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Milking management and the prevention of mastitis

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Title: Milking management and the prevention of mastitis


1
Milking management and the prevention of mastitis
  • Christina S. Petersson-Wolfe
  • Dairy Extension Virginia Tech

2
Outline
  • Background about the bacteria
  • NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • What is it?
  • New technology

3
Significance of Mastitis
Background and Relevance
  • Most costly disease to dairy producers
  • (Degraves and Fetrow, 1991)
  • Cost of treatment
  • Milk with-holding time
  • Increased labor costs
  • Reduced milk production
  • Premature culling
  • Death
  • Caused by wide range of bacterial pathogens

4
Mastitis-causing pathogens
Background and Relevance
  • Minor Pathogens
  • Less severe effect on udder health
  • Organisms include
  • Corynebacterium bovis
  • Coagulase negative Staphylococcus species
  • Major Pathogens

5
Mastitis-causing pathogens
Background and Relevance
  • Major Pathogens
  • Contagious pathogens
  • Staphylococcus aureus
  • Streptococcus agalactiae
  • Environmental pathogens

6
Mastitis-causing pathogens
Background and Relevance
  • Major Pathogens
  • Environmental pathogens
  • Streptococcus species (other than Str.
    agalactiae)
  • Gram-negative pathogens
  • Coliform pathogens (E. coli, Klebsiella sp.,
    Enterobacter sp.)
  • Serratia, Proteus and Pseudomonas species

7
Relationship with SCC
Background and Relevance
  • Bacterial infection somatic cell count
  • Somatic cell count (SCC)
  • milk production
  • milk quality
  • shelf life of milk products
  • Economic impact on producer, processer and
    consumer
  • How much SCC testing is done?

8
What affects SCC?
Background and Relevance
  • Cleanliness of environment
  • Rate of chronic and contagious infections
  • Milking time hygiene
  • Milking preparation procedures
  • Function of milking equipment
  • Nutrition
  • Stress

9
About the bugs
Dairy Extension
10
About the bugs
Dairy Extension
11
About the bugs
Dairy Extension
12
About the bugs
Dairy Extension
13
Contagious
Dairy Extension
  • Staph. aureus, Strep. dysgalactiae, Prototheca,
    C. bovis
  • Milking time hygiene
  • Segregation and/or culling
  • S. aureus
  • Prototheca

14
Environmental
Dairy Extension
  • Coliforms, Strep., dysgalactiae, Strep. uberis,
    environmental Streps
  • Look at bedding, water sources, cooling ponds
  • Use of
  • Orbeseal
  • Environmental Strep
  • J5
  • Coliforms

15
Other
Dairy Extension
  • Yeast, mold, Bacillus spp.
  • Clean infusions

16
NMC 10 Step Program
Background and Relevance
  • 1. Establish goals for udder health
  • 2. Clean, dry, comfortable environment
  • 3. Proper milking procedures
  • 4. Proper maintenance and use of equipment
  • 5. Good record keeping

17
NMC 10 Step Program
Background and Relevance
  • 6. Management of clinical mastitis
  • 7. Dry cow management
  • 8. Maintenance of contagious bugs chronics
  • 9. Regularly monitor udder health status
  • 10. Review of control program

18
1. Establish goals for udder health
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Set realistic targets
  • Bulk tank somatic cell count
  • Legal limits?
  • Less than 400,000 cells/ml
  • Rate of clinical mastitis
  • Less than 3
  • Review the goals regularly

19
2. Clean, dry, comfortable environment
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Comfort
  • Stress
  • Immune system
  • Susceptibility to mastitis

20
2. Clean, dry, comfortable environment
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Bedding management
  • Enough bedding
  • Sand is best
  • What types are common?
  • Ensure bedded packs dry lots are DRY
  • Housing for all animals is important not just
    milking animals

21
2. Clean, dry, comfortable environment
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Cows remain standing after milking
  • Ventilation
  • Stocking density
  • Heat abatement

22
3. Proper milking procedures
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Vacuum can damage teat end
  • Goal - harvest as much milk as quickly and
    efficiently as possible
  • Milk clean, dry, properly prepped teats

23
3. Proper milking procedures
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Milk clean, dry, properly prepped teats
  • Gloves (clean gloves!)
  • Pre-dip 30 s contact time (remove debris)
  • Full coverage
  • Iodine is best
  • Strip cup examine for signs of mastitis
  • Wipe Single use towels (cloth or paper)

24
3. Proper milking procedures
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Milk clean, dry, properly prepped teats
  • Attach unit within 90 s of stripping
  • Prevent squawks
  • Avoid overmilking
  • Post-dip
  • Full coverage
  • Iodine is best

25
3. Proper milking procedures
NMC 10 Step Control Program
26
NMC 10 Step Control Program
30 s kill-time
27
3. Proper milking procedures
NMC 10 Step Control Program
90 s delay time
28
3. Proper milking procedures
NMC 10 Step Control Program
Oxytocin takes At least 60 to Reach a useful
concentration in the udder
29
3. Proper milking procedures
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Signs of problems
  • Teat end hyperkeratosis
  • Rings at the base of the teats at unit removal
  • Teat color at unit removal
  • Behavior during milking
  • Liner squawks

30
4. Maintenance use of equipment
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Service, maintain and evaluate equipment
  • Replace inflations, hoses, etc
  • Sanitize before milking, wash and sanitize after
    EACH milking
  • Chlorinated detergent
  • Acid rinse

31
4. Maintenance use of equipment
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Properly functioning equipment will affect
  • Unit on time
  • Milk harvested
  • Milk quality (SCC)
  • Peak milk flow
  • Vacuum level should be checked
  • Teat end vacuum should be 10.5 to 12.5 Hg

32
5. Good record keeping
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Write it down!
  • EACH case of clinical mastitis
  • Date detected
  • Days in milk
  • Quarter
  • Treatment
  • Outcome
  • Culture result (?)
  • Manage SCC data to monitor clinical and
    subclinical mastitis

33
6. Management of clinical mastitis
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Implement treatment protocol
  • Culture if available
  • Treat susceptible cases NOT coliforms
  • Follow treatment regimen with partial insertion
  • Observe milk with-holding time
  • CLEARLY mark treated animals

34
6. Management of clinical mastitis
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Extended therapy
  • 8 days of Ceftiofur (Oliver et al., 2004)
  • Clinical Strep uberis
  • Subclinical natural infections
  • Adding lactoferrin to penicillin treatment
    increases
  • Beta-lactam resistant Staph aureus cure
    (Petitclerc et al., 2007)

35
How to treat
Dairy Extension
36
Why are they hard to treat?
Dairy Extension
37
How to treat
Dairy Extension
38
How to treat
Dairy Extension
39
How to treat
Dairy Extension
40
7. Effective dry cow management
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Goal is to
  • Eliminate existing infections
  • Prevent new infections from occurring

41
7. Effective dry cow management
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Keratin plug protects teat ends during dry period
  • May take longer to form than originally thought
  • ¼ of all teats still open at 6 wks into dry
    period
  • Emphasizes importance of dry cow management

42
7. Effective dry cow management
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Abrupt milk cessation
  • Blanket dry cow therapy
  • All quarters all cows
  • Dry cow nutrition
  • Clean, dry, comfortable environment
  • For use in some herds
  • Internal teat sealant
  • Coliform mastitis vaccine

43
7. Effective dry cow management
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Infections likely to clear up during dry period
  • Strep
  • Coliforms
  • Other
  • Not likely to clear up
  • Staph aureus

44
7. Effective dry cow management
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Dry cow nutrition important
  • Immune status
  • Metabolic disease
  • Dry period length
  • Needs to be greater than 45 days
  • Average 60 days
  • CMT fresh cows to pick up new infections
  • Treat as necessary

45
8. Maintenance of contagious chronics
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Culture, culture, culture
  • Segregate cows with contagious mastitis
  • Milk them last
  • Cull persistently infected animals
  • S. aureus
  • Mycoplasma
  • Pseudomonas
  • A. pyogenes

46
8. Maintenance of contagious chronics
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Culture, culture, culture
  • Culture ALL cows prior to purchase
  • Segregate recently purchased cows
  • Culture ALL fresh cows (heifers too!)

47
8. Maintenance of contagious chronics
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Feeding waste milk can pass contagious
  • Treat heifers prior to calving for Staph aureus
  • 14-21 days prior to expected calving
  • Pirlimycin or penicillin novobiocin (Oliver et
    al., 2004)
  • Helps cure existing infections
  • Helps prevent chronics

48
9. Regular monitoring of udder health
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Is there a SCC testing program?
  • Use results to manage mastitis
  • 200,000 cells/ml is considered cut off for
    infected gland
  • Calculate clinical mastitis rates
  • Pay attention to heifers!
  • Use records to evaluate/change protocols

49
10. Review control programs
NMC 10 Step Control Program
  • Obtain objective evaluations
  • Veterinarian
  • Industry person
  • University faculty
  • Make use of an udder health team
  • Prevention is FAR easier and more economical than
    treatment
  • Your program may be VERY different from your
    neighbors!

50
Latest and greatest technology
New developments
  • On-farm culture systems
  • New wave of robotic milkers
  • Afi equipment

51
On-farm culture systems
New developments
  • Fast results
  • No delay from the lab
  • Base treatment on culture results
  • Save money in treatment costs
  • Potentially reduce antibiotic resistance
  • Tri-plates and bi-plates make identification easy

52
On-farm culture systems
New developments
53
On-farm culture systems
New developments
  • Mastitis is detected
  • Sample is taken and plated on media
  • At 24 hours plate is read
  • Growth on certain media indicate treatment
  • Otherwise no treatment is given

54
Robotic milkers
New developments
  • Difficulties with reliable labor
  • Led resurgence of robotic milkers
  • Even in smaller herds

55
AfiMilk equipment
New developments
  • Secured donation of AfiLab and Pedometer Plus
  • AfiLab
  • In-line measurement of
  • SCC
  • Fat
  • Protein
  • Lactose
  • Blood
  • Urea
  • Pedometer Plus
  • Pedometers and lying/standing time

56
AfiLab
New developments
  • Accuracy has been shown
  • Between milk meter and inlet to pipeline

57
AfiLab
New developments
  • Series of measurements within device
  • Data is sent directly to computer
  • Alerts/flags can be created

58
Our goals for AfiMilk equipment
New developments
  • To aid in ongoing and future research
  • More available data
  • No labor input
  • To determine economic opportunity
  • To identify indicators of disease

59
Early detection
New developments
  • Avoid severe clinical mastitis
  • Treatment could involve
  • Antibiotics
  • Targets to enhance immune system
  • antibiotic cure rate
  • chronic cases
  • milk quality
  • Must identify indicators

60
Questions???
61
The good, the bad the ugly
62
Clean, dry and comfortable
The good, the bad and the ugly
63
Clean, dry and comfortable
The good, the bad and the ugly
64
Milking procedures
The good, the bad and the ugly
65
Milking procedures
The good, the bad and the ugly
66
Milking procedures
The good, the bad and the ugly
67
Milking procedures
The good, the bad and the ugly
68
Keeping milkers happy
The good, the bad and the ugly
69
Effective dry cow management
The good, the bad and the ugly
70
Calf management
The good, the bad and the ugly
71
Heifer management
The good, the bad and the ugly
72
Water quality
The good, the bad and the ugly
73
Control of the pathogens
Background and Relevance
  • Contagious
  • Teat dip
  • Dry cow therapy
  • Lactating therapy
  • Environmental
  • Teat dip
  • Clean housing
  • Fluid therapy
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