnap, indefinitely
    detain, torture, and kill foreigners and US
    citizens
  • No right of trial / legal representation
  • First explicit piece of legislation to repeal
    Bill of Rights

187
Disturbing TrendsThe Homeland Security Agency
  • The HSA absorbs two dozen agencies, 170,000
    employees, 38 billion budget
  • TIPS program (citizen spying program)
  • Total Information Awareness System (Poindexter)
  • Paranoia alert levels, duct tape and plastic
    sheeting

188
Special Interest Provisions in the Homeland
Security Law
  • Vaccine liability protection (incl. existing
    thimersol lawsuits) Eli Lilly
  • US corporations setting up offshore business
    fronts to avoid paying taxes allowed to contract
    with HSD
  • US government prohibited from publicly releasing
    information related to vulnerabilities incl.
    safety of nuclear reactors, environmental toxins,
    etc

189
Special Interest Provisions in the Homeland
Security Law
  • Immunity from liability for manufacturers of
    anti-terrorism products and technologies
  • Army investigations show 60-90 of soldiers CBW
    protective gear malfunctions
  • Liability protection for airport screening
    companies
  • Secret advisory meetings with industry permitted,
    even if meeting not related to national security
  • C.f. Cheneys Energy Commission

190
Disturbing TrendsCensorship and Propaganda
  • US blacks out names of corporations which sold
    weapons to Iraq on UN inspectors reports
  • Covering of Picassos Guernica for news
    conferences outside UN Security Council
  • Armed Services Edition books for soldiers
  • WW II the Classics to popular fiction
  • Gulf War II Henry V, Art of War, War Letters,
    Profiles of American Military Heroes

191
Disturbing TrendsCensorship and Propaganda
  • No Child Left Behind Education Act contains
    amendment requiring that all public schools allow
    recruiters in their buildings and provide
    military with contact numbers and addresses for
    all students
  • Parents can opt out
  • CIA resumes recruiting on college campuses
  • 21st Century McCarthyism
  • Wikileaks

192
Disturbing Trends
  • Hate crimes, intolerance
  • Media jingoism
  • Army to ignore FDA safety standards in
    experiments on soldiers (legacy of 20th Century
    crimes)

193
Disturbing Trends
  • Budget surplus/deficit
  • 2000 surplus 5.6 trillion
  • 2003 deficit 2.1 trillion
  • 2011 deficit 1.3 trillion
  • Cities and states facing huge budget shortfall
  • Bush States are on their own.
  • Obama Financial meltdown
  • Patriot II?

194
George W. BushAugust 5, 2004
  • Our enemies are innovative and resourceful, and
    so are we. They never stop thinking about new
    ways to harm our country and our people, and
    neither do we."

195
James Madison
  • The fetters imposed on liberty at home have
    ever been forged out of the weapons provided for
    defense against real, pretended, or imaginary
    dangers from abroad.

196
Samuel Johnson
  • Patriotism is the last refuge of a scoundrel

197
Just War Theory
  • The cause must be just
  • A lawful authority must decide to resort to force
  • The intention of the war must be in accord with
    international law
  • The use of force must be a last resort

198
Just War Theory
  • The probability of success should be high
  • The cost-benefit ratio must be high
  • The means used must conform with international
    humanitarian law

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Ignored Alternatives to War in Iraq
  • Border monitoring in Jordan, Syria and Turkey
  • Advanced X-ray scanning technology and an
    electronic pass system at borders
  • Sanctions assistance missions to enforce military
    sanctions
  • Political assurances and economic incentives to
    neighboring states

201
Ignored Alternatives to War in Iraq
  • Improve cargo monitoring at port of Azqaba,
    Jordan (high-volume port for sea-going cargo to
    Iraq)
  • Create a green list of approved oil companies to
    purchase Iraqi oil i.e., those not providing
    kickbacks to Hussein
  • Require audited financial reports from oil
    purchasers to enforce above

202
Ignored Alternatives to War in Iraq
  • Control or shut down the Syria-Iraq pipeline
  • Expose and penalize arms embargo violations
  • Justice in Palestine
  • Israel most UN Security Council Violations
  • Economic and humanitarian assistance to poor
    Muslim countries build alliances, good will
  • Middle Eastern Marshall Plan
  • Truth and Reconciliation Commissions (c.f. South
    Africa, El Salvador)

203
The US Rogue Nation
  • History Native Americans, slavery, current
    excesses, disparities and injustices
  • Co-opting Nazi and Japanese WWII scientists
  • Minimum 277 troop deployments by the US in its
    225 year history
  • Over 1,000 bases worldwide today

204
The US Rogue Nation
  • Since the end of WWII, the US has bombed
  • China, Korea, Indonesia, Cuba, Guatemala, Congo,
    Peru, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Nicaragua, El
    Salvador, Grenada, Libya, Panama, Afghanistan,
    Sudan, Yugoslavia, and Iraq

205
The US Rogue Nation
  • Conservative estimate 8 million killed
  • US invasions/bombings often largely at behest of
    corporate interests

206
The US Rogue Nation
  • In 2011, the US spent about 2,240 per US citizen
    on defense
  • vs. a few dollars per capita on peacekeeping
    efforts
  • The US maintains military bases in 69 sovereign
    nations around the world

207
The US Rogue Nation
  • Continued funding of the Western Hemisphere
    Institute for Security Cooperation
  • Formerly the School of the Americas
  • Over 60,000 graduates, including many of the
    worst human rights abusers in Latin America
    (e.g., Manuel Noriega, Omar Torrijos, and the
    assassins of Archbishop Oscar Romero)
  • School of the Americas Watch, arrests

208
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • Kyoto Protocol on Climate Change
  • Convention on the Prohibition of Anti-Personnel
    Land Mines
  • Comprehensive Nuclear Test Ban Treaty

209
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • Convention on the Rights of the Child
  • Convention on the Elimination of Discrimination
    Against Women Convention on Economic, Social and
    Cultural Rights
  • Convention for the Suppression of Traffic in
    Persons

210
International Non-Cooperation/Isolationism
  • Failure to sign or approve
  • Protocol 1, Article 55 of the Geneva Conventions,
    which bans methods or means of warfare which are
    intended, or may be expected, to cause
    widespread, long-term and severe damage to the
    natural environment
  • The Basel Convention on the Control of
    Transboundary Movements of Hazardous Wastes
    (designed to control dumping of hazardous wastes
    from the industrialized world in developing
    countries)

211
The US Rogue Nation
  • Torture (80-100 nations worldwide)
  • Death Penalty
  • US executes more of its citizens than any other
    country except China, Iran, and Saudi Arabia
  • Until recently, the US was the only country to
    execute both juveniles and the mentally ill

212
The US Rogue Nation
  • Failure to follow World Court Decisions
  • Failure to recognize International Criminal Court
  • Largest debtor to the UN (only 40 of dues paid)

213
Solutions
  • Physician activism (PSR, IPPNW, etc.)
  • Increased education public, medical and public
    health students
  • Tolerance and appreciation of diversity
  • Social justice, environmental preservation, etc.
  • Eliminate or limit military recruiting in public
    schools
  • Assist victims of war (PHR, MSF, etc.)
  • Treaties

214
Thomas Jefferson
  • Nothing can keep (government) right but (the
    peoples) vigilant and distrustful
    superintendence

215
Harvey Cushing
  • A physician is obligated to consider more than a
    diseased organ, more even than the whole man. He
    must view the man in his world.

216
Rudolph Virchow
  • Doctors are natural attorneys for the poor If
    medicine is to really accomplish its great task,
    it must intervene in political and social life

217
The role of the doctor in society
  • World Health Organization
  • The role of the physician in the preservation
    and promotion of peace is the most significant
    factor for the attainment of health for all.

218
Pastor Niemoller
  • First they came for the Jews, and I did not
    speak up, for I was not a Jew.
  • Then they came for the communists, and I did not
    speak up, for I was not a communist.
  • Then they came for the trade unionists, and I did
    not speak up, for I was not a trade unionist.
  • Then they came for me, and there was no one left
    to speak up for me.

219
Contact Information
  • Public Health and Social Justice Website
  • http//www.phsj.org
  • martindonohoe_at_phsj.org
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