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Effective Instructional Strategies From Theory to Practice

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Title: Effective Instructional Strategies From Theory to Practice


1
Effective Instructional StrategiesFrom Theory to
Practice
  • Chapter 3
  • Setting Goals and Objectives

2
Standards for Student Performance
  • Schools must assure the public that a
    high-quality education is being provided to
    students.
  • Attempts to control quality
  • accountability
  • accreditation

3
Federal laws enacted to protect students
  • Public Law 94-142the Education for All
    Handicapped Children Act
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    (IDEA, 1990)
  • Individuals with Disabilities Education Act
    Amendments (IDEA, 1997)
  • Section 504 of the Vocational Rehabilitation Act

4
Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Students
  • It is not uncommon for more than half the
    students to come from homes where the first
    language in not English.
  • By 2026, it is projected that about ¼ of all
    students will come from homes in which the
    primary language is not English.

5
Limited English Proficiency (LEP) Students (cont.)
  • Terms to describe students who have not yet
    attained an adequate level of English
  • LEP-limited English proficiency
  • ELL-English language learners
  • Strategies to meet the needs of LEP/ELL students
  • Cooperative learning
  • Demonstrations
  • Communication that is encouraging and positive
  • Communication through gestures and pictures

6
Objectives
  • can be defined as a clear and unambiguous
    description of instructional intent. It is
    finite and measurable. Its accomplishment can be
    verified.
  • are statements of what your students should be
    able to do after instruction.
  • should place emphasis on student outcome or
    performance.

7
Goals are broad statements of educational intent
e.g. To know the three theories pertaining to the
extinction of the dinosaurs
Objectives are the educational outcome defined
in behavioral terms
e.g. Given a list of dinosaurs, students will be
able to arrange them in their various groups with
80 accuracy
8
Goals are broad objectives are narrow. Goals
are general intentions objectives are
precise. Goals are intangible objectives are
tangible. Goals are abstract objectives are
concrete.
9
Teacher Accountability Model
10
Levels of Specificity
  • Educational goals (pg. 70)
  • give direction to our instructional intent and
    describe what the teacher wishes to accomplish in
    the broadest sense.
  • e.g. Students will fully appreciate the play
    Cats.
  • verb is rather vague and open to
    interpretation..not observable (pg. 71)

11
Instructional objectives precisely communicate
learning intent 4 elements include
performance (what they are expected to do after
instruction) product (what is to be produced
by the student actions) conditions (under
which the learner is to perform the
prescribed action) criteria (the level of
acceptable performance)
12
condition
performance
Given a list of dinosaurs, students will be able
to arrange them in their various groups with
80 accuracy
criteria
product
13
Informational objectives an abbreviate version
of instructional objectives that omits the
conditions and criteria
performance
Students will be able to arrange dinosaurs in
their various groups.
product
14
Domains of Learning
  • Cognitive
  • Thinking and reasoning ability of students
  • Affective
  • Students attitudes, feelings, and emotions
  • Psychomotor
  • Development of muscular abilities from simple
    reflex to creativity in performing a skill.

15
Blooms Taxonomy for the Cognitive
Domainoriginal and revised versions
  • Original Blooms
  • Knowledge
  • Comprehension
  • Application
  • Analysis
  • Synthesis
  • Evaluation
  • Revised Blooms
  • Remembering
  • Understanding
  • Applying
  • Analyzing
  • Evaluating
  • Creating

16
Krathwohls Taxonomy for the Affective Domain
  • Receiving
  • Student pays attention to what is going on in
    classroom
  • Responding
  • Students develop an interest and participate
  • Valuing
  • Students see worth in an idea and internalize it
  • Organization
  • Students has a value system and is willing to
    defend it
  • Characterization by a Value or Value Complex
  • Students has a consistent value system and acts
    accordingly

17
Taxonomy for the Psychomotor Domain -based on
Harlow (1972) and Jewett and Mullan (1977)
  • Fundamental Movement
  • Ability to track objects, grasp objects, crawl,
    walk
  • Generic Movement
  • Motor skills, timing, coordination developing
  • Ordinative Movement
  • Perform a skill ably and indepentdently
  • Creative Movement
  • Able to invent unique motor options
  • Pg. 88

18
Linking Standards and Objectives
  • Under No Child Left Behind, states must implement
    accountability systems that are aligned with
    state standards.
  • Teachers must clearly link
  • state expectations
  • classroom objectives
  • instruction
  • assessment
  • Behavior content charts ensure these links have
    been established.

19
Backward Design Approach
  • Identify what knowledge is worth understanding
  • Develop essential questions that cover the full
    range of understanding
  • Focus essential questions on the key knowledge
    and skills students should acquire.
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