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Pembuatan Proposal Proyek

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Title: Pembuatan Proposal Proyek


1
Pembuatan Proposal Proyek
2
The sellers contract management processes
  • Presales Activity The process of identifying
    prospective and current customers, determining
    customers needs and plans, and evaluating the
    competitive environment.
  • Bid/No Bid Decision-Making The process of
    evaluating the buyers solicitation, assessing
    the competitive environment and risks against the
    opportunities of a potential business deal, and
    then deciding whether to proceed.
  • Bid/Proposal Preparation The process of
    developing offers in response to a buyers
    solicitation or based on perceived buyer needs,
    for the purpose of persuading the buyer to enter
    into a contract.
  • Contract Negotiation and Formation The process
    of reaching a common understanding of the nature
    of the project and negotiating the contract terms
    and conditions for the purpose of developing a
    set of shared expectations and understandings.
  • Contract Administration The process of ensuring
    that each partys performance meets contractual
    requirements.
  • Contract Closeout The process of verifying that
    all administrative matters are concluded on a
    contract that is otherwise physically complete.
    This involves completing and settling the
    contract, including resolving any open items.

3
What is a proposal?
  • A proposal is a plan of action for fulfilling a
    need.
  • Basically, it is a sales document that responds
    to the needs of someone else.
  • It is a written document describing in detail the
    work to be performed and provides the
    reader/evaluator adequate information to make an
    informed purchasing decision.

4
The Seven Deadly Sins of Proposal Writing
  • Failure to focus on the client's business
    problems and payoffsthe content sounds generic.
  • No persuasive structurethe proposal is an
    "information dump."
  • No clear differentiation of this vendor compared
    to others.
  • Failure to offer a compelling value proposition.
  • Key points are buriedno impact, no highlighting.
  • Difficult to read because they're full of jargon,
    too long, or too technical.
  • Credibility killersmisspellings, grammar and
    punctuation errors, use of the wrong client's
    name, inconsistent formats, and similar mistakes

5
So before we define what a proposal is, let's
make sure we know what it's not
  • It's not a price quote. If all you tell the
    decision maker is the amount he or she has to
    pay, you've reduced what you're selling down to
    the level of a commodity. You've said, in effect,
    "All products or services of this type are
    basically the same. We have nothing unique to
    offer. Choose based on cost." Unless you are
    always the lowest-priced vendor, that's not a
    strong position to take.
  • It's not a bill of materials, project plan, or
    scope of work. In technical and engineering
    environments, people sometimes take the attitude
    that if they just explain all the details of the
    proposed solution very clearly and accurately,
    the customer will buy. Actually, giving customers
    a detailed bill of materials or project plan may
    have exactly the opposite effect. You've just
    given them a shopping list so detailed they may
    decide to do the job without your help. Ouch!
  • It's not the company history, either. Oddly
    enough, a sizable number of the proposals we see
    start out that way. Why? From reading dozens and
    dozens of these things, I can assure you most
    company histories are not very interesting.
  • Here's the bottom line What is a proposal? It's
    a sales document.

6
The Value of Your Proposals to Your Clients
  • Compare vendors, offers, or prices so he or she
    can make an informed decision
  • Clarify complex information
  • Make the buying process more "objective"
  • Slow down the sales process
  • Solicit creative ideas, become educated, or get
    free consulting

7
The Value of Your Proposals to You
  • The obvious helping you sell. The proposal's
    most important job is to help you sell something.
    (In the nonprofit realm, it should help you
    obtain funding in support of your mission and
    objectives.) To go a little further, though, a
    high-quality, carefully constructed proposal can
    help you
  • Sell on value instead of price Use your proposal
    to move the decision maker's focus away from
    price and toward such measures of value as lower
    total cost of ownership, higher reliability,
    direct customer support, documented technical
    superiority, or some other message that separates
    you from your competitors.
  • Compete successfully without having personal
    contact with every member of the decision team
    You may never have the opportunity to meet every
    member of the team in person. A good proposal can
    speak to each member of the team, helping make
    your case.
  • Demonstrate your competence and professionalism
    It's probably not fair and it's definitely not
    logical, but almost everybody does it We judge a
    vendor's ability to deliver goods or services
    from the quality of the proposal they submit. Our
    conscious, rational mind tells us that spelling
    and grammar have nothing to do with the ability
    to provide help desk support for our PC users,
    yet we find those misspellings and grammar
    mistakes raising doubt and uncertainty in our
    mind.
  • Offer a bundled solution The customer may ask
    you for a proposal for basic bookkeeping
    services. In your proposal, though, you can add a
    brief description of your ability to provide tax
    preparation, too, as part of a total solution.
    That will increase the size of the deal, it may
    differentiate you from other bookkeepers who
    submit a proposal, or it may just make the
    customer aware that you also do taxes. All of
    these are good things.
  • Sell the "smarter" buyer Smart buyers want to
    gain as much as possible while spending as little
    as possible. If you don't show them what they
    gain by choosing your recommendations, they will
    inevitably focus on the other half of the
    equation spending very little.
  • Sell a complex, technical product to nontechnical
    buyers Speaking the buyer's language is an
    important part of winning his or her trust. A
    flexible proposal process can help you
    communicate effectively even if the customer
    lacks in-depth knowledge of what you're offering.
  • The proposal as a marketing tool. Think about
    your company's image. What do your clients think
    of you? What do prospects who have never worked
    with you assume about you?
  • Influencing clients. Good account management
    requires you to think about the future of your
    business relationships, not merely the immediate
    opportunity. Reacting to a customer's problems or
    needs when the customer brings them up is all
    right, but it's not nearly as effective as
    working with the customer collaboratively to
    develop a business direction.

8
Why use a Proposal?
  • A good RFP will help the evaluator collect
    critical data to streamline the evaluation
    process and compare only the qualified bidders.
  • The RFP outline format is design to help the
    evaluator quickly compare proposal.
  • Most proposal writers spend a huge amount of time
    writing the RFP. They expect you to read it and
    follow it carefully.

9
Skenario Perolehan Proyek PL
  • Penunjukan Langsung oleh Client (pemberi
    kerja).
  • Melalui Tender.

10
Penunjukan Langsung (di Indonesia), biasa dgn
Cara
  • Konsultan (tim pengembang) melakukan survei di
    perusahaan Client (wawancara, mengumpulkan
    dokumen, observasi sistem dan prosedur kerja).
  • Konsultan menyusun proposal (bisa dengan
    berkonsultasi dengan Client).
  • Negosiasi antara Konsultan dan Client.
  • Penanda-tanganan dokumen kontrak oleh Konsultan
    dan Client.

11
Proposal pada Penunjukan Langsung
  • Singkat tapi jelas (minimal).
  • Kisi-kisi materi disusun atas kesepakatan Client
    Konsultan.
  • Bisa hanya terdiri dari satu dokumen, isi utama
    spesifikasi teknis sistem / PL yang akan
    dibangun, rencana kerja, anggaran yang diusulkan
    (atau hanya nilai total proyek yang diminta).

12
Mekanisme Melalui Tender Proyek
  • Client menyusun TOR (KAK).
  • Pengumuman lelang / tender proyek melalui media
    publikasi atau pengiriman undangan tender kpd
    Konsultan2 yang dipilih.
  • Pendaftaran peserta tender ( Konsultan).
  • Pemasukan proposal tender oleh peserta.
  • Penilaian dan seleksi proposal pemenang.
  • Pengumuman pemenang.
  • Penanda-tanganan dok kontrak dan penerbitan SPK
    (Surat Perintah Kerja) oleh Client.

13
Dilema Konsultan
Setelah membaca TOR/KAK To BID or NOT bid (ikut
tender / tidak)?
14
Isu Utama to BID or NOT bid
  • Biaya yang dikeluarkan untuk penyusunan proposal
    (untuk gaji tim penyusun, survei awal,
    peralatan) 10 dari nilai proyek.
  • Waktu penyusunan proposal dapat dipenuhi?
  • Mampu melaksanakan TOR atau tidak? (Pertimbangan
    keahlian personil yang ada, peralatan yang
    dimiliki Konsultan, waktu yang ditetapkan pada
    TOR.)

15
Request for proposals (RFP)
  • Negotiated bid, such as a request for proposals
    (RFP) or request for quote (RFQ).
  • Request for Proposals (RFP) is the type of
    contracting commonly used when the government is
    not sure what is required and they are looking
    for your input on ways you plan to meet their
    objectives.
  • First and foremost, respond to an RFP in exact
    accordance with the requirements outlined in the
    RFP.
  • Requests for Quote (RFQ) is the method often used
    to solicit price or market information. A quote
    submitted does not constitute an offer and is not
    the government form of a binding contract.

16
Proposal t.d.
  • Proposal Administrasi Profil Perusahaan
    (struktur organisasi, manajemen, kondisi
    keuangan), pengalaman (proyek2 yg sdh
    dikerjakan).
  • Proposal Teknis
  • Proposal Biaya

17
Pedoman Umum Penyusunan Proposal Teknis
  • Penampilan menarik (perhatikan cover, struktur
    isi buku, font, gambar berwarna).
  • Jelas (disertai dg visualisasi gambar, tabel,
    grafik).
  • Isi meyakinkan konsisten, menjawab semua
    butir-butir TOR dg baik.
  • Keahlian tim pelaksana proyek dipresentasikan
    dengan meyakinkan (perhatikan pendidikan,
    pengalaman).

18
Isi Proposal Teknis (yg utama)
  • Bab 1 Pendahuluan (biasanya isi TOR).
  • Bab 2 Tanggapan thd TOR
  • Bab 3 Bahasan sistem (PL) yg diusulkan (dpt gt 1
    bab, jika perlu).
  • Bab 4 Metodologi Pelaksanaan Pekerjaan.
  • Bab 5 Kesimpulan.
  • Lampiran CV para tenaga ahli.

19
Sample Proposal OutlineWhen a format is not
provided.
  • Executive Summary a short statement of your case
    and summary of the entire proposal typically 1
    to 2 pages.
  • Statement of Need why this project is necessary
    1 to 3 pages
  • Project Description nuts and bolts of how the
    project will be implemented 2 to 5 pages
  • Bid Amount/Budget financial description of the
    project plus explanatory notes 1 to 2 pages
  • Organization Information history and structure
    of the company its primary activities,
    clientele, and services 1 to 2 pages
  • Conclusion summary of the proposal's main
    points one-page.

20
The Executive Summary
  • The first page of the proposal is the most
    important
  • section of the entire document. Here you will
    provide the reader with a snapshot of what is to
    follow. It summarizes all of the key information
    and is a sales document designed to convince the
    reader that this proposal should be considered.
    Be certain to include
  • Problem A brief statement of the problem or
    need your company has recognized and is prepared
    to address (one or two paragraphs)
  • Solution A short description of the project,
    including what will take place and the benefits,
    how it will operate, how long it will take, and
    how it will be staffed (one or two paragraphs)
  • The organization and its expertise a brief
    statement of the name, history, purpose, and
    activities of your company, emphasizing its
    capacity to carry out this proposal (one
    paragraph).

21
The Statement of Need
  • Write your proposal like a sales documents.
  • The statement of need will enable the evaluator
    to learn more about the issues and to understand
    the problem that the project will remedy.
  • It presents the facts and evidence that support
    the need for the project and establishes that
    your company understands the problems and
    therefore can reasonably address them.
  • You want the need section to be logical, yet
    persuasive. Like a good debater, you must
    assemble all the arguments. Then present them in
    a logical sequence that will readily convince the
    reader of their importance. As you marshal your
    arguments, consider the following points.

22
The Statement of Need
  • Demonstrate complete understanding of the stated
    requirement or problem.
  • Be specific and direct, being vague only
    demonstrates that you do not understand the
    requirements and will create questions in the
    mind of the evaluator.
  • Be sure the data you present are accurate. There
    is nothing more embarrassing than to find out
    your information is out of date or incorrect.
  • Decide which facts or statistics best support the
    project and substantiate your promises with facts
    and details.
  • Information that does not relate to the project
    you are presenting will cause the reader to
    question the entire proposal.

23
The Project Description
  • Objectives are the measurable outcomes of the
    project.
  • This section of your proposal should have four
    subsections
  • Objectives,
  • Methods,
  • Staffing/administration, and
  • Evaluation.
  • Together, objectives and methods will dictate
    your staffing and administrative requirements.

24
The Project Description
  • Methods
  • This means that you demonstrate your ability to
    solve or meet the challenge.
  • The methods section describes the specific
    activities that will take place to achieve the
    objectives. It might be helpful to divide your
    discussion of methods into the following
  • what, how, when, and why.
  • Your proposal should clearly communicate your
    ability to successfully perform the contract.
  • Documentation of successful fulfillment of other
    contracts will help prove your point.

25
The Project Description
  • How This is the detailed description of what
    will occur from the time the project begins until
    it is completed. Your methods should match the
    previously stated objectives.
  • When The methods section should present the
    order and timing for the tasks. It might make
    sense to provide a timetable so that the reader
    does not have to map out the sequencing on their
    own.
  • The timetable tells the reader "when" and
    provides another summary of the project that
    supports the rest of the methods section.

26
The Project Description
  • Why You may need to defend your chosen methods,
    especially if they are a new approach. Why will
    the planned work lead to the outcomes you
    anticipate?
  • You can answer this question in a number of ways,
    including using the valuation of an expert and
    examples of another projects that worked.
  • The methods section helps the reader to visualize
    the implementation of the project. It should
    convince the reader that your company knows what
    it is doing, thereby again establishing
    credibility.

27
The Project DescriptionStaffing/Administration
  • In describing the methods, you will have
    mentioned staffing for the project. You now need
    to devote a few sentences to discussing the
    number of staff, their qualifications, and
    specific assignments.
  • Details about individual staff members involved
    in the project can be included either as part of
    this section or in the appendix, depending on the
    length and importance of this information
  • How will you free up the time of an already fully
    deployed individual?

28
Pricing the project
  • As you prepare to assemble the pricing, go back
    through the proposal narrative and make a list of
    all personnel and contractors related to the
    operation of the project.
  • Be sure that you list not only new costs to
    complete the project but also any ongoing
    expenses for items that will be allocated to the
    project.
  • Verify or get the relevant costs from the person
    in your agency who is responsible for keeping the
    books.
  • You may need to estimate the proportions of your
    companys ongoing expenses that should be charged
    to the project and any new costs, such as
    salaries for project personnel not yet hired. Put
    the costs you have identified next to each item
    on your list.

29
Keeping records
  • Your list of pricing items and the calculations
    you have done to arrive at a dollar figure for
    each item should be summarized on worksheets.
  • You should keep these to remind yourself how the
    numbers were developed.
  • These worksheets can be useful as you continue to
    develop the proposal and discuss it with the
    evaluator they are also a valuable tool for
    monitoring the project once it is under way and
    for reporting after completion.
  • Some proposals require you to provide adequate
    management and cost information. In this case,
    you need to demonstrate your ability to account
    for all of the costs involved in performing the
    contract.

30
Developing Your Conclusion
  • Every proposal should have a concluding paragraph
    or two. This is a good place to call attention to
    the future, after the project is completed.
  • If appropriate, you should outline some of the
    follow-up activities that might be undertaken.
  • This section is also the place to make a final
    appeal for your companys consideration.
  • Briefly summarize what your company wants to do
    and why it is important.

31
Finishing touches
  • Packaging
  • Cover design
  • Cover letter
  • Spell check
  • Gather appendix materials
  • Prepare table of contents, section dividers, etc.
  • Production
  • Where and by whom will the document be produced?

32
A checklist for government proposal writing
  • Thoroughly reviewed the RFP
  • Prepared any questions concerning the RFP and
    submitted to the contracting officer
  • Obtained and reviewed background documentation
    for the project
  • Evaluated your companys strengths and weaknesses
  • Evaluated your companys competition
  • Developed a strategy to differentiate your
    company
  • Prepared document in the appropriate format
  • Included commitment letters from potential
    employees, suppliers and funding sources
  • If appropriate, past performance references
  • Purchased a sufficient number of packaging
    materials? Binder rings, tabs, notebooks, etc.

33
Proposal delivery
  • Deliver on time.
  • Label the original documents and required number
    of copies.
  • Seal the original and copies in a package and
    label appropriately.
  • If mailing, dont forget to check delivery
    schedules.
  • If hand carrying, provide a signature receipt for
    the delivery person.

34
Isi Proposal (tugas MPPL)
  • Cover
  • Table of Content
  • Cover letter (ditujukan ke elisati h)
  • Executive Summary
  • Pendahuluan
  • Our Understanding (Statement of Need) pemahaman
    konsultan ttng permasalahan yang di-ceritakan di
    TOR
  • Tanggapan (proposed solution)
  • Bahasan sistem(detil)
  • Metodologi Pelaksanaan (ImplementasiProject
    Management)
  • Tahapan pengerjaan
  • Scheduling
  • WBS
  • Biaya
  • Estimasi biaya proyek (personil mandays)
  • Kesimpulan
  • CV semua anggota dengan posisi PM, (Programmer,
    AnalystDesainer, Network Engineer, QA, dst)

35
Sekian..
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