The Time is Now: A Comprehensive Family and Human Capital Policy Framework to Achieve 15 by 15 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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The Time is Now: A Comprehensive Family and Human Capital Policy Framework to Achieve 15 by 15

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Title: The Time is Now: A Comprehensive Family and Human Capital Policy Framework to Achieve 15 by 15


1
The Time is Now A Comprehensive Family and
Human Capital Policy Framework to Achieve 15 by 15
  • Dr. Paul Kershaw
  • University of British Columbia
  • Human Early Learning Partnership
  • Prepared for the 2009 ECEBC Assessment Workshop
  • Time is of the Essence Perspective from
    Parents and Professionals
  • May 21, 2009. Vancouver BC

2
BC Government Strategic Plan for 2008/09 -
2010/11, p. 30
3
What is the Problem? Why do we tolerate so much
early vulnerability?
  • Not a technical problem.
  • Not a problem of insufficient research evidence.
  • Not a problem of .

4
G7 Debt over GDP 1970-2005
Source Department of Finance Economic and Fiscal
Reference Tables, 57
National tax-GDP ratio 3 percentage points
below OECD average. Were not behind
internationally in terms of health care spending
education or benefits for seniors. Beware
confusing affordability with priorities.
5
The Problem is
  • Canadian Culture
  • We convince ourselves we cant afford it.
  • We opt to treat illness, rather than promote
    health
  • We ignore gender inequality, and its relationship
    to family policy
  • As a generation, the collective action of
    Canadian babyboomer implies they are content to
    compromise the future for those who follow.

6
Mismatch Social Investment vs. Health Promotion
Opportunity
What is MAGICAL about Age 6?
Optimal Investment Levels
Source Carneiro Heckman, Human Social Policy
(2003)
7
Swedens Public Expenditure for Children 0-17
Source S. Bremberg (2006), National Institute of
Public Health, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm,
Sweden
8
Medical Care Crowds Out Health Promotion
In response to growing health care expenditures
as of total expenditures in 2007, the BC govt
announced 15 provincial cut to child care
services.
80 of expenditures in last months of life
9
We must become sophisticated critics of medical
care, in order to bridge health promotion with
non-medical care...
  • Key questions
  • What medical care do we owe one another as our
    capacity to save increases dramatically with
    costly technology and drugs?
  • Do we really want roughly 80 of our health
    expenditures to occur in the final year of life?
  • And what does it mean for a society when it
    spends hundreads of thousands, if not millions,
    of dollars to save a pre-term baby one life
    but is remarkably hesitant to invest in health
    promotion for the population through programs
    like early learning and care, housing, food? 

10
Content to Burn-Out Women, and leave unquestioned
the place of patriarchy in family policy
  • A very early universal program family
    allowance. Why was it implemented as WWII ended?
  • Male breadwinner family wage model of social
    policy.
  • The child care services paid by for by federal
    government during the war years were eliminated.
  • Continue primarily with cash approach to this
    day. Major innovations maternity and parental
    leave CCTB/NCBS.
  • Feminism, gender equality and declining male
    wages ? the majority of women with young children
    are in the labour market and the majority of
    these work full-time. But we havent compensated
    by using policy to demand that men assume
    additional responsibility for caregiving or that
    communities provide more support.

11
2008 Gender Gap Family Policy Rankings
Sources World Economic Forum and UNICEF
12
Collectively, Baby-Boomer Decisions a Social
Problem
  • Baby-boomers dominant political generation,
    especially in office
  • Tolerate nearly 30 of children becoming
    vulnerable before school.
  • Tolerate Canada being a fossil fuel dinosaur,
    compromising environmental sustainability.
  • Inherited next to no public debt. But content to
    leave other generations with public federal debt
    that over 30 of GDP.
  • Not the generation that made great sacrifices
    during Depression and World Wars
  • Ignoring intergenerational justice?

13
What Should We Do?
  • Understand the Cultural Context and
  • BE STRATEGIC ABOUT DISRUPTING IT!

14
  • 5 Policy Recommendations for 15 by 15
  • Family Time and Resources
  • Parental leave
  • Income Supports and work/life balance
  • Community Supports
  • ECD coalitions, community planning
  • Pregnancy, parenting and early intervention
  • Early childhood education and care
  • NO MORE POLARIZING DEBATES ABOUT PROVIDING
    SERVICES OR SUPPORTING PARENTS (MOTHERS) TO CARE
    PERSONALLY!

15
Extrapolation of BC's Policy Framework for Optimal Early Child Development to Pan-Canadian Analysis Extrapolation of BC's Policy Framework for Optimal Early Child Development to Pan-Canadian Analysis Extrapolation of BC's Policy Framework for Optimal Early Child Development to Pan-Canadian Analysis Extrapolation of BC's Policy Framework for Optimal Early Child Development to Pan-Canadian Analysis Extrapolation of BC's Policy Framework for Optimal Early Child Development to Pan-Canadian Analysis Extrapolation of BC's Policy Framework for Optimal Early Child Development to Pan-Canadian Analysis Extrapolation of BC's Policy Framework for Optimal Early Child Development to Pan-Canadian Analysis
Additional Social Infrastructure Investment Additional Social Infrastructure Investment Additional Social Infrastructure Investment Additional Social Infrastructure Investment
All millions unless otherwise noted All millions unless otherwise noted Time and Resources Time and Resources Community Supports Community Supports
49 of Investment 49 of Investment 51 of Investment 51 of Investment
Jurisdiction Per capita Parental Leave Income Supports ECD Coalitions, Pregnancy, Parenting, Screening Intervention Early Childhood Education Care (ECEC) Total Additional Investment Total as of GDP

Nfld/Lab 1.52 68 95 11 256 430 1.37
PEI 0.42 19 26 3 38 86 1.82
NS 2.82 127 176 20 251 575 1.68
NB 2.24 101 140 16 189 446 1.63
Quebec 23.28 1,048 1,453 168 1,312 3,981 1.32
Ontario 38.82 1,747 2,423 281 4,146 8,596 1.46
Manitoba 3.62 163 226 26 347 762 1.50
Sask 3.06 138 191 22 576 927 1.44
Alberta 10.76 484 671 78 1,766 2,999 1.03
BC 13.14 591 820 95 1,576 3,082 1.55
Yukon/NWT/Nun 0.34 15 21 2 20 59 0.66
Total Pan-Canadian 100 4,501 6,242 723 10,476 21,942 1.37
?

?
16
22 Billion/Year?!?
  • Price for Reducing vulnerability from roughly
    30 to 15, and eventually 10
  • Former PM Martin commitment of 5 billion over 5
    years modest.
  • About 12-20 of total fed/prov health care
    spending (170 billion, Sen W. Keon)
  • Federal Old Age Security 32 billion (2007/08)
  • RRSPs 16.6 billion (2009)

17
Human Capital Benefits
  • BC data ? project what a reduction in
    vulnerability from 29 to 15, and then to 10
    will mean for later school success.
  • .5 standard deviation improvement in language and
    cognitive test scores
  • .63 percentage point increase to GDP
  • 264-274 billion plus to Canada per year
  • But patience is a requisite virtue, because the
    children have to get through school become the
    majority in the labour market
  • In meantime, partial returns from labour supply
    work-life balance savings to health expenditures
    poverty reduction savings to health expenditures
    crime reduction savings

18
Stimulus Now! Parents with young children ?
lifecourse stage where they spend more than
save. ECEC Capital and construction investments
to remodel schools and build appropriate
facilities. Family Policy should be integral
to stimulus package.
19
15 by 15 Smart Economics A Just Cause
minimizes inequality among children across
sexes Now Canadians just need to make this
objective a priority. If we dont, being
Canadian may be compromising our health because
we fail to invest in its determinants.
20
Thank you.
  • Paul Kershaw, Ph.D.
  • The University of British Columbia
  • College of Interdisciplinary Studies
  • Human Early Learning Partnership (HELP)
  • http//www.earlylearning.ubc.ca/PaulKershaw.htm
  • e-mail paul.kershaw_at_ubc.ca

21
International Research Literature Shows
that Families with Children Have Three
Overarching Needs
  • Time
  • Resources
  • Support Services

22
  • Recommendation 1
  • Build on parental leave to
  • increase duration to 18 months
  • improve coverage
  • improve benefit levels, 80 of 62,000
  • reserve time for fathers. 

23
Mid-Ranking because
  • 50 weeks of leave better than average. But
  • Some not eligible
  • Benefit Levels 55 of max 42,300 ? about half
    of average income
  • Some lower/middle income families cannot afford
    leave.
  • About 15 uptake by men ( 2 in 2000).

24
  • A Canadian Alternative
  • Quebec
  • improved coverage, eligible if 2,000 income over
    last 52 weeks, including self-employed
  • improved benefits maximum 70-75 62,000
  • reserved five weeks for fathers 

25
  • Recommendation 2
  • Build on income support policies to reduce child
    and family poverty
  • Raise welfare benefits
  • Enhance family/in work tax credits and/or minimum
    wage levels
  • Make ECEC services available and affordable ?
    strengthen and increase labour force attachment,
    increase (net) incomes 2-earners best
    insurance against poverty
  • Adapt employment standards to shorten full-time
    hours ? work/life balance reduce family time
    poverty

26
BC Poverty Rates by Family Type
27


















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28
  • Recommendations 3 4
  • As per South Australia and Cuba
  • Build on ECD programs and services - pregnancy,
    parenting and early learning resources, screening
    and intervention, coalition and planning tables,
    etc
  • Coordinate and integrate with ECEC services
  • Specifically, prior to 18 months add universal
    monthly trajectory-based monitoring of ECD
  • USE EDI and other data as accountability
    framework to monitor effectiveness of policy
    implementation

29
  • Recommendation 5
  • Build on early childhood education and care to
    provide
  • universal access to quality ECEC, with inclusion,
    and
  • seamless transitions to elementary school
  • For example
  • full-employment-day Kindergarten for 5-, 4-, and
    3-year-olds.
  • extend services to 18 month old children in time.

30
Few spaces Insufficient quality High cost
Inadequate Inclusion
Source Starting Strong ll Early Childhood
Education and Care September 2006
31
  • 5 Policy Recommendations to Build On
  • Family Time and Resources
  • Parental leave
  • Income Supports
  • Community Supports
  • ECD coalitions, planning
  • Pregnancy, parenting intervention
  • EC education and care

Current Status in BC
Mid-ranked
Low-ranked
Strong Momentum
Mid-ranked
Bottom-ranked
32
Societal Benefits Relative to Public Investment
in Comprehensive Family Policy Framework for
Optimal Early Human Development
33
Rate of access to ECEC programs
Data source OECD. (2006). Starting Strong II
Early Childhood Education and Care. Country
Profiles. AU, CZ, FI, HU, NL, UK Estimated
(averaged across ages 3-6) DE Estimated
(averaged across ABL and NBL) CA Children 0-6
in child care including regulated family day care
34
Dr. Steve Barnett Conclusions NIEER Results
Presented in BC, October 24, 2008
  • Pre-K for all can be a strong public investment
  • Policy design affects benefits more than who is
    served
  • Pre-K for all is better for disadvantaged
    children
  • School failure is not just a poverty problem
  • All children benefit from quality pre-K
  • Education and child care policies must be joined
  • Cognitive and social-emotional goals for education

35
Highest ECE Training reported by Staff (2005/06),
by type of program and auspice
36
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37
UNICEF Low Birthweight Benchmark less than 6
  • BC rate (2002) 5
  • Canada rate (2004) 5.9
  • Source (BC Provincial Health Officer, A Review
    of Infant Mortality in British Columbia
    Opportunities for Prevention, 2003)

BC
38
UNICEF Infant Mortality Benchmark 4/1000
  • BC rate (2002) 4.4
  • Canada rate (2004) 5.3
  • Source (BC Provincial Health Officer, A Review
    of Infant Mortality in British Columbia
    Opportunities for Prevention, 2003)

BC
39
Child Poverty Rates by Province
38 of poor BC children live with an adult who
works full-time full-year.
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