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Enculturating students to the values and conventions of academic integrity: Plagiarism prevention strategies for the classroom


Enculturating students to the values and conventions of academic integrity: Plagiarism prevention strategies for the classroom Emmy Misser, Writing Centre – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Enculturating students to the values and conventions of academic integrity: Plagiarism prevention strategies for the classroom

Enculturating students to the values and
conventions of academic integrity Plagiarism
prevention strategies for the classroom
  • Emmy Misser, Writing Centre
  • Jeanette McDonald, Educational Development
  • Jennifer Robertson-Wilson, Assistant Professor,
    Department of Kinesiology and Physical Education

  • What is plagiarism? Are we all on the same page?
  • Students and plagiarism
  • Teaching strategies for avoiding plagiarism
  • Creating assignments
  • Group brainstorming

What is Plagiarism?
  • Are we all on the same page???
  • Quiz

Students and Plagiarism
  • Is it happening?
  • Why is it happening?
  • What can we do about it?

Is it happening?
  • Christensen Hughes and McCabe (2006a, p. 13)

Behavior High school students Undergraduates Graduate students
Copy sentences from written source- no footnotes 62 37 24
Copy sentences from Internet- no footnotes 57 35 22
Make up/ forge a bibliography 30 17 9
Word for word copying from written source turned in as own work 20 5 3
Our experiences
  • Dr. Renee McPhee and myself
  • December 2005
  • plagiarism in RMs 3rd year health
  • January 2006
  • plagiarism on final paper for 2nd years in RMs
  • students had session by Emmy Misser
  • September 2006/January 2007
  • Plagiarism for 3rd year class (RM)
  • Inappropriate referencing/plagiarism for 2nd year
    class (JRW)
  • APA required text for 2nd and 3rd years, formal
    instruction for second years

Why is it happening?
  • Multiple personal and institutional factors
    (Christensen Hughes McCabe, 2006b)
  • The root of plagiarism violations at university
    campuses is that many students do not understand
    the policies and procedures, or how to cite
    sources properly (Guertin, 2005, p. 2)

Our experiences
  • Do students really understand what all the fuss
    is about?
  • Students do not understand the seriousness of the
    consequences associated with plagiarism
  • The consequences are not severe enough
  • Students do not have the skills and knowledge of
    citation conventions in academic culture

What can we do about it?
  • Academic integrity needs to be supported by the
    development of systems and a campus climate or
    culture that demands integrity by all members of
    the university community (Christensen Hughes
    McCabe, 2006b, p. 58)
  • Instructors/staff
  • review student expectations
  • explain the importance of academic integrity
  • report academic misconduct if it occurs
  • practice academic integrity yourself
  • (Christensen Hughes McCabe, 2006b, p. 59)
  • We need to be part of the solution by educating

Our experiences
  • Devise instructional strategies for the classroom
  • Understanding what plagiarism is and why it is
  • Developing skills
  • Explore which strategies may be optimal
  • Instructional Development Grant
  • Phase 1 baseline survey all Kinesiology students
  • Phase 2 focus groups with 3rd year students
  • Phase 3 evaluate 2 different methods of
    delivering same content in 2 sections of a 2nd
    year required research methods course

Teaching strategies to help students avoid
What is plagiarism and why should I care?
  • Strategy 1 Workshop by Emmy Misser
  • Workshop content
  • What is plagiarism
  • Why, when, and how do I cite the work of others
  • Upon reflection
  • Needs to be content specific
  • Do students really understand the importance?

Other possible strategies
  • Explore student perceptions as point of
  • Speak students language analogy to music
  • Clarify the plagiarism policy
  • One thing I know is true about plagiarism
  • One thing Im not sure about plagiarism
    (Price, 2002, p.107)
  • Have students generate as many possible reasons
    why not to plagiarize
  • Review and discuss new WLU policy of consequences
    for plagiarism

Developing student skills
  • Strategy 2 APA manual as required text brief
    overview of how to navigate the manual
  • Upon reflection
  • How many students buy the manual?
  • Students need practice navigating through the

Developing student skill
  • Strategy 3 instruct students on the APA rules
    for how to cite different sources and form a
    reference list
  • Upon reflection
  • Instruction needed to continue skill development

Developing student skills
  • Strategy 4 in-class and WebCT exercises on how
    to create a reference list and how to cite
    sources (using APA manual)

Example excerpt from Tiggemann (2006, p. 346)
  • In large-scale surveys, this is most commonly
    calculated on the basis of self-reported weight
    and height measures, the accuracy of which have
    been subject to critical analysis4,5. For
    example, in high school students, height was
    found to be over reported and weight
  • 4. Brener, N. D., McManus, T., Galuska, D. A.,
    Lowry, R., Wechsler, H. (2003). Reliability and
    validity of self-reported height and weight among
    high school students. Journal of Adolescent
    Health, 32, 281-287.
  • 5. Shapiro, J. R., Anderson, D. A. (2003). The
    effects of restraint, gender, and body mass index
    on accuracy of self-reported weight.
    International Journal of Eating Disorders, 34,

  • Use the following information to create a
    reference using proper APA style
  • Journal name Journal of Adolescent Health
  • Title of article Fast food and breakfast
  • Volume 39
  • Authors Heather A. Neimier, Hollie A. Raynor,
    Elizabeth E. Lloyd-Richardson, Michelle L Rogers,
    Rena R Wing
  • Page 842-849
  • Year 2006

Developing student skills
  • Strategy 4 in-class and WebCT exercises on how
    to create a reference list and how to cite
    sources (using APA manual)
  • Upon reflection
  • Evaluate the homework (even just to hand it in)-
    or they dont do it

Developing student skill
  • Strategy 5 evaluate skills on exam (e.g., create
    a reference list from common sources) and
    knowledge about plagiarism (from Emmy Missers
  • Upon reflection
  • Allow use of APA manual
  • Use most common sources

Other strategies
  • Summarizing skills!
  • Read the source through quickly to get its
    general ideas, perhaps reading only the first
    sentence of each paragraph. Then re-read more
    slowly. Go through it a third time and take
    notes. Then let sometime elapse- a half hour
    should be enough- and with the book closed, write
    your own summary of it. (Never try to summarize
    or paraphrase a source while looking at that
    source)Once you have drafted your summary, go
    back to the book and check to see if any of your
    phrasing resembles that of the source if so,
    quote it exactly. Provide page citations for both
    your paraphrases and for quotations. Also, check
    your version to see what you forgot what you
    forgot is usually what you didnt understand. Now
    it is time to visit your instructor for
    additional help in understanding the material
    (Howard, 1995, p. 801)

Other strategies
  • Require students to hand in copies of articles
    used in written assignments

Non-writing based assignments (Ramsden, 1992)
  • quantitative manipulation courses require
    numeric AND explanation questions (e.g., What
    does the SD of 1.8 mean? / 2-column method)
  • design meaningful and relevant assessments (the
  • self and peer assessment (involve students)
  • in-class practice opportunities (focus on
  • choice in assessment methods
  • reduce b/w-student competition in assignment
  • challenge students to identify 15 reasons why
    they should cite peoples work no matter the
    assignment (e.g., PPT presentation, lab report,
    essay, case study)

Two Column Method
  • long form of quantitative problem solving
  • written account
  • theory/concept used
  • questions asked of self
  • record of thought process
  • explanation

Delivery Methods
  • In-class lecture, discussion, exercises, group
  • Virtual lecture, out of class assignments/
    lecture evaluation (Guertin, 2005, par 18-19)

  • Christensen-Hughes, J. M., McCabe, D. L.
    (2006a). Academic misconduct within higher
    education in Canada. The Canadian Journal of
    Higher Education, 36, 1-21.
  • Christensen-Hughes, J. M., McCabe, D. L.
    (2006b). Understanding academic misconduct. The
    Canadian Journal of Higher Education, 36, 49-63.
  • Guertin, L. A. (2005). Using virtual lectures to
    educate students on plagiarism. First Monday, 10.
  • Howard, R. M. (1995). Plagiarisms, authorships,
    and the academic death penalty. College English,
    57, 788-806.
  • Price, M. (2002). Beyond gotcha! Situating
    plagiarism in policy and pedagogy. College
    Composition and Communication, 54, 88-115.
  • Ramsden, P. (1992). Learning to Teach in Higher
    Education. London Routledge.
  • Ritter, D. A. (1993) Faculty approaches to
    plagiarism Multiple influences, multiple
    strategies. Unpublished doctoral dissertation,
    University of South Carolina, Columbia.

Effective Assignment Design
Looking at academic writing as
  • Writing well means engaging the voices of
    others and letting them in turn engage us (IX).
  • Graff and Birkenstein

Writing as ongoing conversation
  • In conversation we
  • Listen to other voices
  • Reflect
  • Evaluate
  • Respond using appropriate language, tone and
  • According to conventions of polite behaviour
  • In writing we
  • Introduce what others have said
  • Summarize what others have said
  • Reflect
  • Evaluate
  • Respond using appropriate diction and control of
  • According to conventions of academic

Incorporating the conversation into the
  1. Assigning a role or a purpose to the writer
  2. Identifying an audience for the writer
  3. Assigning a form or a genre
  4. Setting up a task or problem that intrigues

A Raft and a Tip
  • Role (or purpose)
  • Audience
  • Format (or genre)
  • Task (as a problem)
  • Task as
  • Intriguing
  • Problem
  • John Bean. Theory and Praxis Workshop, 2006.

A RAFT Assignment by John Bean
  • Write an essay of no more than two double-spaced
    pages answering the following question Is a
    skilled trout fisherman on a variable interval or
    a variable ratio schedule of reinforcement?
    Imagine that you are writing to a classmate who
    has missed the last week of lectures and finds
    the textbook explanations of variable interval
    and variable ratio confusing. Psychology
  • (Engaging Ideas 88)

Build process into the assignment
  • Mid-way through term assign
  • An exchange of letters among pairs of students on
    an aspect of their project (see Art Young for
  • An annotated bibliography
  • A literature review
  • A proposal

Available Writing Centre Workshops
  • Plagiarism and Proper Use of Sources (for both
    APA and MLA)
  • Summarizing and Paraphrasing
  • The Literature Review
  • How to Write A Strong Thesis Statement

Works Cited
  • Bean, John. Engaging Ideas The Professors Guide
    to Integrating Writing, Critical Thinking, and
    Active Learning in the Classroom. San Francisco
    Jossey-Bass Publishers. 2001.
  • ---. Raft Handout in Theory and Praxis Workshop
    on ABGW4, August 16, 2006. Aug.2007.
  • Graff, Gerald and Cathy Birkenstein. They Say/I
    Say The Moves That Matter in Academic Writing.
    New York W. W. Norton, 2006.
  • Young, Art. Teaching Writing Across the
    Curriculum, 4rd ed. Upper Saddle River, New
    Jersey Prentice Hall, 2006. 2nd ed. 2002
    available at lthttp//wac.colostate.edu/books/young

  • Thinking of your BEST and WORST assignments over
    the years
  • what have you learned from them? changed?
  • what strategies have you employed to develop
    students knowledge, skills and values associates
    with academic integrity/misconduct? (i.e.,
    mitigate cheating)
  • What examples can you share?
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