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Title: ... Instruction 'Organization is the hallmark of effectiv


1
Robert Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction
  • Organization is the hallmark of effective
    instructional materials.
  • Robert Gagne
  • 1916-present
  • Presenter
  • Ronda Critchlow

2
Gagnes Theoretical Background
  • Robert Gagne is best known for his learning
    outcomes, learning conditions, and his nine
    events of instruction.
  • Gagnes theories have been applied to the design
    of instruction in several domains beyond the
    educational realm, such as the military,
    Instructional Systems Development, flying,
    troubleshooting, leadership, medical care,
    engineering.
  • Gagnes theory should be classified as
    instructional theory as opposed to a learning
    theory. A learning theory consists of a set of
    propositions and constructs that account for how
    changes in human performance abilities come
    about. On the other hand, an instructional theory
    seeks to describe the conditions under which one
    can intentionally arrange for the learning of
    specific performance outcomes.

3
Gagnes Theoretical Orientation
  • Gagnes instructional theory tends to side with
    behavioristic principles (teacher-centered
    approach) because he focuses on
    outcomes/behaviors that result from instruction.
    Further, he believes that the results of learning
    are measurable through testing, and that drill,
    practice, and immediate feedback are effective.
  • Gagnes theories became influenced by cognitive
    theorists. He proposed that the
    information-processing model of learning could be
    combined with behaviorist concepts to provide a
    more complete view of learning tasks (Molenda,
    2002)
  • Gagne (1997) These cognitive theories
    propose that stimulation encountered by the
    learner is transformed or processed in a number
    of ways (i.e., through commitment to short-term
    memory, conversion to long-term memory, and the
    retention and retrieval of that information) by
    internal structures during the period in which
    the changes identified as learning takes place.
  • (Campos, 1999)

4
Gagnes Theoretical Orientation (Contd)
  • In his view, effective instruction must reach
    beyond traditional learning theories
    (behaviorism, cognitivism, and constructivism)
    and provide support to transition from simple to
    complex skills, thus using an hierarchical model
    for learning.
  •  

5
Overview of Gagnes Theories
  • Gagnes Taxonomy of Learning states that there
    are five major categories of learning outcomes
    verbal information, intellectual skills,
    cognitive strategies, motor skills, and
    attitudes The five subcategories of intellectual
    skills are hierarchical in nature (low-level
    skills to high-level skills). Gagnes hierarchy
    of intellectual skills follows programmed
    instruction since one skill must be learned
    before another can be mastered.

6
Overview of Gagnes Theories (Contd)
  • Verbal information Reciting something from
    memory
  •  Intellectual skills
  • Discrimination Recognizing that two classes of
    things differ
  • Concrete concept Classifying things by their
    physical features alone
  • Defined concept Classifying things by their
    abstract (and possibly physical) features
  • Rule Applying a simple procedure to solve a
    problem or accomplish a task
  • Higher-order rule Applying a complex procedure
    (or multiple simple procedures) to solve a
    problem or accomplish a task
  • Cognitive strategies Inventing or selecting a
    particular mental process to solve a problem
    or accomplish a task
  • Attitudes Choosing to behave in a way that
    reflects a newly-acquired value or belief
  • Motor skills Performing a physical task to
    some specified standard

7
Overview of Gagnes Theories (Contd)
  • Gagnes Theory says that learning hierarchies can
    be constructed by working backwards from the
    final learning objective. So, the key question to
    keep in mind when developing a learning hierarchy
    is What are the intellectual skills one needs to
    have mastered in order to learn the new
    objective(s)?
  • The significance of this hierarchy is to identify
    prerequisites that should occur to facilitate
    learning at each level and to provide the basis
    for the sequencing of instruction.
  • (http//www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/04
    d.htm)
  •  

8
Overview of Gagnes Theories (Contd)
  • Gagne developed ideas known as Conditions of
    Learning, whereby he claimed that there are
    several different types or levels of learning.
    Therefore, he posits that each different type of
    learning requires different types of instruction.
  • Different internal external conditions are
    necessary for each type of learning. The external
    conditions are the things that the teacher
    arranges during instruction, while internal
    conditions are skills and capabilities that the
    learner has already mastered. (Driscoll,
    2000)
  •  For example, for cognitive strategies to be
    learned, there must be a chance to practice
    developing new solutions to problems to learn
    new attitudes, the learner must be exposed to a
    credible role model or persuasive arguments.
  • http//www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/0
    4d.htm

9
The Nine Events of Instruction
  • When the Events of Instruction occur, internal
    learning processes take place that lead to
    various learning outcomes. (Campos, 1999)
  • The Events of Instruction constitute a set of
    communications to the student, which have the aim
    of aiding the learning process.
  • Instruction consists of a set of events external
    to the learner designed to support the internal
    processes of learning.
  • (Gagne, Briggs, Wager, 1988)
  • This theory outlines nine instructional events
    and their corresponding processes.

10
The Nine Events of Instruction
  •  Event of Instruction
  • 1. Gaining attention
  • Giving learner a stimulus to ensure reception of
    coming instruction
  • 2. Informing the learner of the objective
  • Telling learner what they will be able to do for
    the instruction
  • 3. Stimulating recall of prior learning
  • Asking for recall of existing relevant knowledge
  • 4. Presenting the stimulus
  • Displaying the content
  • 5. Providing learner guidance
  • Supplying organization and relevance to enhance
    understanding
  • Learning Process
  • Attention
  • Expectancy
  • Retrieval to working memory
  • Pattern recognition selective perception
  • Chunking, rehearsal, encoding

11
The Nine Events of Instruction (Contd)
  • Events of Instruction
  • 6. Eliciting performance
  • Asking learners to respond, demonstrating
    learning
  • 7. Providing Feedback
  • Giving immediate feedback on learner's
    performance.
  • 8. Assessing performance
  • Providing feedback to learners' more performance
    for reinforcement
  • 9. Enhancing retention and transfer
  • Providing diverse practice to generalize the
    capability
  • Learning Process
  • Retrieval, responding
  • Reinforcement, error correction
  • Responding, retention
  • Retention, retrieval, generalization

12
The Nine Events of Instruction (Contd)
  • Keep in mind that the exact form of these events
    is not something that can be specified in general
    for all lessons, but rather must be decided for
    each learning objective. The events of
    instruction must be deliberately arranged by the
    teacher to support learning processes.
  • (Gagne, Briggs, Wager, 1988)

13
References
  • Bassoppo-Moyo, Temba C. 1997. The Effects of
    Preinstructional Activities and Mental Maps in
    Enhancing Learner Recall and Conceptual Learning
    of Instructional Materials for Preservice
    Teachers in Zimbabwe. Academic Search Premier
    Database.
  •  Campos, Tracy. 1999. Gagnés Contributions to
    the Study of Instruction http//chd.gse.gmu.edu/
    immersion/knowledgebase/theorists/cognitivism/gagn
    e.htm
  • Conditions of Learning. http//tip.psychology.org/
    gagne.html
  • Conditions of Learning Exponent/Originator
    http//www.educationau.edu.au/archives/cp/04d.htm
  • Driscoll, M. (2000). Psychology of learning for
    instruction, 2nd edition. New York Allyn
    Bacon. Unit 6 Gagnes Instructional Design
    theory. http//education.indiana.edu/p540/webcour
    se/gagne.html
  • Fields, Dennis. (1996). The Impact of Gagnes
    Theories on Practice. EDRS-Academic Search
    Database.
  • Gagne, Briggs, Wager.1988. Principles of
    Instructional Design. Holt, Rinehart Winston
    New York.
  • Gagne's Learning Outcomes-- http//online.sfsu.edu
    /foreman/itec800/finalprojects/annie/gagne'slearn
    ingoutcome.html 
  • Gagne's Nine Events of Instruction
    --http//online.sfsu.edu/foreman/itec800/finalpro
    jects/annie/gagne'snineevents.html
  • Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction.
    http//coe.sdsu.edu/eet/articles/gagnesevents/inde
    x.htm
  • House, Daniel J. 2002. The Use of Computers in a
    Mathematics lesson in Japan A Case Analysis from
    the TIMSS Videotape Classroom Study.
    International Journal of Instructional Media.
    Vol. 29(1). Academic Search Premier Database.
  • Kruse, Kevin. Gagnes Nine Events of Instruction
    An Introduction.
  • www.e-learningguru.com/articles/art3_3.htm
  • Molenda, Michael 2002. A New Framework for
    Teaching in the Cognitive Domain. ERIC Digest.
    Academic Search Premier Database.
  • Richey, Rita C. (1996). Robert M. Gagnes Impact
    on Instructional Design Theory and Practice of
    the Future. EDRS-Academic Search Database.
  • Selwyn. 1999. A Constructivist Learning Event
    Following Gagnes Steps of Instructional Design.
    http//hagar.up.ac.za/catts/learner/smarks/constru
    ctionist-Gagne.htm
  • Wall, Patricia.1998. Say it Naturally. Heinle
    Heinle Boston.
  •  
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