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Title: MODULE 7


1
MODULE 7 Environment technologies
  • MODULE 7
  • ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGIES
  • AIRES
  • (Spain)

2
This project has been funded with support from
the European Commission. This publication
reflects the views only of the author, and the
Commission cannot be held responsible for any use
which may be made of the information contained
therein.
MODULE 7 Environment technologies
3
INTRODUCTION Environment technologies
  • CONTENTS
  • Introduction
  • 1. Waste Management
  • 2. Air Pollution Control
  • 3. Wastewater Control
  • 4. Soil Pollution Control
  • 5. Noise Control
  • 6. Monitoring Technologies

4
INTRODUCTION Environment technologies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Technology development is key to ensure
    environmental efficiency and legal compliance
    when applying EMAS
  • Links between EMAS and environmental technologies
    can be summarized in the following aspects
  • Environmental policy might include the will to
    use cleaner technologies or Best Available
    Technologys
  • Skills and competences of the labour force have
    to be sufficiently updated and balanced with
    technology used.
  • Objectives and targets have to be designed taking
    into account environmental performance (planned
    and actual) and technology changes.
  • Operational control and non-compliance management
    require a periodic assessment and review of the
    technological means.
  • Auditing process and team shall correspond to the
    technology development of the organization.

5
INTRODUCTION Environment technologies
  • INTRODUCTION
  • Several environmental technologies are presented,
    covering the following issues
  • Waste
  • Air Pollution
  • Wastewater
  • Soil
  • Noise
  • Monitoring
  • Module covers environmental technologies suitable
    for small and medium enterprises, public agencies
    and environmental organizations, taking into
    account investment costs and know-how. Expensive
    or high-developed technologies might have not
    been presented in the module then.

6
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
1. WASTE MANAGEMENT
7
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • CONTENTS
  • Background
  • Identification and Classification
  • Techniques
  • Types of waste
  • Selecting technology

8
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • Waste management is one of the most important
    environmental problem of the world. Exist
    different technologies to apply to manage the
    waste that human activities generate.  
  • Best option to combat the wastes accumulation
    problems, is always the reduce of generation
    wastes, then the reuse of wastes, and finally the
    recycling of wastes. Sometimes is necessary the
    treatment and disposal of wastes.

9
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • IDENTIFICATION CLASSIFICATION
  • Waste is identified and classified according
    Directive 2000/532/CE, related with the source of
    waste.
  • Organization of the waste list is set by codes,
    giving a two-digit code to type of industry or
    industrial processes that generate waste.
  • A four-digit code is associated to subindustrial
    sectors or subprocesses from waste is generated.
  • Finally, each type of waste has a six-digit code.

10
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • The techniques used to manage wastes are of three
    types
  • Volume Reduction technologies (mechanical,
    physical and chemical)
  • Treatment and disposal of wastes technologies
    (biodegradation, solidification,
    stabilization,..)
  • Ultimate disposal of wastes

11
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Volume reduction technologies
  • Concentrating methods as vacuum filtration,
    rotatory drum pre coat-filter, pressure
    filtration, centrifuge dewatering thickeners.
  • Size reduction methods, as hammer mills,
    shredding machines, crushers, pulverisers and
    hoggers.
  • Treatment and disposal wastes technologies
  • Recycling wastes is the most effective technology
    to prevent the environmental problems.  

12
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Physical methods of waste treatment as primary
    treatment, polishing, secondary treatment,
    disposal resource recovery and discharge recycle.
  • Chemical treatment as acid / base
    neutralization,chemical precipitation,
    electrolysis, hydrolysis, chemical extraction and
    leaching, ion exchange
  • Photolytic reactions as a technique to transform
    hazardous wastes in arid wastes with free photons
    of ultraviolet radiation.
  • Thermal treatment methods of incineration systems
    like rotary-klin incineration, liquid injection,
    fixed-hearth incinerators and fluidized bed
    incinerators.

13
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Biodegradation wastes as the process to convert a
    by biological processes an organic wastes in a
    inorganic wastes. Processes as biodegradability,
    aerobic treatment and anaerobic treatment.
  • Land treatment and composting. Land treatment is
    the technique to modify the characteristics of
    soil to treat the wastes inside this. And
    composting is the technique to biodegrade the
    wastes introducing the wastes inside the soil,
    keeping act the natural reactions of the same
    soil.

14
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Ultimate disposal of wastes
  • Landfilling as the technique that dispose the
    wastes in the land,other techniques are disposal
    aboveground, surface impoundment of liquids and
    deep-well disposal of liquids
  • Incineration as a ultimate disposal of wastes
    when the ash of this incineration result arid
    wastes.

15
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TYPES OF WASTES
  • The types of wastes are divided in
  • Municipal wastes
  • Medical wastes
  • Hazardous wastes
  • Industrial wastes

16
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TYPES OF WASTES
  • Municipal wastes
  • Determining waste generation. The most commonly
    used method is the estimating the waste quantity
    is to weight the waste requiring disposal. The
    second ,method is to determine the volume of
    waste which is being generated and use known
    density factors to convert this into the
    associated weight. And the third method is to
    determine the population of the area and then
    multiply this by typical waste generation
    factors.
  • Reuse reduce and recycling these three methods
    are the most important methods in strategic plans
    of waste management for municipalities.

17
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TYPES OF WASTES
  • Combustion is one of the most used technology to
    eliminate waste. Can comprise at same time,
    different types of incineration systems.
  • And finally landfilling is the historical method
    to treat the wastes, but many countries have not
    sufficient land to keep on involving.
  • Medical Waste
  • Packaging and storage, is an important factor of
    this kind of waste, for the condition of
    infectious waste.
  • Treatment and disposal of infectious waste with
    processes as thermal, melting, shredding,
    grinding, tearing or breaking.

18
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TYPES OF WASTES
  • Incineration, hospital waste incineration
    involves the application of combustion processes
    under controlled conditions to convert wastes
    infectious and pathological material to inert
    mineral residues and gases. The incineration
    systems are the same than other type of wastes.
  • Microwaving, chemical disinfections processes,
    irradiation processes and plasma systems are
    other kind of techniques to treat the medical
    wastes.

19
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TYPES OF WASTES
  • Hazardous waste treatment
  • Physical methods as separation, filtration,
    transition, distillation, evaporation,
    precipitation, transfer, extraction, sorption,
    membrane separations, reverse osmosis, hyper-and
    ultra filtration.
  • Chemical treatments as chemical precipitation,
    oxidation / reduction Ion exchange, acid / base
    neutralization and chemical extraction and
    leaching reduction.
  • Thermal methods as incineration, the same systems
    than before.
  • And biodegradability as a technique to convert
    the hazardous wastes into a nonhazardous wastes.

20
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • TYPES OF WASTES
  • Industrial wastes
  • The methods and techniques to manage the
    industrial wastes are the same methods and
    techniques that describe the rest of chapters.
  • Reduce, reuse and recycling
  • Reduction methods
  • Treatment methods
  • Incineration systems
  • Landfilling

21
WASTE MANAGEMENT Environment technologies
  • SELECTING TECHNOLOGY
  • Options for treatment techniques for the various
    types of waste, types treatment equipment,
    treatment sites and various waste handling
    practices all need to be carefully evaluated.
  • The selection of available options at a facility
    depends upon a number of factors such as the
    nature of the waste, the quantity of waste
    generated, the availability of equipment for
    treatment on site and of site, regulation
    constraints, and cost considerations.
  • We recommend the opinion of environment engineers
    experts to decide which technique apply in any
    case.

22
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
2. AIR POLLUTION CONTROL
23
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • CONTENTS
  • Background
  • Equipment
  • Techniques
  • Factors
  • Selecting technology

24
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • Controlling the emission of pollutants from
    industrial and domestic sources is important in
    protecting the quality of air. Air pollutants can
    exist in the form of particulate matter or as
    gases.
  • Air cleaning devices have been reducing pollutant
    emissions from various sources for many years.
  • Originally, air cleaning equipment was used only
    if the contaminant was highly toxic or had some
    recovery value.

25
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Equipment used to control particulate emissions
    are
  • Gravity settlers (often referred to as settling
    chambers)
  • Mechanical collectors (cyclones)
  • Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs)
  • Scrubbers
  • Fabric filters
  • Hybrid systems

26
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Gravity settlers (often referred to as settling
    chambers)
  • Gravity settlers, or gravity settling chambers,
    are used industrially for the removal of solid
    and liquid waste materials from gaseous streams.
  • Advantages accounting for their use are simple
    construction, low initial cost and maintenance,
    low pressure losses, and simple disposal of waste
    materials.
  • Mechanical collectors (cyclones)
  • Centrifugal separators, commonly referred to as
    cyclones, are widely used in industry for the
    removal of solid and liquid particles (or
    particulates) from gas streams.  

27
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Electrostatic precipitators (ESPs)
  • They are satisfactory devices for removing small
    particles from moving gas streams at high
    collection efficiencies. They have been used
    almost universally in power plants for removing
    fly ash from the gases prior to discharge.
  • Two major types of high-voltage ESP
    configurations currently used are tubular and
    plate. Tubular precipitators consist of
    cylindrical collection tubes with discharge
    electrodes located on the axis of the cylinder.
    Vast majority of ESPs installed are of the plate
    type.
  • Collected particles are usually removed by
    rapping.

28
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Scrubbers (venturi scrubbers)
  • Wet scrubbing involves the technique of bringing
    a contaminated gas stream into intimate contact
    with a liquid.
  • Wet scrubbers include all the various types of
    gas absorption equipment.
  • The term "scrubber" will be restricted to those
    systems which utilize a liquid, usually water, to
    achieve or assist in the removal of particulate
    matter from a carrier gas stream.

29
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Fabric filters (bag houses)
  • Filtration process may be conducted in many
    different types of fabric filters.Differences may
    be related to
  • Type of fabric
  • Cleaning mechanism
  • Equipment
  • Mode of operation
  • Gases to be cleaned can be either "pushed" or
    "pulled" through the bag house.
  • In the pressure system (push through) the gases
    may enter through the cleanout, hopper in the
    bottom or through the top of the bags.
  • In the suction type (pull through) the dirty
    gases are usually forced through the inside of
    the bag and exit through the outside.

30
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • EQUIPMENT
  • Hybrid systems are defined as those types of
    control devices that involve combinations of
    control mechanisms-for example, fabric filtration
    combined with electrostatic precipitation.
  • Four of the major hybrid systems found in
    practice today include
  • Wet electrostatic precipitators,
  • Ionizing wet scrubbers,
  • Dry scrubbers, and
  • Electrostatically augmented fabric filtration.

31
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Applicability of a given technique depends on the
    physical and chemical properties of the pollutant
    and the exhaust stream.
  • More than one technique may be capable of
    controlling emissions from a given source
  • Techniques used to control gaseous emissions are

Adsorption
32
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Absorption
  • Mass transfer operation in which a gas is
    dissolved in a liquid.
  • A contaminant (pollutant exhaust stream) contacts
    a liquid, and the contaminant diffuses from the
    gas phase into the liquid phase.
  • The liquid most often used for absorption is
    water.
  • Reagents can be added to the absorbing water to
    increase the removal efficiency of the system.
    Gas absorbers or wet scrubbers are designed to
    provide good mixing of the gas and liquid phases.
  • The devices used for gas absorption are often the
    same as those used in particulate emission
    scrubbing.
  • These include packed towers, plate towers, spray
    columns, and venturi scrubbers.

33
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Adsorption
  • Mass transfer process that involves removing a
    gaseous contaminant by adhering it to the surface
    of a solid.
  • It can be classified as physical or chemical. In
    physical adsorption, a gas molecule adheres to
    the surface of the solid due to an imbalance of
    natural forces (electron distribution).
  • In chemisorption, once the gas molecule adheres
    to the surface, it reacts chemically with it.
  • The major distinction is that physical adsorption
    is readily reversible whereas chemisorption is
    not.

34
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Combustion
  • Combustion is defined as rapid, high-temperature
    gas-phase oxidation.
  • Simply, the contaminant (a carbon-hydrogen
    substance) is burned with air and converted to
    carbon dioxide and water vapor.
  • The operation of any combustion source is
    governed by the three T's of combustion
    temperature, turbulence, and time.
  • Combustion devices can be categorized as flares,
    thermal incinerators, or catalytic incinerators

35
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Condensation
  • Process in which the volatile gases are removed
    from the contaminant stream and changed into a
    liquid.
  • It is usually achieved by reducing the
    temperature of a vapor mixture until the partial
    pressure of the condensable component equals its
    vapor pressure.
  • Requires low temperatures to liquefy most pure
    contaminant vapors.
  • It is affected by the composition of the
    contaminant gas stream.
  • Condensers are normally used in combination with
    primary control devices.
  • Condensers can be located upstream of (before) an
    incinerator, adsorber, or absorber.

36
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • FACTORS
  • There are a number of factors to be considered
    prior to selecting a particular piece of air
    pollution control hardware.

37
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • FACTORS
  • Environmental factors
  • Equipment location
  • Available space
  • Ambient conditions
  • Availability of adequate utilities (i.e., power,
    water, etc.) and ancillary system facilities
    (i.e., waste treatment and disposal, etc.)
  • Maximum allowable emissions (air regulations)
  • Aesthetic considerations
  • Contribution of air pollution control system to
    wastewater and solid waste
  • Contribution of air pollution control system to
    plant noise levels

38
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • FACTORS
  • Economic
  • Capital cost (equipment, installation,
    engineering, etc.)
  • Operating cost (utilities, maintenance, etc.)
  • Expected equipment lifetime and salvage value

39
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • FACTORS
  • Engineering
  • Contaminant characteristics (i.e., physical and
    chemical properties, concentration, particulate
    shape and size)
  • Gas stream characteristics (i.e., volume flow
    rate, temperature, pressure, humidity,
    composition, viscosity, density, reactivity,
    combustibility, corrosivity, toxicity, etc.)
  • Design and performance characteristics of the
    particular control system(i.e., size and weight,
    fractional efficiency curves, etc)

40
AIR POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • SELECTING TECHNOLOGY
  • Final choice in equipment selection is usually
    dictated by that equipment capable of achieving
    compliance with regulatory codes at the lowest
    uniform annual cost (amortized capital investment
    plus operation and maintenance costs).
  • In order to compare specific control equipment
    alternatives, knowledge of the particular
    application and site is essentials.
  • A preliminary screening, however, may be
    performed by reviewing the advantages and
    disadvantages of each type of air pollution
    control equipment.

41
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
3. WASTEWATER CONTROL
42
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • CONTENTS
  • Background
  • Wastewater treatment principles
  • Wastewater treatment plants
  • Primary treatment
  • Secondary treatment
  • Tertiary treatment

43
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • Basic objective of the field of water quality
    engineering is the determination of the
    environmental controls that must be instituted to
    achieve a specific environmental quality
    objective
  • Role of the water quality engineer and scientist
    is to analyze water quality problems by dividing
    the problem into its principal components
  • Inputs - discharge of residue into the
    environment from man' s and nature's activities.
  • Reactions and physical transport - chemical and
    biological transformations and water movement
    that result in different levels of water quality
    at different locations in time in the aquatic
    ecosystem.
  • Output - the resulting concentration of a
    substance, at a particular location in the water
    body during a particular time of the year or day

44
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • There are several points at which the water
    quality in a system can be controlled.
  • The initial concentration at the outfall can be
    controlled by
  • Reducing the effluent concentration of the waste
    input
  • Reducing the upstream concentration and effluent
    volume
  • Increasing the upstream flow by low flow
    augmentation
  • The choice of the mix of the above controls
    involves issues of
  • The costs of the controls - Iocally, regionally,
    and nationally.
  • The expected benefits of water quality in water
    use.
  • The technological bounds (e.g., available storage
    for low flow augmentation) on the controls.

45
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • WASTEWATER TREATMENT PRINCIPLES
  • If untreated wastewater is allowed to accumulate,
    the decomposition of the organic materials it
    contains can lead to the production of offensive
    odors and gases.
  • Untreated wastewater contains numerous pathogenic
    microorganisms, released from the human
    intestinal system.
  • It contains nutrients which can stimulate the
    growth of aquatic life, and it may also contain
    toxic compounds.
  • Immediate removal from its sources, followed by
    treatment and disposal are the priorities when
    managing wastewater.

Removal Treatment Disposal
46
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANT
  • Purpose of any ww treatment plant is to convert
    the components in raw wastewater, with its
    inherent characteristics, into a relatively
    harmless final effluent for discharge to a
    receiving body of water and to safely dispose of
    the solids (sludge) produced in the process.
  • Wastewater treatment plant must satisfy these
    conditions
  • requirements for aesthetics and minimization of
    obnoxious odors at treatment and disposal
  • to prevent contamination of water supplies from
    physical, chemical, and biological agents
  • to prevent destruction of fish, shellfish, and
    other aquatic life
  • to protect against the spread of disease from
    crops grown on sewage irrigation or sludge
    disposal
  • to encourage other beneficial uses of effluent.

47
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • WASTEWATER TREATMENT PLANTS
  • Wastewater treatment plants utilize a number of
    individual or unit operations and processes to
    achieve the desired degree of treatment.
  • Collective treatment schematic is called a flow
    scheme, a flow diagram, a flow sheet, a process
    train, or a flow schematic.
  • Unit operations and processes are grouped
    together to provide what is known as primary,
    secondary, and tertiary (or advanced) treatment.

48
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • PRIMARY TREATMENT
  • Treatment methods in which the application of
    physical forces predominate are known as physical
    unit operations.
  • These were the first methods to be used for
    wastewater treatment.
  • Screening, mixing, flocculation, sedimentation,
    flotation, and filtration are typical unit
    operations for primary treatment processes.

49
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • PRIMARY TREATMENT
  • Clarification (Sedimentation)
  • Process of separating the settleable solids from
    the liquid
  • Some treatment systems employing two or more
    stages of treatment and clarification, the terms
    primary, secondary, and final clarification are
    used.
  • The actual physical sizing of the clarifier
    (depth, surface area, inlet structure, etc.) is
    highly dependent upon the quantity and
    composition of the flow.
  • Clarification units can be either circular or
    rectangular and are normally designed to operate
    on a continuous flow-through basis
  • circular units are generally called clarifiers,
  • whereas rectangular units are commonly referred
    to as sedimentation tanks.

50
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • PRIMARY TREATMENT
  • Flotation
  • Separates these particles by their density by the
    introduction of air into the system.
  • Fine bubbles adhere to, or are absorbed by, the
    solids, which are then lifted to the surface.
  • Flotation separator tanks can be either
    rectangular or circular in shape and constructed
    of either concrete or steel
  • It is an appropriate technology for treating
    suspended solids and oil and grease in industrial
    waters. Process will achieve 40-65 suspended
    solids removal and 60 of oil and grease removal.

51
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • PRIMARY TREATMENT
  • Oil-Water separation
  • In practically all manufacturing industries, oil
    and grease can be found in a plant's wastewater
  • The configuration of the separator is that of a
    flow-through tank. The basic principle by which
    oil-water separators work is the differential
    between the specific gravities of water and the
    oils to be removed.
  • Major advantage of oil-water separators is their
    ability to treat wastewater which is heavily
    laden with oil compounds.
  • They represent a very simple treatment operation
    which minimizes personnel requirements its
    operating costs are minimized.
  • It results in a more "pure" oil which can make
    recycling
  • much easier.

52
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • SECONDARY TREATMENT
  • Treatment methods in which the removal or
    conversion of contaminants is brought about by
    the addition of chemicals or by other chemical
    reactions are known as chemical unit processes.
  • Precipitation, gas transfer, adsorption, and
    disinfections are the most common examples used
    in secondary wastewater treatment.

53
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • SECONDARY TREATMENT
  • Coagulation - precipitation
  • Involves two discrete steps.
  • Rapid mixing is employed to ensure that the
    chemicals are thoroughly dispersed
  • Next, the wastewater undergoes flocculation which
    provides for particle contact, so that the
    particles can agglomerate to a size large enough
    for removal.
  • Finally precipitation occurs, that is really the
    same as settling.

54
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • SECONDARY TREATMENT
  • Coagulation-precipitation is capable of removing
    from industrial wastewater pollutants such as
    BOD, COD, and TSS. It can remove additional
    pollutants such as phosphorus, nitrogen
    compounds, and metals. This technology is
    attractive to industry because a high degree of
    classification and toxic pollutants removal can
    be combined in one treatment process.
  • Neutralization
  • Involves adding an acid or a base to a wastewater
    to offset or neutralize the effects of its
    counterpart in the wastewater flow, namely,
    adding acids to alkaline wastewaters and bases to
    acidic wastewaters.

55
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • SECONDARY TREATMENT
  • The most important considerations in
    neutralization treatment are the wastewater
    constituents so that the proper neutralizing
    chemicals are used, and proper monitoring to
    ensure that the required quantities of these
    chemicals are used and that the effluent is in
    fact neutralized.
  • For acid waste streams, lime, soda ash, and
    caustic soda are the most common base chemicals
    used
  • In alkaline waste streams, sulfuric,
    hydrochloric, and nitric acid are generally used
    for neutralization

56
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TERTIARY TREATMENT
  • Treatment methods in which the removal of
    contaminants is brought about by biological
    activity are known as biological unit processes.
  • Biological treatment is used primarily to remove
    the biodegradable organic substances (colloidal
    or dissolved) in wastewater.
  • Basically these substances are converted into
    gases that can escape to the atmosphere or into
    biological cell tissue that can be removed by
    settling.
  • Designed to remove those constituents that are
    not adequately removed in the secondary treatment
    plants, such as N, P, and other soluble organic
    and inorganic compounds.

57
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TERTIARY TREATMENT
  • Many of these constituents must be removed to
    meet stringent water quality standards and to
    allow reuse of the effluent for municipal,
    industrial, irrigation, recreation, and other
    water needs.
  • The most commonly used advanced wastewater
    treatment processes are among other
  • Chemical precipitation of phosphorus,
  • Nitrification and Denitrification,
  • Ammonia stripping,
  • Breakpoint chlorination,
  • Filtration,
  • Carbon adsorption,
  • Ion exchange

58
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TERTIARY TREATMENT
  • Aerobic Suspended Growth Processes
  • (Activated Sludge) 
  • Process in which the biological growth products
    (microorganisms) are kept in suspension in a
    liquid medium consisting of entrapped and
    suspended colloidal and dissolved organic and
    inorganic materials.
  • It uses metabolic reactions of the microorganisms
    to attain an acceptable effluent quality by
    removing these substances exerting an oxygen
    demand.
  • In the suspended growth processes, wastewater
    enters a reactor basin, concretesteel-earthen
    tank(s) where microorganisms are brought into
    contact with the organic components of the
    wastewater by some type of mixing device.

59
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TERTIARY TREATMENT
  • Aerobic Lagoons (Stabilization Ponds)
  • Large, shallow earthen basins that are used for
    wastewater treatment by utilizing natural
    processes involving both algae and bacteria. The
    objective is microbial conversion of organic
    wastes into algae. Aerobic conditions prevail
    throughout the process.
  • In aerobic photosynthesis, the oxygen produced by
    the algae through the process of photosynthesis
    is used by the bacteria in the biochemical
    oxidation and degradation of organic waste.
    Carbon dioxide, ammonia, phosphate, and other
    nutrients released in the biochemical oxidation
    reactions are, in turn, used by the algae,
    forming a cyclic-symbiotic relationship.

60
WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TERTIARY TREATMENT
  • Aerobic lagoons are used for treatment of weak
    industrial wastewater containing negligible
    amounts of toxic and for non-biodegradable
    substances.
  • Anaerobic Lagoon
  • Earthen ponds built with a small surface area and
    a deep liquid depth of 3-7 m. They are anaerobic
    throughout their depth, except for an extremely
    shallow surface zone.
  • Raw wastewater enters near the bottom of the
    lagoon (often at the center) and mixes with the
    active microbial mass in the sludge blanket.

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WASTEWATER CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TERTIARY TREATMENT
  • Discharge is located near one of the sides and
    submerged below the liquid surface. Excess
    undigested grease floats to the top. Excess
    sludge is washed out with the effluent.
  • Anaerobic lagoons are effective prior to aerobic
    treatment of high-strength organic wastewater
    that also contains a high concentration of
    solids. BOD removal efficiencies of up to 85 are
    possible.

62
SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
4. SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL
63
SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • CONTENTS
  • Background
  • Techniques
  • Soil Removal
  • In-situ treatment

64
SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • Contaminated soils is one of the environmental
    problems historically ignored by humans. Lately,
    its relation with human health safety and
    ecological impacts was discovered.
  •  
  • Most widely used techniques applied to polluted
    soils are removal and placement in a more secure
    landfill environment.

65
SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • Although this simply moves contaminated soil from
    one place to another, it can be of significant
    benefit due to improvements in landfill design.
  • Often early landfills were sited in wetlands or
    adjacent to rivers and encouraged contaminant
    migration and ultimately exposure to at-risk
    populations.

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SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • Wastes could be stabilised after removal and
    before or during placement to further reduce
    mobility after placement.
  •  
  • Stabilisation might include solidification with
    concrete or a similar material or direct chemical
    treatment of certain contaminants.
  •  
  • Incineration or thermal treatment of the
    contaminated soil could be used to eliminate
    organic contaminants susceptible to destruction
    or removal by these means.

67
SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • A variety of other processes have been employed
    to treat contaminated soils once excavated and
    removed from a site. Included among these are
    biological degradation in dedicated bioreactors
    and sophisticated extraction schemes, for
    example, supercritical extraction, followed by
    the application of destruction processes to the
    effluent.
  •   An alternative to removal options of
    remediating soil is the use of in situ means that
    do not require soil removal. These are generally
    the options of choice if they can be demonstrated
    effective at reducing the volume, toxicity, or
    exposure to the wastes.

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SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • The principle option to decontaminate soils are
  • Removal options for soil remediation
  • In situ soil remediation processes

69
SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Removal options for soil remediation
  • These techniques are techniques that consists in
    to take the contaminated soil and apply a method
    to decontaminate. This techniques are
    Incineration, landfilling, stabilization and
    solidification, and ex situ bioremediation.
  • The methods are the same that are defined in the
    waste manager chapter.

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SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • In situ soil remediation processes
  • These techniques consist in treat the soil in the
    same land or place where is contaminated. The
    techniques or methods are Pump and treat
    extraction of contaminated groundwater,
    enhancement of pump and treat processes, vacuum
    extraction in the unsaturated zone and in situ
    bioremediation of soils.
  • Pump and treat extraction of contaminated
    groundwater is the technique that remove the
    contaminated groundwater or separate contaminated
    phases via withdrawal wells for above-ground
    treatment.

71
SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Enhancement of pump and treat processes are
    methods of remediation of soils. These methods
    are of limited usefulness when significant
    quantities of NAPLs exist.
  • Due to the low solubility of most soil
    contaminants, large volumes of water are required
    to remove contaminants present in a separate
    phase even if it were possible to maintain the
    water at saturation.

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SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • Vacuum extraction in the unsaturated zone is a
    process that is similar conceptually to pump and
    treat of groundwater is soil vacuum extraction
    (SVE) in the water-unsaturated zone.
  • A vacuum is applied to the unsaturated zone by
    placing a vacuum pump on a well screened in the
    unsaturated zone. This pulls vapours through the
    soil, removing any volatile components that have
    volatilised in the subsurface

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SOIL POLLUTION CONTROL Environment technologies
  • TECHNIQUES
  • In situ bioremediation of soils is perhaps the
    most desirable of all treatment processes is in
    situ biodegradation to render the soil harmless
    and to naturally recycle the contaminants.
  • There are a number of compounds that undergo
    detoxification by microbial processes at rates
    that are sufficient to justify natural recovery
    of contaminated soils.

74
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
5. NOISE CONTROL
75
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • CONTENTS
  • Background
  • Noise control
  • Guidelines
  • Control techniques
  • Results
  • Noise control for new projects

76
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • Noise pollution is traditionally not placed among
    the top environmental problems facing the
    society however, it is one of the more
    frequently encountered sources
  • Sources of noise pollution are extremely diverse
    and are constantly increasing as more and more
    noise-generating products become available to
    consumers.
  • An estimated 6 citizens are exposed to noise
    that poses a threat to their hearing.
  • In today's mechanized world it is virtually
    impossible for an active person to avoid exposure
    to potentially harmful sound levels.

77
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • NOISE CONTROL
  • General control measures include alteration of
    machines and equipment to gather up-dated
    machinery regarding noise prevention.
  • Noise can be tackled through

78
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • NOISE CONTROL
  • It is often possible to reduce noise radiation
    from production equipment, material handling, and
    work in progress for example by damping sound
    radiating panels, quietening power sources and
    transmissions, and reducing noise from compressed
    air exhausts.
  • Sometimes machine alterations or enclosures do
    not give sufficiently good results, and if it is
    the work process itself which causes intense
    noise it can be difficult to predict the results
    of noise control measures.
  • In such cases effort might be better aimed at
    changing the working methods and processes
    themselves.

79
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • NOISE CONTROL
  • Changing the method of work is the only way to
    get to grips with noise generation it requires
    that production equipment or part of it must be
    replaced and one must be aware of the
    availability of less noisy equipment for both
    production and material handling.
  • Requires cooperation between the buyer, supplier,
    designer, and safety organization.

80
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • NOISE CONTROL
  • Prevent propagation to avoid noise pollution can
    result economically more efficient than
    corrective measures.  
  • The noise in a workshop is often dominated by a
    relatively small number of intense noise
    sources.Try to enclose all noise sources points
    or keep them away from workers in the same room.
  • By setting up sound absorbing ceiling and wall
    panels, noise levels within the room far from the
    noise sources can be reduced.
  • Alteration and replacement of production
    equipment may mean that personnel monitoring this
    machinery do not need to be in its vicinity if
    monitoring can be carried out in a sound
    insulated control room.

81
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • NOISE GUIDELINES
  • For all noise control efforts a target noise
    level must be set.
  • A highest level must
  • be defined for each
  • place of equipment or room
  • Guideline noise levels
  • for specific locations

82
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • NOISE CONTROL TIPS
  • Machinery have to be adapted to new normative,
    relevant materials of the machines are key to
    ensure appropriate noise levels.
  • Existing equipment must be attenuated without
    complicated operations.
  • Handling material can be done by consider
    choosing conveyor belts and controlling the speed
    of conveyor belt transports.
  • Enclosure of machines can reduce noise levels at
    its source very effectively.
  • Attenuation by using absorbent materials is one
    of the key techniques to ensure that rooms and
    workshops do not communicate noise pollution to
    each other. To ensure so, best practices are
    providing sound isolated rooms.

83
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • RESULTS for NOISE CONTROL
  • Mounting an absorbent roof or ceiling in a room
    will in general give a noise reduction of between
    3 and 5 dB. Exceptionally, up to 10 dB can be
    obtained.
  • Damping of vibration of small production machines
    by applying damping material can give between 3
    and 10 dB attenuation.
  • Factory-made screens can reduce noise from
    between 5 and 15 dB.
  • Leakage where pipes pass through walls as well as
    acoustic leaks between walls, screens or
    enclosures, can produce large variations in the
    attenuation achieved. It is therefore important
    to seal air gaps carefully.

84
NOISE CONTROL Environment technologies
  • NOISE CONTROL at NEW PROJECTS
  • Noise control of new projects can be difficult to
    manage and implement, but very cost-effective at
    the long term.
  • Implementing noise reduction measures at rooms,
    planning the building and purchase accurate
    machinery are necessary steps to execute a
    program for noise control.
  • Noise abatement measures at the municipality
    level can reduce the background noise and
    establish an adequate framework to develop a
    detailed building code regarding noise reduction

85
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
6. MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES
86
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • CONTENTS
  • Background
  • Selecting methodology
  • Water sampling
  • Groundwater sampling
  • Soil sampling
  • Air sampling
  • Noise sampling
  • Sampling packment and shipment
  • Databases and scientific journals

87
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • BACKGROUND
  • In many instances, we are unaware that a problem
    exists until harm has been done. Damage may be in
    the form of disease to the surrounding population
    or destruction of the surrounding ecosystem.
    Monitoring problem areas or potential problem
    areas can help to limit future damage.
  • Before beginning any sampling program, background
    research must be conducted to determine
  • proper equipment for both sampling and personal
    protection,
  • proper sampling methodology and analytical
    methods, and
  • appropriate health and safety practices to be
    employed. This is especially important when
    handling materials which may be hazardous or
    radioactive.

88
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SELECTING METHODOLOGY
  • Methods used to obtain data regarding
    contamination of soil, air, and water , have to
    take into account the following factors
  • The program objective (documenting exposures.
    determining regulatory compliance
  • The type of material to be sampled (soil,
    vegetation, air, water, sludge, etc.).
  • The physical and chemical properties of the
    contaminant.
  • Other contaminants that affect the results.
  • Regulatory requirements and safety
  • Costs
  • Reliability.
  • Scale of sample area (small-scale site related to
    individual persons versus a large-scale site).
  • Short- versus long-term sampling requirement

89
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SAMPLING
  • Several factors must be accomplished to carry on
    an adequate sampling practice
  • samples must represent the conditions existing at
    the point taken.
  • samples must be of sufficient volume and must be
    taken frequently enough to permit reproducibility
    of testing requisite for the desired objective,
    as conditioned by the method of analysis to be
    employed.
  • the samples must be collected, packed, shipped,
    and manipulated prior to analysis in a manner
    that safeguards against change in the particular
    constituents or properties to be examined.

90
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • WATER SAMPLING
  • Water sampling methodologies include
  • Grab sample
  • Composite sample
  • Continuous flowing sample
  • Collection of a grab sample of water at a
    specific site representing conditions only at the
    time of sampling. Applicable to sampling water
    from sources such as wells, rivers, streams,
    lakes and oceans for chemical, physical,
    bacteriological, or radiological analysis
  • Collection of a composite sample at a specific
    site, portions of which are collected at varied
    time intervals. Alternatively, the composite may
    consist of portions collected at various sites or
    may consist of a combination of both site and
    time variables.

91
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • WATER SAMPLING
  • Continuous flowing sample, from one or more
    sampling sites, suitable for on-stream analysers.
    Applicable to sampling water from sources such as
    wells, rivers, streams, lakes, oceans, and
    reservoirs on a continual basis for chemical,
    physical, or radiological analyses
  • Apparatus used are
  • Delivery valve or pump.
  • Piping system.
  • Flow regulation system
  • Waste disposal system.

92
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • GROUNDWATER MONITORING
  • It is developed by delineating contamination
    plumes, and establishing the integrity of
    hazardous material management facilities.
  • Goal in sampling groundwater monitoring wells is
    to obtain samples that are truly representative
    of the aquifer or groundwater in question.
  • Water that stands within a monitoring well for a
    long period of time may become unrepresentative
    of formation water because chemical or
    biochemical change may cause water-quality
    alterations and even if it is unchanged from the
    time it entered the well, the stored water may
    not be representative of formation water at the
    time of sampling.

93
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SOIL SAMPLING
  • Two portions of the soil that are important to
    the environmental scientist
  • 0-15 cm layer
  • Upper meter
  • The surface layer (0-15 cm) reflects the
    deposition of airborne pollutants, especially
    those recently deposited pollutants. Pollutants
    that have been deposited by liquid spills or by
    long-term deposition of water-soluble materials
    may be found at depths ranging up to several
    meters. Plumes emanating from hazardous waste
    dumps or from leaking storage tanks may be found
    at considerable depths.
  • The methods of sampling each of these are
    slightly different, but all make use of one of
    two basic techniques.

94
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SOIL SAMPLING DEVICES
  • Samples can be collected with some form of core
    sampling or auger device, or they may be
    collected by use of excavations or trenches. In
    the latter case, the samples are cut from the
    soil mass with spades or short punches.
  • Techniques that are utilized should be closely
    coordinated with the analytical laboratory in
    order to meet the specific requirements of the
    analytical methods used.

95
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SURFACE SOIL SAMPLING
  • Use of a punch or thin-walled steel tube that is
    15-20 cm long to extract short cores from the
    soil. Tube is driven into the soil with a wooden
    mallet the core and the robe are extracted and
    the soil is pushed out of the tube into a
    stainless steel mixing bowl.
  • Using a seamless steel ring, approximately 15-30
    cm in diameter, the ring is driven into the soil
    to a depth of 15-20 cm. The ring is extracted as
    a soil-ring unit, and the soil is removed for
    analysis.
  • Perhaps the most undesirable sample collection
    device is the shovel or scoop. Often used in
    agriculture, but where samples are being taken
    for chemical pollutants, the inconsistencies are
    to be great.

96
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SHALLOW SURFACE SAMPLING
  • Sampling pollutants that have moved into the
    lower soil horizons requires the use of a device
    that will extract a longer core than can be
    obtained with the short probes or punches.
  • Three basic methods are used for sampling these
    deeper soils
  • Soil probes or soil augers
  • Power-driven corers
  • Trenching
  • Samples should be collected at least every 1.5 m
    or in each distinct stratum. Additional samples
    should be collected where sand lenses or thin
    silt and sand lovers appear in the profile.

97
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • AIR SAMPLING
  • Investigations of atmospheric contaminants
    involve the study of a heterogeneous mass under
    uncontrolled conditions. Interpretation of the
    data derived from the air-sampling program must
    often be based on the statistical theory of
    probability.
  • Extreme care must be observed to obtain
    measurements over a sufficient length of time to
    obtain results that may be considered
    representative.
  • Choice of sampling techniques and measurement
    methodology, the characteristics of the sites,
    the number of sampling stations, and the amount
    of data collected all depend on the objectives of
    the monitoring program

98
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
AIR SAMPLING OBJECTIVES
99
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • AIR SAMPLING FACTORS
  • The topography, demography, and micrometeorology
    of the area, as well as the contaminant measured,
    must be considered in determining the number of
    monitoring stations required in the area.
  • A map of the locations of the sampling stations
    is desirable in describing the sampling station.
  • Multiple samplers or monitors operating
    simultaneously upwind and downwind from the
    source are often very valuable and efficient.
  • Choice of procedure for the air sampling is
    dependent on the contaminant to be measured.

100
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • AIR SAMPLING GUIDELINES
  • The height of the inlet to the sampling duct
    should normally be from 2.5 to 5 m above ground
    whenever possible.
  • Height of the inlet above the sampling station
    structure or vegetation adjacent to the station
    should be greater than 1 m.
  • Sampling should preferably be through a vertical
    inlet with an inverted cone over the opening.
  • For a horizontal inlet, there should be a minimum
    of 2 m from the face of the structure.

101
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • AIR SAMPLING GUIDELINES
  • For access to representative ambient air in the
    area sampled, the elevation angle from the inlet
    to the top of nearby buildings should be less
    than 30.
  • To be representative of the area in which a large
    segment of the population is exposed to
    contaminants emitted by automobiles, the inlet
    should be at a distance greater than 15 m from
    the nearest high-volume traffic artery.
  • Photochemical oxidants or ozone samplers should
    be located at distances greater than 50 m from
    high-volume-traffic locations.
  • Particulate matter samplers should be sited at
    locations that are greater than 200 m from
    unpaved streets or roads.

102
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • NOISE SAMPLING
  • To avoid noise pollution, it is very relevant to
    have an appropriate estimation of noise level at
    the place of work through modern and accurate
    techniques and measuring tools.
  • Background noise can be very relevant at
    factories located around main highways, close to
    the airports.
  • Sound-level meter is best used attached to the
    person exposed.
  • Noise sampling has to take into account internal
    and external measures to the workplace

103
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SAMPLES PACKMENT and SHIPMENT
  • Laboratory for analysing a sample should be
    consulted regarding packaging requirements before
    the initiation of a sampling program. Samples
    must be packaged for shipment in compliance with
    current legislation and commercial carrier
    regulations.
  • Traffic reports, dioxin shipment records, packing
    lists, chain-of-custody records, and any other
    shipping/sample documentation accompanying the
    shipment must be enclosed to a waterproof plastic
    bag and taped to the underside of the shipping
    cooler lid.
  • Coolers must be sealed with custody seals.
  • Shipping coolers must have clearly visible return
    address labels on the outside. Inside the cooler,
    sample containers must be enclosed in clear
    plastic bags through which sample tags and labels
    are visible.

104
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SAMPLES PACKMENT and SHIPMENT
  • Samples for organics analysis must be shipped
    urgently.
  • Each sample must be properly documented to ensure
    timely, correct, and complete analysis for all
    parameters requested, and, most importantly, to
    support use of sample data in potential
    enforcement actions concerning a site.
  • Documentation system provides the means to
    individually identify, crack, and monitor each
    sample from the point of collection through final
    data reporting
  • To render sample data valid for enforcement uses,
    individual samples must be traceable continuously
    from the time of collection until the time of
    introduction as evidence during litigation. One
    mechanism utilized is the use of the "sample
    tag."

105
MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • SAMPLES PACKMENT and SHIPMENT
  • Sampling information recorded on an sample tag
    includes
  • Sample number
  • Station number
  • Date.
  • Time
  • Station location
  • Samplers
  • Tag number
  • Lab sample number

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MONITORING TECHNOLOGIES Environment technologies
  • DATABASES and JOURNALS
  • Environmental databases and scientific journals
    shall complement information provided in this
    module when dealing with application of
    environmental technologies.
  • Main European environmental database is linked to
    EEAs website, classified by theme and sector.
    SERIS presents national reports on the state of
    the environment
  • Several scientific journals can be browsed in
    internet to assess a specific technology suitable
    for your organization.
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