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The Nature of Matter


The Nature of Matter Sunshine Standards and GLE s Benchmark SC.A.1.2.2: The student knows that common materials (e.g., water) can be changed from one state to ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Nature of Matter

The Nature of Matter
Sunshine Standards and GLEs
  • Benchmark SC.A.1.2.2 The student knows that
    common materials (e.g., water) can be changed
    from one state to another by heating and cooling.
  • Grade Level Expectations
  • Third The student understands that physical
    changes in the states of matter can be produced
    by heating and cooling.
  • Fourth The student understands that heating or
    cooling of matter will speed up or slow down,
    respectively, the motion of small particles
    within the matter and that this is what causes a
    phase change.
  • Fifth The student knows that matter is
    conserved during heating and cooling.

Gases can fill a container of any size or shape.
gases are really spread out and the atoms and
molecules are full of energy. They are bouncing
around constantly.
Plasmas are made up of free electrons and ions of
the element. You see plasma when you look at
stars. Stars are big balls of gases at really
high temperatures.
Solids are usually hard because their molecules
have been packed together. The closer the
molecules are, the harder the solid is. Solids
hold their own shape.
Liquids will fill up the shape of a container.
Water is a liquid. Your blood is a liquid.
Liquids are an in-between state of matter. They
can be found in between the solid and gas states.

Plasma is not a gas, liquid, or solid - it is the
fourth state of matter. Plasma often behaves like
a gas, except that it conducts electricity and is
affected by magnetic fields. On an astronomical
scale, plasma is common. The Sun is composed of
plasma, fire is plasma, fluorescent and neon
lights contain plasma. At least 85 of the
universe is made up of plasma.
  • Physical changes between the states of matter can
    be produced by heating and cooling.

Description of Phase Change Term for Phase Change Heat Movement During Phase Change
Solid to liquid Melting Heat goes into the solid as it melts.
Liquid to solid Freezing Heat leaves the liquid as it freezes.
Liquid to gas Vaporization, which includes boiling and evaporation Heat goes into the liquid as it vaporizes.
Gas to liquid Condensation Heat leaves the gas as it condenses.
Solid to gas Sublimation Heat goes into the solid as it sublimates.
  • Lets take a closer look with water.

When water is frozen it is ice, a solid. (0C)
When ice is melting, it is heating up. Melted
ice is a liquid.
  • Lab 1 Melting Crayon
  • A crayon is melted and the results are observed
  • This activity may be conducted in various ways
  • Crayon shavings can be melted using aluminum foil
    and a tea light
  • A whole crayon can be melted using a pan and a
    Bunsen burner or a portable electric burner
  • By applying heat, the crayon goes from a solid to
    a liquid. Once the heat is removed or cooling is
    applied it returns to its original state, but not
    to its original shape.

  • Lab 2 Identify that state of matter!
  • Students must identify the state of matter in the
    mystery object
  • This activity could also be done in various ways
  • Shaving cream
  • Cornstarch and water

  • Lab 3 The Plasma Experiment
  • The students learn about plasma and experiment
    with the plasma globe
  • Materials
  • Plasma Globe
  • Fluorescent bulb

Well separated with no regular arrangement. Vibrat
e and move freely at high speeds
Has no definite volume or shape and is composed
of electrical charged particles
Tightly packed, in a regular pattern Sometimes
vibrate, but do not move from place to place
Close together with no regular arrangement. Vibrat
e, move about, and slide past each other
  • As more heat is applied, the atoms start to
    vibrate. The vibration increases as more heat is
    added to the system. Vibration turns into free
    movement as the heat gets higher and higher. When
    more heat is applied, the gas may be ionized an
    electron will gain enough energy to escape its
    atom. This atom is left one electron short and
    now has a net positive charge now it is called
    an ion. In a sufficiently heated gas, ionization
    happens many times, creating clouds of free
    electrons and ions however, not all the atoms
    are necessarily ionized, and some may remain
    completely intact with no net charge.
    This ionized gas mixture, consisting of ions,
    electrons, and neutral atoms, is called plasma.

  • Nothing! It just changes states. The amount of
    matter does not change as a substance is heated
    or cooled.
  • This is called the conservation of matter.
    Matter is conserved or saved. It doesnt
  • Lets think back to our past experiments. Did
    the crayon disappear after it was melted and

  • Lab 4 Conservation of Matter
  • Students will learn that matter is conserved as
    it goes through physical changes.
  • Materials
  • Mass balance
  • Styrofoam plate
  • Ice cube

References and Links
  • http//
    1/data/ch04/anim/anim0402.htm (animations)
  • http//
    atter/molecules.swf (flash)
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