Coffee for Justice: Chemistry in service to small-holder coffee farmers ACS Science and Human Rights Webinar presented October 9, 2012 Susan C. Jackels Seattle University - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Coffee for Justice: Chemistry in service to small-holder coffee farmers ACS Science and Human Rights Webinar presented October 9, 2012 Susan C. Jackels Seattle University

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Title: Coffee for Justice: Chemistry in service to small-holder coffee farmers ACS Science and Human Rights Webinar presented October 9, 2012 Susan C. Jackels Seattle University


1
Coffee for JusticeChemistry in service to
small-holder coffee farmersACS Science and
Human Rights WebinarpresentedOctober 9, 2012
Susan C. JackelsSeattle University
2
Telling the story of collaboration with
Nicaraguan small-holder coffee farmers
  • The Coffee Crisis of 2001
  • Nicaraguan Farmers response
  • Involvement in coffee quality improvement with
    farmers, using chemistry

3
Coffee Crisis Volatility in the Price of Coffee
on the World Market
Coffee Crisis
N. Luttinger and G. Dicum, The Coffee Book,
Norton, 2006
4
Response to the Coffee Crisis in Nicaragua since
2001
  • Small holder producers have strengthened
    cooperative organizations in order to
  • Improve coffee quality (hope for access to
    specialty quality market)
  • Gain certification (Fair Trade and Organic)
  • Gain access to international markets
  • International relief and development
    organizations began providing assistance.
    (USAID, Catholic Relief Services, others)
  • In 2002, I became involved through association
    with ISJACHEM, University of Central America
    Managua and Catholic Relief Services

5
Why improve coffee quality at some expense to
quantity?
  • Gain access to specialty market (quality must be
    higher than 80 on a 100 point scale so the global
    buyers get interested)
  • Hope for a relationship with a buyer that
    persists year-to-year
  • Direct trade can get a good price but must have a
    connection and good quality

6
Why improve coffee quality at some expense to
quantity?
  • Organic/Fair Trade market producers still cant
    find a buyer for all organic coffee (our coffee
    coops this year sold 70 of their coffee on
    conventional market)
  • Small differential between organic and
    conventional market prices (2012)

7
  • A research /service project in service to
    Nicaraguan small-holder coffee producers
  • The goal is to help producers get out of the
    Coffee Crisis by improving their coffee so it can
    be sold on the Organic /Fair Trade or Specialty
    market (or direct trade).

8
Partner Organizations
  • Catholic Relief Services Nicaragua/ Caritas
    Matagalpa
  • Nicaraguan farmer coops CECOSEMAC and ADDAC
  • University of Central America Managua
  • National Science Foundation
  • Seattle U
  • UW Bothell
  • Winds of
  • Peace
  • MJ Murdock Charitable Trust

9
Nicaragua

10
Nicaragua
                                                                                   
Locations of Cooperatives
We were connected with these coffee farm
cooperatives through Catholic Relief Services
11
First and foremost, make good relationship with
the community
12
Focus groups We asked the farmers for their
questions
  • What is the effect of over-fermentation on coffee
    quality?
  • How can fermentation be controlled to optimize
    coffee quality and maintain consistency?

13
Coffee Cherry Anatomy
What did you say? Fermentation in coffee
processing?
Mucilage Layer removed by fermentation after
outer skin and pulp are removed mechanically.
14
Coffee Processing on the Farm
15
How can we answer the farmers question about
over fermentation and whether it affects their
coffee quality?We began by doing a field study
on the farms to find out changes happening during
coffee fermentation.
16
A field study of coffee fermentation on small
farms in Matagalpa in 2004
SC Jackels and CF Jackels, Journal of Food
Science, 2005, Vol. 70, pages C321 C325.
17
Developed tests for pH, ethanol, lactic acid and
glucose
18
pH profiles of coffee fermentation
19
Conclusions from field study
  • The regular pattern of pH change during
    fermentation may be useful for producers.
  • The results provide the basis for a simple method
    to control fermentation on the farm by monitoring
    pH.
  • Necessary to determine the relationship between
    roasted coffee quality in the cup and
    fermentation time (over fermentation).

20
2006 controlled fermentation experiments
Does a relationship exist between fermentation pH
at time of washing and coffee quality?
  • On each of eleven days divided one large batch
    of pulped coffee into six small buckets for
    fermentation
  • Each day Fermentation stopped at three different
    pH ranges
  • Cupped the coffee to determine quality

21
Controlled fermentation experiments
22
Three pH ranges each day
  • Wash 2 buckets in each pH range
  • Range 1 pH 4.5-4.8
  • Range 2 pH 4.1-4.4
  • Range 3 pH 4.0-3.6

Ph during the time of fermentation
1
2
3
Time
23
pH monitoring and washing
Stephanie Kleven and Roberto Rivas, washing
coffee.
Stephanie Kleven, testing in lab.
24
Coffee Quality by Cupping in Laboratories
  • Scores on 66 coffee batches are in the range 75-
    88
  • Good coffee, but not outstanding
  • Are there significant changes with systematic
    over fermentation?

Sol Café Laboratory Cupper with international
reputation
25
Cupping Results
Qualities Fragrance and Aroma Acidity Flavor Body
After-taste Balance
Ranges 90 100 (excellent) 80 89 (very
good) 70 79 (commercial) 60 69 (poor) lt60
(not acceptable)
26
Do the averages differ significantly?
Change (1?2) Change (1?3)
Sol Café Results -1.1 (t1.41 p0.10) -1.5 (t2.00 p0.04)
One-tail probability
27
Quality changes of individual paired samples
Wilcoxon Signed Rank Test (one-tail) Range 1 ?
2 (p 0.043) Range 1 ? 3 (p 0.055)
28
Controlled fermentation experiments Conclusions
Does a relationship exist between fermentation pH
at time of washing and coffee quality?
  • Weak relationship is observed lower values of
    pHterm (over-fermentation) correspond to reduced
    coffee quality -1.5 point change in quality
    for pH change of approximately -0.5 units.
  • A more powerful study, with more replicates would
    strengthen this conclusion.

S. Jackels, C. Jackels, C. Vallejos, S. Kleven,
R. Rivas and S. Fraser-Dauphinee, Proceedings of
the 21st ASIC (Association Scientifique
Internationale du Café) Meeting 2006, pp. 434
442.
29
Transferring knowledge to the coffee farmers
30
Fermentation optimization by coffee producers
Can producers themselves use pH measurements to
improve coffee quality through fermentation
optimization?
100 kits for small farmers pH paper, watch,
instructions, materials
31
Workshops for Coffee Producers
32
Treatment applied by producers
  • Before Measure pH at time of washing coffee,
    making no change from usual routine. Then submit
    a sample for drying, roasting and cupping.
  • Make changes in fermentation to optimize.
  • After Measure pH at time of washing an optimized
    batch. Then submit a sample for drying, roasting
    and cupping.

33
The producers changes in pH and fermentation
time were correlated
Fermentation Time versus pH After Before
Spearman rank correlation rho -0.341, N
69 Inverse Correlation is significant (P 0.004)
34
Did the coffee quality improve?Average Cup Scores
All Samples Included
Lab Samples Before (SD) After (SD) Change (SD) P test
Sol Café 71 81.1(4.2) 81.5(3.5) 0.43(3.8) .17
Damaged Samples Removed
Lab Samples Before (SD) After (SD) Change (SD) P test
Sol Café 69 81.4(3.6) 81.8(3.1) 0.43(2.6) .09
35
Was the fermentation optimized by coffee
producers?
  • Answer Maybe
  • Farmers successfully controlled fermentation with
    kits
  • No statistically significant change in quality,
    however.
  • Crop quality problem Before-step was mid-harvest
    at peak of quality, After-step was end of harvest
    when quality diminished.

S. Jackels and C. Jackels, Proceedings of the
21st ASIC (Association Scientifique
Internationale du Café) Meeting (Montpelier)
2006, pp. 434 442 (2006)
36
Cup scores by cooperative
Name of Cooperative Average Score Before Average Score After P Value
Las Nubes 83.1 83.0 0.46
Payacuca 81.4 81.9 0.13
San Antonio 78.6 81.1 0.07
Siares 83.5 83.5 0.47
Pacayona 80.4 81.2 0.12
El Castillo 81.3 80.7 0.07
2012 harvest all of these cooperatives were in
the 82 83 range.
37
Social Analysis What did the coffee producers
learn from us?
  • Increased awareness of the importance of quality
    control and potential for improvement
  • Increased involvement and interest of the
    children
  • Higher morale and more hope for the future

38
2009 Engineering project to build a coffee mill
M.D. Marsolek, J.T. Alcantara, P. Cummings, L.
Quintero, M. Wynne, C. Vallejos, C.F. Jackels,
S.C. Jackels, International Journal for Service
Learning in Engineering, June 2012.
39
Acknowledgements to International Scientific Teams
  • Faculty
  • Prof. Susan Jackels, Seattle University (USA)
  • Prof. Charles Jackels, Univ. of Washington
    Bothell (USA)
  • Prof. Carlos Vallejos, Univ. of Central America
    Managua (Nicaragua)
  • Prof. Cipriano Lopez, Univ. of Central America
    Managua (Nicaragua)
  • Prof. Michael Marsolek, Seattle University (USA)
  • Students
  • Seattle University Stephanie Kleven, Jack
    Chacon, Joshua Alcantara, Patrick Cummings, Luis
    Quintero, Michael Wynne, Angelica Omaiye, Zachary
    Kamine, Kathleen Bacarro, Czarina Franco, Diana
    Heaney, Spencer Ubben, Stella Navia, Jody Cook,
    Britt Mueller, Tam Pham, Ivon Octavia, Jessica
    Angginasah, Fera Widjaja, Amy Sly, Kerina Powell
  • University of British Columbia (Canada) Scott
    Fraser-Dauphinee
  • University of Central America Managua
    (Nicaragua) Roberto Rivas, Diana Zelaya, Gema
    Medina, Maria Auxiliadora Castillo, Ervin Garcia
  • Farmers and NGOs
  • Coffee farms and families of Matagalpa, Nicaragua
  • CECOSEMAC and ADDAC Cooperatives and Caritas
    Matagalpa
  • Catholic Relief Services/Nicaragua

40
Acknowledgements for Support
  • US National Science Foundation (CHE-0512867)
  • Engineers Without Borders
  • Tetra Tech, Inc.
  • Winds of Peace Foundation
  • MJ Murdock Charitable Trust
  • Seattle University
  • University of Central America Managua
  • Catholic Relief Services/Nicaragua

41
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