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A Time Line of Key Events in the

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Title: A Time Line of Key Events in the


1
A Time Line of Key Events in the History of the
Bible
2
Papyrus
200 BC
Scrolls of leather, and later of papyrus,
are used to make copies of the Scriptures.
A papyrus codex is a bound volume made from
sheets folded and sewn together, sometimes
with a cover. They are used more than scrolls
after AD 1-100.
1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500
AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD
2000
1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD
500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD
1900 AD 2000
3
The Bible is
  • Made up of 66 different
  • books.
  • Written over a span of
  • 1,600 years (approximately
  • 1500 BC to AD 100).
  • Written by more than 40
  • kings, prophets, leaders,
  • and followers of Jesus.

4
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5
Clay
39 books Written approximately
1500-400 BC
Old Testament
Stone
Leather
6
27 books Written approximately AD
45-100
New Testament
papyrus
The oldest New Testament fragment (from John 18)
that we have today was copied in Greek on a
papyrus codex (folded book) around AD 110-130.
7
The Old Testament was written mainly in Hebrew,
with some Aramaic.
The letter aleph in Hebrew script.
A sample of Aramaic letters.
8
The New Testament was written in Greek.
A sample of Greek letters.
The letter alpha in Koine Greek dialect.
9
Consider the following verse from Romans 1620,
"But the God of peace will crush Satan under
your feet shortly."
However, consider the meaning of the sentence if
the words of this verse were put in the following
order "But Satan shortly under your feet will
crush the God of peace.
10
Matthew 518 (KJV) - For verily I say unto you,
Till heaven and earth pass, one jot or one tittle
shall in no wise pass from the law, till all be
fulfilled.
Matthew 518 in the Aramaic language. The jot is
highlighted in red.
11
250-100 BC
The Septuagint
  • The word Septuagint means seventy.
  • Refers to the tradition that
  • 70 or 72 men translated it.
  • Septuagint is often abbreviated LXX,
  • the Roman numeral for seventy.

1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500
AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD
2000
1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD
500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD
1900 AD 2000
12
250-100 BC
The Septuagint
  • The 53 books of this translation are
  • arranged by subject.
  • Torah
  • History
  • Poetry
  • Prophecy

1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500
AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD
2000
1500 BC 500 BC AD1 AD
500 AD 1000 AD 1500 AD
1900 AD 2000
13
250-100 BC
The Septuagint
The Septuagint is the first Greek
translation of the Hebrew Bible (the Old
Testament). It was translated in 250-100 BC
by Jewish scholars in Alexandria,
Egypt.
1500 BC 500 BC AD 1 AD 500
AD 1000 AD 1500 AD 1900 AD
2000
14
The Septuagint
  • The Septuagint has its origin in Alexandria,
    Egypt and was translated between 300-200 BC.
    (note agreement on dates)
  • Widely used among Hellenistic Jews, this Greek
    translation was produced because many Jews spread
    throughout the empire were beginning to lose
    their Hebrew language.
  • The process of translating the Hebrew to Greek
    also gave many non-Jews a glimpse into Judaism.

15
Septuagint - What Does It Contain?
  • The Septuagint contains the standard 39 books of
    the Old Testament canon, as well as certain
    apocryphal books.
  • The term "Apocrypha" was coined by the
    fifth-century biblical scholar, Jerome, and
    generally refers to the set of ancient Jewish
    writings written during the period between the
    last book in the Jewish scriptures, Malachi, and
    the arrival of Jesus Christ.
  • The apocryphal books include Judith, Tobit,
    Baruch, Sirach (or Ecclesiasticus), the Wisdom of
    Solomon, First and Second Maccabees, the two
    Books of Esdras, additions to the Book of Esther,
    additions to the Book of Daniel, and the Prayer
    of Manasseh.

16
The Apocrypha 
17
The Apocryphal books!
  • The Apocryphal books were included in the
    Septuagint for historical and religious purposes,
    but are not recognized by Protestant Christians
    or Orthodox Jews as canonical (inspired by God).
  • Most reformed teachers will point out that the
    New Testament writers never quoted from the
    Apocryphal books, and that the Apocrypha was
    never considered part of the canonical Jewish
    scripture.
  • However, the Roman Catholic Church and the
    Orthodox churches include the Apocrypha in their
    Bible (except for the books of Esdras and the
    Prayer of Manasseh).

18
Septuagint - Is it a Reliable Translation?
  • Since the Septuagint is a translation, scholars
    speculate if it accurately reflects the Hebrew
    scriptures of the 2nd century BC. A close
    examination of the Septuagint and the Masoretic
    Text (the early Hebrew text of the Old Testament)
    show slight variations.
  • Were these errors in translation, or are the
    Septuagint and Masoretic Text based on slightly
    different Hebrew manuscripts?

19
Septuagint - Is it a Reliable Translation?
  • The discovery of the Dead Sea Scrolls has helped
    to shed light on this question.
  • Discovered in the Qumran region near the Dead Sea
    beginning in 1947, these scrolls are dated to as
    early as 200 BC and contain parts of every book
    in the Old Testament except Esther.
  • Comparisons of the Dead Sea Scrolls to the
    Masoretic Text and the Septuagint show that where
    there are differences between the Masoretic Text
    and the Septuagint, approximately 95 of those
    differences are shared between the Dead Sea
    Scrolls and the Masoretic text, while only 5 of
    those differences are shared between the Dead Sea
    Scrolls and the Septuagint.

20
Septuagint - Is it a Reliable Translation?
  • Does this mean that the Septuagint is unreliable
    and that our Old Testament is wrought with
    contradictory sources?
  • No. It is imperative to note that these
    variations are extremely minor (i.e.,
    grammatical errors, spelling differences or
    missing words) and do not affect the meaning of
    sentences and paragraphs. (An exception is the
    book of Jeremiah, in which the actual passages
    are arranged differently.)
  • None of the differences, however, come close to
    affecting any area of teaching or doctrine.

21
Septuagint - Is it a Reliable Translation?
  • The majority of the Septuagint, Masoretic Text
    and the Dead Sea Scrolls are remarkably similar
    and have dispelled unfounded theories that the
    Biblical text has been corrupted by time and
    conspiracy. Furthermore, these variations do not
    call into question the infallibility of God in
    preserving His word.
  • Although the original documents are inerrant,
    translators and scribes are human beings and are
    thus prone to making slight errors in translation
    and copying (Hebrew scribal rules attest to how
    exacting scribes were).
  • Even then, the Bible has redundancy built into
    its text, and anything significant is told more
    than once. If grammatical mistakes were
    introduced that makes a point unclear, it would
    be clarified in several other places in
    scripture.

22
SEPTUAGINT QUOTES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
  • Of the approximately 300 Old Testament quotes in
    the New Testament, approximately 2/3 of them came
    from the Septuagint which included the
    deuterocanonical books that the Protestants later
    removed.
  • Is this additional evidence that Jesus and the
    apostles viewed the deuterocanonical books as
    part of canon of the Old Testament?

23
SEPTUAGINT QUOTES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
  • Matt. 123 / Isaiah 714 - behold, a "virgin"
    shall conceive. Hebrew - behold, a "young woman"
    shall conceive. (al-maw') Strong's number for it
    is 5959 (Hebrew), look it up! Had Isaiah been
    inspired to say this was a virgin, he would have
    called her a "bethuwlah" (Strong's 1330)
  • Matt. 33 Mark 13 John 123 / Isaiah 403 -
    make "His paths straight." Hebrew - make "level
    in the desert a highway."
  • Matt. 913 127 / Hosea 66 - I desire "mercy"
    and not sacrifice. Hebrew - I desire "goodness"
    and not sacrifice.
  • Luke 35-6 / Isaiah 404-5 - crooked be made
    straight, rough ways smooth, shall see salvation.
    Hebrew - omits these phrases.
  • Luke 418 / Isaiah 611 - and recovering of sight
    to the blind. Hebrew - the opening of prison to
    them that are bound.
  • Luke 418 / Isaiah 586 - to set at liberty those
    that are oppressed (or bruised). Hebrew - to let
    the oppressed go free.

24
SEPTUAGINT QUOTES IN THE NEW TESTAMENT
  • John 631 / Psalm 7824 - He gave them "bread"
    out of heaven to eat. Hebrew - gave them "food"
    or "grain" from heaven.
  • John 1238 / Isaiah 531 - who has believed our
    "report?" Hebrew - who has believed our
    "message?"
  • John 1240 / Isaiah 610 - lest they should see
    with eyes...turn for me to heal them. Hebrew -
    shut their eyes...and be healed.
  • Rom. 927 / Isaiah 1022 - only a remnant of them
    "will be saved." Hebrew - only a remnant of them
    "will return."
  • Rom. 929 / Isaiah 19 - had not left us
    "children." Hebrew - Jehova had left us a "very
    small remnant."
  • Rom. 933 1011 1 Peter 26 / Isaiah 2816 - he
    who believes will not be "put to shame." Hebrew -
    shall not be "in haste."

25
Where the Bishop is, there let the multitude of
believers be even as where Jesus is, there is
the Catholic Church'' Ignatius of Antioch, 1st c.
A.D
  • Let me reiterate the then 300 year old
    Septuagint version of Scripture was good enough
    for Matthew, Mark, Luke, John, and Paul, etc.,
    which is evident in their referencing it over 300
    times (out of 350 Old Testament references!) in
    their New Testament writings.
  • The Septuagint includes 7 books and parts of
    Esther and Daniel that were removed from
    Protestant Bibles some 1,500 years after the
    birth of Christ.

26
Septuagint
  • The Septuagint is the Old Testament referred to
    in the Didache or "Doctrine of the Apostles"
    (first century Christian writings)
  • and by Origen, Irenaeus of Lyons, Hippolytus,
    Tertullian, Cyprian of Carthage, Justin Martyr,
    St. Augustine and the vast majority of early
    Christians who referenced Scripture in their
    writings.
  • The Epistle of Pope Clement, written in the first
    century, refers to the Books Ecclesiasticus and
    Wisdom, analyzed the book of Judith, and quotes
    sections of the book of Esther that were removed
    from Protestant Bibles.

27
Septuagint
  • The Septuagint was the version of the Old
    Testament accepted by the very earliest
    Christians (and, yes, those 7 "extra" books were
    found among the Dead Sea Scrolls which date
    between 168 B.C. and A.D. 68, and which by the
    way, support both the Septuagint and the 6th -
    10th c. A.D. Masoretic texts in various ways, but
    supporting the Septuagint on average.)

28
The deuterocanonical books
  • The deuterocanonical books were, debated in the
    early Church, and some Fathers accorded them
    higher status than others (hence the Catholic
    term for them "deuterocanonical," or what St.
    Cyril of Jerusalem called "secondary rank," as
    opposed to the other books which are called
    "protocanonical").
  • But all the Fathers believed as did St.
    Athanasius, who, in one of his many Easter
    letters, names the 22 Books all Christians accept
    and then describes the deuterocanonicals as
    "appointed by the Fathers to be read by those who
    newly join us, and who wish for instruction in
    the word of godliness."
  • Church Councils listed and affirmed the present
    Catholic canon, which was only formally closed at
    the Council of Trent in the 16th century.

29
Problem Scriptures
  • Tobit 1215 I am Raphael, one of the seven holy
    angels who present the prayers of the saints and
    enter into the presence of the glory of the Holy
    One. see Revelation 14 and 83-4 below 2
    Maccabees 729 A mother speaking to her son Do
    not fear this butcher, but prove worthy of your
    brothers. Accept death, so that in God's mercy I
    may get you back again with your brothers. see
    Hebrews 1135 below 2 Maccabees 1244 For if
    he were not expecting that those who had fallen
    would rise again, it would have been superfluous
    and foolish to pray for the dead. see 1
    Corinthians 1529 below 2 Maccabees 1514 And
    Onias spoke, saying, "This is a man who loves the
    brethren and prays much for the people and the
    holy city, Jeremiah bodily dead, the prophet of
    God." 1 Corinthians 1529 Otherwise, what do
    people mean by being baptized on behalf of the
    dead? If the dead are not raised at all, why are
    people baptized on their behalf? see 2 Maccabees
    1244 above
  • Hebrews 1135 Women received their dead raised
    to life again and others were tortured, not
    accepting deliverance that they might obtain a
    better resurrection. see 2 Maccabees 729 above
    Revelation 14 ...Grace be unto you, and
    peace, from him which is, and which was, and
    which is to come and from the seven Spirits
    which are before his throne. see Tobit 1215
    above Revelation 83-4 And another angel came
    and stood at the altar with a golden censer and
    he was given much incense to mingle with the
    prayers of all the saints upon the golden altar
    before the throne and the smoke of the incense
    rose with the prayers of the saints from the hand
    of the angel before God. see Tobit 1215 above

30
So what is the bottom line?
  • There have been differing opinions by individual
    theologians about the proper place of the
    deuterocanonicals in the 16th c.
  • Luther, reacting to serious abuses and clerical
    corruption in the Latin Church, to his own
    theological vision removed those books from the
    canon that lent support to orthodox doctrine,
    relegating them to an appendix.
  • Removed in this way were books that supported
    such things as prayers for the dead (Tobit 1212
    2 Maccabees 1239-45),
  • Purgatory (Wisdom 31-7), intercession of dead
    saints (2 Maccabees 1514)
  • Intercession of angels as intermediaries (Tobit
    1212-15).

31
And then we have?
  • Pseudepigrapha
  • Pseudepigrapha
  • The word refers to certain noncanonical writings
    purported to have come from biblical characters,
    and refers to books of ancient Jewish literature
    outside the canon and the apocrypha.
  • The writings purport to be the work of ancient
    patriarchs and prophets, but are, in their
    present form, mostly productions from about 200
    B.C. to A.D. 200.

32
Pseudepigrapha
  • The Books of Adam and Eve translation of the
    Latin version
  • Life of Adam and Eve -- translation of the
    Slavonic version
  • Life of Adam and Eve -- translation of the Greek
    version (a.ka. The Apocalypse of Moses)
  • The Apocalypse of Adam
  • The Book of Adam
  • The Second Treatise of the Great Seth
  • 1 Enoch (Ethiopic Apocalypse of Enoch)
  • 1 Enoch Composit (inc. Charles, Lawrence
    others)
  • 2 Enoch (Slavonic Book of the Secrets of Enoch)
  • Enoch (another version)
  • Melchizedek
  • The Testament of Abraham
  • The Apocalypse of Abraham NEW July 18, 2004
  • Joseph and Aseneth
  • Selections from The Book of Moses
  • Revelation of Moses
  • The Assumption of Moses (aka The Testament of
    Moses)
  • The Martyrdom of Isaiah
  • The Ascension of Isaiah
  • The Revelation of Esdras
  • The Book of Jubilees
  • Tales of the Patriarchs
  • The Letter of Aristeas
  • The Book of the Apocalypse of Baruch (aka 2
    Baruch)
  • The Greek Apocalypse of Baruch (aka 3 Baruch)
  • Fragments of a Zadokite work (aka The Damascus
    Document)
  • The Book of Abraham

33
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