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Effective Instructional Strategies From Theory to Practice


Effective Instructional Strategies From Theory to Practice Chapter 2 Planning and Organizing for Teaching * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * * A Model of Teaching Step ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Effective Instructional Strategies From Theory to Practice

Effective Instructional StrategiesFrom Theory to
  • Chapter 2
  • Planning and Organizing for Teaching

A Model of Teaching
  • Step 1-Diagnose the learning situation
  • Step 2-Plan the course
  • Step 3-Plan the instruction
  • Step 4-Guide learning activities
  • Step 5-Evaluate learning
  • Step 6-Reflect
  • Step 7-Follow up

Categories of Classroom Time
  • Mandated time
  • 7 hours a day
  • 180 days /year
  • Allocated time
  • Time for each activity
  • Instructional time
  • Time it should take
  • Time on task
  • Time students are engaged
  • Academic Learning Time

Time Wasters
  • Starting classes
  • Excessive use of films
  • Discipline time
  • Early finishes
  • Extracurricular activities

Curriculum Defined
  • all the planned and unplanned learning
    experiences that students undergo while in a
    school setting.
  • Sometimes the gap between the curriculum
    guidelines and what is actually taught in
  • Its at this point that Curriculum Mapping steps

Benefits of Curriculum Mapping
  • Detect and fix curriculum gaps
  • Address repetitions in the curriculum
  • Refine scope and sequence connections
  • Identify potential areas for curriculum
  • Better alignment of assessments with
    state/district standards
  • Upgrade teaching strategies and materials

Backward Design Model (Wiggins and McTighe, 2005)
Begin by identifying the desired results and then
work backwards to develop instruction.
UbD Understanding by Design
Curriculum Reform Efforts
  • Subject-centered v. student-centered curriculum
  • Brain-based learning
  • Hydration and learning
  • Environmental factors
  • Integrated learning

Subject-centered v. Student-centered curriculum
  • Student-centered
  • Centered on Learner Needs
  • Determination of Subject Matter
  • Centered on Cooperative
  • Emphasis on Variability in
  • Exposure to Learning
  • Emphasis on Skills
  • Emphasis on Immediate
  • Meanings of Learning
  • Emphasis on Indirect Strategies
  • Subject-centered
  • Focus on Subject Matter
  • Centered on Subjects
  • Subject Matter Organized by
  • Teacher before Instruction
  • Emphasis on Facts, Knowledge,
  • and Information
  • Generally Lower-Level Learning
  • Emphasis on Uniformity of
  • Exposure
  • Emphasis on Direct Strategies

Curriculum integration
  • Provides holistic, problem-based learning that
    leads to a greater ability to make connections
    and to solve problems.
  • Models for implementing integrated curriculum
    (Ross and Olsen, 1993)
  • Single-Subject Integration
  • The Coordinated Model
  • The Integrated Core Model
  • The Integrated Double Core Model
  • The Self-Contained Core Model

Pg. 37
The well-planned curriculum will
  • reflect the needs of students, society, and the
    subject itself.
  • be structured around state standards (sometimes
    called skills, outcomes, or benchmarks)

Instructional Planning
  • Teachers are responsible for
  • organizing the state-mandated curriculum-or
    mastery curriculum.
  • planning generic lessons.
  • planning enrichment activities.

Instructional Planning (cont.)
  • 60-75 of instructional time should be allocated
    to the mastery curriculum (Glatthorn, 1987).
  • Generic lessons comprise interpersonal and
    intrapersonal attitudes, beliefs, skills, and
  • Enrichment activities include things that are
    nice to know but not essential for all students.

Planning Your Course
  • What major topics (chapters) will be covered? Can
    you justify your selections?
  • Should the class textbook content (chapters) be
  • How should the topics (chapters) be grouped to
    form units of study? Why?
  • In what sequence should the planned units be
    taught? Why?
  • How much emphasis should each unit receive? In a
    35-week course, how much time should each unit
    receive (in weeks and fractions of weeks)?

Course Plan
  • The course plan should be flexible.
  • Analyze textbook to determine important content.
  • Plan for time allotments based on method and
  • Include extra time in the plan-for review,
    enrichment, or instruction.

Differentiated Instruction
  • Instructional approaches should vary and be
    adapted in relation to individual and diverse
    students in the classroom.
  • Teachers can differentiate at least 4 classroom
  • content
  • process
  • products
  • learning environment

Eight Areas of Multiple Intelligences
  • Linguistic
  • Logical-mathematical
  • Spatial
  • Bodily-kinesthetic
  • Musical
  • Interpersonal
  • Intrapersonal
  • Naturalist
  • (Gardner, 1983)

Pg. 51
Technology in the Classroom
  • Integrate technology literacy into school
  • Take advantage of students familiarity with
  • Computer-based instructionCBIto support and
    enhance instruction.
  • Immediate access to information increases
    interest in content.
  • Multi-media resources enhance instruction.
  • Repurposing of pre-existing educational
  • Need for professional development.
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