Hebrew Bible (HB) and Septuagint (LXX) and Old Testament (OT) Similarities and Differences - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Hebrew Bible (HB) and Septuagint (LXX) and Old Testament (OT) Similarities and Differences

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Title: Hebrew Bible (HB) and Septuagint (LXX) and Old Testament (OT) Similarities and Differences


1
Hebrew Bible (HB)andSeptuagint (LXX)andOld
Testament (OT) Similarities and Differences
  • SCTR 19 Religions of the Book
  • Prepared by Sean Hind

2
What is the Hebrew Bible?
  • A collection of ancient Jewish Scriptures
  • 24 books (originally scrolls)
  • Most composed from 10th to 5th centuries BC
  • but not finally canonized until ca. 90 AD
  • Language mostly Hebrew
  • but some parts written in Aramaic
  • Also called the Mikra or TaNaK
  • Torah LAW (Teaching/Instruction)
  • Neviim PROPHETS (Former Latter)
  • Khetuvim WRITINGS (Miscellaneous)

3
What is the Septuagint?
  • Another collection of Ancient Jewish Scriptures,
    but in GREEK, and larger than the HB
  • Greek translation of 24 HB books (some
    subdivided),
  • PLUS additional books not in HB,called
    Deuterocanonical or Apocryphal Books
  • Various editions between 46 and 53 books total.
  • Abbrev. LXX (legend of 70 translators / 70 days).
  • First translated and compiled around 250 BCE
  • Used by Greek-speaking Jews living outside of
    Israel
  • Shorthand Summary LXX Greek trnsl. of HB
    Apocrypha

4
What is the Septuagint?
  • Differences from Hebrew Bible
  • Number arrangement of categories is different.
  • Total number of canonical books is larger.
  • Titles of some books are changed.
  • Categorization of some books is different.
  • Four Main Divisions of LXX (vs. 3 in HB)
  • Pentateuch / Law
  • Historical Books
  • Poetic / Wisdom Books
  • Prophetic Books

5
Total Number of Books
  • HB has 24 books LXX up to 53 books
  • Yet the content is not really doubled!
  • Some HB books are subdivided in LXXe.g. Samuel,
    Kings, Chronicles ? two books each
  • "The Twelve" minor prophets (one book in HB),
    are counted as twelve separate books in LXX.
  • LXX has a few additional books not in HB
  • 7 New Tobit, Judith, 1 Maccabees, 2 Maccabees,
    Wisdom, Ecclesiasticus, Baruch (T.J. McWeb)
  • Some later LXX editions also add 1 Esdras, Odes,
    34 Maccabees, etc.

6
Book Titles Categorizations
  • Some HB books have different titles in LXX
  • "Samuel" ? "1 Kingdoms" "2 Kingdoms"
  • Kings ? 3 Kingdoms 4 Kingdoms
  • Some HB books in different sections of LXX
  • Most Khetuvim are in LXX Poetic/Wisdom Books
  • But several HB "Writings" are relocated among the
    "Historical Books" or "Prophets in the LXX
  • Ruth, Esther, 1 2 Chronicles, Ezra and Nehemiah
    are all among the LXX Historical Books.
  • Lamentations and Daniel are reordered among the
    LXX Prophetic Books.

7
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8
Hebrew Bible Part 1
LXX Part 1
9
Hebrew Bible Part 2A
LXX Part 2
10
Hebrew Bible Part 2B
LXX Part 4
11
Hebrew Bible Part 3
LXX Part 3
12
What is the Old Testament?
  • Jewish scriptures, as used/adapted by Christians
  • Contents arrangements based both on HB LXX.
  • Many translations Latin, German, English, etc.
  • Contents vary for different Christian churches.
  • Abbrev. OT (in contrast to Christian New
    Testament - NT)
  • Whose Bible? Different Christian editions of OT
  • Roman Catholic OT 46 books
  • Alexandrian Canon of LXX (24 HB, subdivided ,
    plus 7 more)
  • Eastern Orthodox OT up to 53 books (various
    editions)
  • Based on later expansions of LXX, with even more
    books
  • Western Protestant OT reduced to 39 books
  • Reformers removed 7 Apocrypha, but kept RC
    order titles

13
Summary
  • Hebrew Bible (HB)
  • Collection of ancient Jewish scriptures in
    Hebrew.
  • Septuagint (LXX)
  • Translation and rearrangement and expansion of
    ancient (pre-Christian !) Jewish scriptures, used
    by Greek-speaking Jews living outside of Israel.
  • Old Testament (OT)
  • Christian name for ancient Jewish scriptures,
    based both on HB LXX, in any translation.
  • Various editions Orthodox 53 Catholic 46
    Protestant 39
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