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Biology, Management, Diseases, and Uses of Sheep, Goats, and Cattle

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Title: Biology, Management, Diseases, and Uses of Sheep, Goats, and Cattle


1
Biology, Management, Diseases, and Uses of Sheep,
Goats, and Cattle
  • CPT Chad D. Foster
  • Chief, NHP Clinical Medicine
  • USAMRIID
  • 26 Oct 05

2
Previously Presented By
  • CPT Curtis Klages Goats
  • CPT Christopher Keller Sheep
  • LTC Kelcin Buchanan Sheep Goats

3
Purpose
4
Outline
  • Taxonomy
  • Uses in research
  • Sources/Evaluation
  • Management and Husbandry
  • Unique Biology
  • Goat Normal Values
  • Basic Nutrition
  • Reproduction
  • Behavior
  • Diseases

5
TaxonomySheep
  • Order Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates)
  • Sub-order Ruminantia (cud chewing animals)
  • Family Bovidae
  • Sub-family Caprinae
  • Genus and sub-genus Ovis
  • Domestic sheep Ovis aries
  • Subgenus Pachyceros includes the wild North
    American breeds

6
BreedsSheep
  • Meat
  • Dorset, Columbia, Suffolk, Hampshire, Southdown,
    Border Cheviot
  • Wool
  • Merino, Rambouillet, Lincoln, Romney
  • Hair
  • Barbados
  • Dual-Purpose
  • Targhee, Polypay

7
TerminologySheep
  • Female ewe
  • Intact Male ram
  • Young Animal lamb
  • Ewe lamb
  • Ramb lamb
  • Castrated Male wether
  • Birthing Process lambing

8
TaxonomyGoats
  • Order Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates)
  • Sub-order Ruminantia (cud chewing animals)
  • Family Bovidae
  • Sub-family Caprinae
  • Genus and sub-genus Capra
  • Capra hircus is domestic goat originated from
    western Asian goats
  • Others include
  • Capra pyrenaica (Spanish goat)
  • Capra ibex (Goats of the Red Sea and Caucasus
    area)
  • Capra falconiere (wild goat of Afghanistan)

9
BreedsGoats
  • Dairy
  • Nubian, Alpine, Toggenbutg, La Mancha, Saanen,
    Oberhaslie
  • Fiber
  • Angora, Cashmere
  • Meat
  • Boer, Sapel, Ma Tou, Kambling, Pygmy
  • Leather
  • Mubend (Uganda), Red Sokoto (West Africa)

10
TerminologyGoats
  • Female doe or nanny
  • Intact male buck or billy
  • Young goat kid or goatling
  • Young male buckling
  • Young female doeling
  • Castrated Male wether or steer
  • Birthing Process kidding

11
TaxonomyCattle
  • Order Artiodactyla (even toed ungulates)
  • Sub-order Ruminantia (cud chewing animals)
  • Family Bovidae
  • Subfamily Bovinae
  • Genus Species
  • Bos taurus (domestic cattle)
  • Bos indicus (Zebu cattle)

12
BreedsCattle
  • Dairy
  • Holstein-Fresian (most common cow used as animal
    model), Jersey, Brown Swiss, Milking Shorthorn,
    Ayrshire, Guernsey
  • Beef
  • Angus, Hereford, Simmental

13
TerminologyCattle
  • Female cow
  • Intact Male bull
  • Young Animal calf
  • Female prior to first calf heifer
  • Castrated Male steer
  • Birthing Process calving

14
Uses in Research
  • Ruminants
  • Cardiac Research
  • Transplantation, cardiac assist prosthetics
  • Reproductive Research
  • Embryo transfer, AI, reproductive cycle control
  • Genetics
  • Gene transfer, cloning, nuclear transfer, genetic
    engineering
  • Antibody Production
  • Surgically Induced Osteopenia, Fracture repair,
    ACL reconstruction (Sheep Goats)

15
Uses in Research
  • Sheep Disease Models
  • General
  • Fetal Reproductive Research
  • Circadian Rhythms related to day-length
  • Interaction between olfactory cues and behavior

16
Uses in Research
  • Sheep Disease Models
  • Squamous Cell Carcinoma (No. 252)
  • Animal Ovine SCC
  • Human SCC
  • Congenital Goiter (No. 350)
  • Animal Congenital Goiter in Merino Sheep
  • Human Congenital Goiter
  • Intestinal Adenocarcinoma
  • Animal Adenocarcinoma of the SI of Sheep
  • Human Adenocarcinoma of the Human Colon

17
Uses in Research
  • Sheep Disease Models
  • Congenital Hyperbilirubinemia (No. 2)
  • Animal Dubin-Johnson Syndrome in Corriedale
  • Dubin-Johnson Syndrome
  • Hepatic organic anion excretory defect
  • Congenital Hyperbilirubinemia (No. 8)
  • Animal Gilberts Syndrome in Southdown Sheep
  • Human Gilberts Syndrome
  • Hepatic organic anion uptake defect

18
Uses in Research
  • Sheep Disease Models
  • Muscular Dystrophy (No. 51)
  • Animal Congenital Progressive Ovine Muscular
    Dystrophy
  • Human Muscular Dystrophy
  • Immune-Mediated Arthritis (No. 418)
  • Animal Lentivirus-induced arthritis of sheep
    goats (OvLV CAEV respectively)
  • Human Rheumatoid Arthritis

19
Uses in Research
  • Sheep Disease Models
  • GM1 Gangliosidosis (No. 395)
  • Animal Ovine GM1 Gangliosidosis in Suffolk
  • Human GM1 Gangliosidosis
  • Wilsons Disease (No. 307)
  • Animal Chronic (cumulative) Cu Poisoning
  • Human Wilsons Disease
  • Induced model

20
Uses in Research
  • Sheep Disease Models
  • Transmissible Spongiform Encephaolopathy
  • Animal Scrapie
  • Human Kuru, Creutzfeld-Jakob Disease (CJD)
  • Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase Deficiency in
    Dorsett Sheep
  • Pulmonary Adenomatosis (jaagsiekte)
  • Other Induced Models
  • Arteriosclerosis
  • Hemorrhagic shock
  • Metabolic toxicosis

21
Uses in Research
  • Goats (General)
  • Immunology
  • Mastitis
  • Nutrition
  • Parasitology
  • Vascular

22
Uses in Research
  • Goat Models
  • Beta-Mannosidosis (No. 369)
  • Animal Beta-Mannosidosis in Nubian goats
  • this inbred line of Nubians also serve as models
    for therapeutic cell transplantation strategies
  • Human Beta-Mannosidase Deficiency
  • Congenital Myotonia
  • Animal Caprine Myotonia Congenita (fainting
    goats)
  • Myotonia Congenita (Thompsens Disease)

23
Uses in Research
  • Goat Models
  • Other disease models
  • Osteoporosis
  • Caprine Mucoploysaccharidosis IIID (Sanfillipo
    Syndrome Type D)
  • Melanoma
  • Inflammatory Bowel Disease
  • Afibrinogenemia
  • Hereditary Congenital Goiter
  • Legg-Calve-Perthes Disease (sx induced)
  • Hyperimmune Serum Production

24
Uses in Research
  • Cattle (General)
  • Permanent fistula
  • ruminal fluid for research, teaching, treatment
  • Infectious Diseases
  • Metabolic Diseases

25
Uses in Research
  • Cattle Disease Models
  • Tritrichomonas (Trichomonas) fetus
  • Animal Bovine Trichomoniasis
  • Human Trichomonis vaginalis infection
  • Inherited Cardiomyopathies in Holstein-Fresian,
    Simmental-Red Holstein, Black Spotted Fresian,
    Polled Hereford with wooly coat.
  • Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome

26
Uses in Research
  • Cattle Disease Models
  • Lipofuscinosis in Ayrshires Fresians
  • Glycogenesis in Shorthorns Brahmans
  • Hereditary orotic aciduria in Holstein-Fresian
    Fresian cattle
  • Hereditary Zinc Deficiency in Holstein-Fresian
    Fresian cattle

27
Sources
  • Commercial vendors
  • USDA licensed dealers

28
Health ScreeningSheep
  • Vaccinations
  • Bluetongue
  • Brucella ovis
  • Campylobacter spp.
  • Chlamydia
  • Clostridial Diseases
  • Pneumonia complex
  • Ovine ecthyma
  • Dichelobacter nodosus
  • Arcanobacterium pseudotuberculosis
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum
  • Diseases
  • Coxiella burnettii (Q fever)
  • Contagious Ecthyma
  • Caseous lymphadenitis
  • Johnes Disease
  • Ovine Progressive Pneumonia
  • Internal Parasites (nasal bots, lungworms,
    intestinal worms)
  • External Parasitism (sheep keds)

29
Health ScreeningGoats
  • Diseases
  • Coxiella burnettii (Q fever)
  • CAE (caprine arthritis encephalitis)
  • Brucellosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Johnes Disease
  • Caseus lymphadenitis
  • Contagious ecthyma
  • Mycoplasma
  • Vaccinations
  • Tetanus other Clostridial diseases
  • Campylobacter spp.
  • Chlamydia
  • Caseous lymphadenitis
  • Contagious ecthyma
  • E. coli
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum

30
Health ScreeningCattle
  • Screening
  • Johnes Disease
  • Brucellosis
  • Tuberculosis
  • Respiratory Diseases
  • Internal and External Parasites
  • Foot Rot
  • Hairy Heel Warts

31
Health ScreeningCattle
  • Essential Vaccinations
  • Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis Virus
  • Bovine Respiratory Syncytial virus
  • Parainfluenza-3
  • Leptospira pomona
  • Tritrichomonas fetus
  • Rotavirus
  • Coronavirus
  • Campylobacter (vibrio)
  • Pasteurella haemolytica
  • Pasteurella multocida
  • Brucella abortus
  • Other Available Vaccines
  • Clostridial diseases
  • Moraxella bovis
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum
  • Staph aureus (mastitis)
  • Haemophilus somnus
  • Rabies
  • Tetanus
  • Bacillus anthracis
  • Enterotoxigenic E. coli
  • Anaplasma
  • Other Leptospira spp.

32
Laboratory Management and Husbandry
33
Laboratory Management and Husbandry
  • Stress reduction in transportation, handling, and
    husbandry practices
  • Floor prevent slippage support wt.
  • Feeders conformed to species
  • Continuous-access waterers
  • Social and herding animals need to be in eyesight
    and hearing of other animals
  • Single housed animals should have regular human
    contact
  • Environmental enrichment governed by SOP,
    protocol, and IACUC
  • Light cycle close to natural conditions
  • Light intensity around 220 lux

34
Unique BiologyRuminants
  • Three compartment forestomach
  • Rumen, reticulum, omasum
  • Rumen
  • Anaerobic fermentation chamber
  • bacteria protozoa
  • Cellulase other enzymes
  • Produce volatile fatty acids (VFA) main source
    of energy
  • Acetic, propionic, butyric

35
Unique BiologyRuminants
  • VFA absorbed in large intestine
  • Unlike monogastrics
  • Microorganisms also synthesizes vitamins B, K and
    provide protein
  • Gases produced and eructated
  • CO2, Methane, Nitrogen
  • Spiral Colon
  • No upper incisors

36
Unique BiologyRuminants
  • Immunoglobulins absorbed by pinocytosis in
    neonates and crucial to passive transfer
  • Functional for the first 36 hours after
    parturition
  • Neonatal ruminants are immunocompetent

37
Unique BiologyRuminants
  • Ruminants have fewer neutrophils then lymphocytes
  • BUN cannot be used as indicator of renal function
    due to metabolism of urea by rumen microorganisms
  • Can go several days w/o water before dehydration
    occurs b/c _____________
  • Urine Ph is generally alkaline in adults

38
Unique BiologyRuminants
  • Erythrocytes are smaller than other mammals
  • Hematocrits tend to be over estimated unless spun
    longer
  • Increased RBC fragility
  • Limited rouleaux formation - none in cattle
    limited in sheep and goats
  • Sheep reported to have at least 6 different types
    of hemoglobin (in addition to fetal hemoglobin)

39
Unique BiologyRuminants
  • Caprine erythrocytes
  • More frail in Pygmy and Toggenburg
  • Lack central pallor
  • Flat and lack bioconcavity
  • May exhibit poikilocytosis
  • 5 Blood groups (B, C, M, R-O, and X)
  • Cross matching advisable but not practical
  • Blood loss of up to 25 red cell mass well
    tolerated by goats (withdrawals of 10ml/kg BW
    safe)

40
Basic NutritionRuminant
  • Commercial feeds, pasture, hay, concentrates
  • Sheep Cattle Grazers
  • Goats Browsers
  • Can be very selective, eating only leafy parts
    waste hay
  • Tend to eat grasses, seeds, nuts, fruits, and
    woody stemmed plants
  • Do not tolerate finely ground concentrates
  • Do not prefer sweet feeds (except our fat
    goats)
  • Make nutrition changes slowly

41
Basic NutritionRuminants
  • Ration high in Ca or Phos or elevated Mg may
    induce urinary calculi in male ruminants
  • May also occur in grasses or pastures high in
    silicates and oxalates
  • Newborns
  • Passive immunity form colostrum (mostly IgG)
    usually w/in 3 hrs of birth
  • Trypsin inhibitors allow passage of intact
    immunoglobulin
  • Colostrum dependent on herd management practices
    (vaccinations, nutrition, parasite control)

42
ReproductionSheep
  • Seasonally polyestrous
  • Breed fall/winter lamb in spring
  • Puberty 7-8 months
  • Estrus cycle 17 days
  • Estrus duration 24-30 hours
  • Ovulate spontaneously _at_ end
  • Gestation 147-150 days
  • Prolificacy varies greatly with breed
  • Epitheliochorial placentation

43
ReproductionGoats
  • Seasonally polyestrous
  • Short day breeders
  • Puberty 7-10 months
  • Estrus cycle 18-24 days
  • Estrus duration 24-96 hours
  • Ovulate late in estrus
  • Gestation 145-155 days
  • Does bear singletons, twins, triplets kid
    only once per year
  • Epitheliochorial placentation
  • Pseudopregnancy common

44
ReproductionCattle
  • Polyestrous
  • Puberty
  • 10-12 months (dairy)
  • 11-15 months (beef)
  • Estrus cycle 21 days
  • Estrus duration 6-24 hours (avg 12-16)
  • Ovulation 24-32 hrs after estrus
  • Gestation 270-292 days
  • Epitheliochorial placentation

45
ReproductionRuminants
  • Weaning
  • Sheep 4-8 weeks (usually 6-8 wks)
  • Goats 6-10 weeks
  • Cattle
  • 4-7 wks (dairy)
  • 7 months (beef) beef cows tend to stay with
    their mother cows until weaning

46
BehaviorSigns of stress
  • Excessive vocalizations
  • Bruxism
  • Decreased appetite
  • Decreased cud chewing
  • Restlessness
  • Prolonged recumbency with out stretched neck and
    head
  • Hunched appearance when standing
  • Limb favoring
  • Rough dull hair coats

47
Behavior
  • Sheep
  • Easily scared move slowly and gently
  • Goats
  • Orally investigative
  • May readily chew through wooden gates or fencing
  • May make sneezing noises to confront unfamiliar
    intruders
  • Cattle
  • Dairydocile Beefnot
  • Calves non-nutritive suckling

48
DiseasesBacterial
  • Actinobacillosis (Wooden Tongue)
  • Agent Actinobacillus lignieresii
  • Animals Cattle Sheep
  • Organism penetrates wounds
  • Diffuse abscesses/granulomas in tissues of head
  • Tongue lesions more common in cattle
  • Lip lesions more common in sheep
  • Soft-tissue/LN swelling with draining tracts
  • Treatment
  • Softer feeds
  • Antibiotics sulfonamides, tetracyclines,
    ampicillin

49
DiseasesBacterial
  • Arcanobacterium
  • Arcanobacterium bovis Lumpy Jaw
  • Normal flora enters through wounds/abrasions
  • Causes firm, non-painful, immovable mandibular
    mass fistulas may develop
  • Tx pennicillin (or derivatives) sodium iodides
    (IV) potassium iodides (orally)
  • Poor prognosis
  • Arcanobacterium pyogenes (actinomycosis)
  • Omphalophlebitis, omphaloarteritis, omphalitis,
    navel ill

50
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51
DiseasesBacterial
  • Anthrax
  • Agent Bacillus anthracis
  • Animals sheep, cattle, goats
  • Transmission abrupt climate changes lead to
    spore release spores ingested by grazing
    animals (sheep cattle more than goats)
  • Clinical signs swelling around shoulders,
    ventral neck, and thorax bloody secretions
    death
  • Prevention vaccination with Sterne-strain spore
    vaccine
  • Zoonotic

52
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53
DiseasesBacterial
  • Brucellosis (Bangs Disease)
  • Agents
  • Brucella melitensis 1o in sheep goats
  • Brucella abortus 1o in cattle
  • Brucella ovis
  • Transmission ingestion of infected tissues
    (milk, vaginal/uterine discharges)
  • Signs abortions, hygromas, swollen scrotum
  • Treatment cull and slaughter
  • Vaccination
  • Rev 1 (sheep) not available in the U.S.
  • Strain 19 (cattle) public health risk (undulant
    fever)
  • RB51 official calfhood vaccine
  • Zoonotic (B. melitensis is leading cause of human
    brucellosis)

54
DiseasesBacterial
  • Campylobacteriosis (Vibriosis)
  • Agent Campylobacter fetus
  • Subsp. intestinalis most important cause of
    ovine abortion in the U.S.
  • Transmission GI tract ? Blood Stream NOT
    venereal
  • Causes abortions (last trimester), stillbirths,
    weak lambs
  • Subsp. venerealis cattle only
  • Transmission venereal
  • Signs high return to estrus after breeding
    abortions
  • Prevention bacterin
  • Treatment
  • Sheep penicillin, oral chlortetracycline
  • Cattle intrauterine penicillin
  • Zoonotic

55
DiseasesBacterial
  • Clostridial Infections
  • C. perfringens type C (Enterotoxemia, Struck)
  • Common in sheep, goats, and cattle
  • Causes fatal hemorrhagic enterocolitis,
    enterotoxemia
  • C. perfringens type D (Pulpy Kidney Disease)
  • Disease of sheep
  • sudden death
  • C. chauvoei - Blackleg
  • C. septicum - Malignant Edema
  • C. novyi - Big Head, Black Disease
  • C. hemolyticum bacillary hemoglobinuria,
    redwater
  • C. tetani - Tetanus

56
DiseasesBacterial
  • Clostridial Infections
  • Source ubiquitous in environment GI tract
    contaminated feeds
  • Transmission ingestion contamination of wounds
  • Prevention vaccinate (multivalent vaccine
    available)
  • Treatment
  • usually futile
  • antibiotics
  • supportive
  • antitoxin for tetanus

57
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58
Diseases
  • Caseous Lymphadenitis
  • Common, chronic contagious infection of lymph
    nodes of sheep and goats
  • Cause Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis
  • Prevention reject animals with lymphadenopathy
    or wounds
  • Treatment antibiotics, lance and drain
    abscesses, cull animals

59
DiseasesBacterial
  • Corynebacterium renale group
  • C. renale
  • Normal inhabitant of bovine genitourinary tract
  • acute pyelonephritis in cattle results from
    ascending infection following a compromise of
    protective mechanisms
  • Tx penicillin (3 weeks)
  • C. pilosum C. cystitidis
  • Normal inhabitants of prepuce of sheep and goats
  • Posthitis (pizzle rot) and vulvovaginitis
  • high-protein diets increase urinary pH ammonia
    irritates prepucial and vulvar skin, increasing
    vulnerability
  • Tx decrease dietary protein

60
DiseasesBacterial
  • Foot Rot of Sheep and Goats
  • Cause Fusobacterium necrophorum (normal
    inhabitant) and Dichelobacter nodosus
    (environmental contaminant)
  • Most common cause of lameness in sheep
  • Prevention
  • maintain dry, clean environment
  • reject clinical cases at delivery
  • vaccinate
  • Treatment
  • foot baths - 10 formalin or 10 zinc sulfate or
    10 copper sulfate
  • penicillin and streptomycin
  • trim affected tissue

61
DiseasesBacterial
  • Foot Rot of Cattle
  • Cause Fusobacterium necrophorum and Bacteroides
    melaninogenicus
  • Signs Acute lameness, malodor w/ little
    discharge
  • Prevention
  • maintain dry, clean environment
  • Vaccinate
  • Treatment
  • foot baths 2.5 formalin or 10 zinc sulfate or
    5 copper sulfate
  • penicillin and oxytetracycline
  • trim affected tissue

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63
DiseasesBacterial
  • Heel Warts (Bovine Digital Dermatitis,
    Interdigital Papillomatosis, Papillomatous
    Digital Dermatitis, Hairy Foot Warts)
  • Cattle only
  • Cause? Fusobacterium spp., Bacteroides spp.,
    Dichelobacter nodosus, poor facility
    management
  • Lesions of haired digital skin erect hairs loss
    of hair thickened skin, painful moist plaques
    (red, gray, or black)
  • Treatment antibiotics, footbaths, surgical
    debridement
  • Prevention as noted for foot rot

64
Diseases
  • Thromboembolic Meningoencephalitis (TEME)
  • Agent Haemophilus somnus (also involved in BRD
    complex)
  • Signs depression, ataxia, falling, conscious
    proprioceptive deficits, death within 36 hours
  • Transmission respiratory secretions
  • Vaccination for viral respiratory pathogens may
    predispose
  • Prevention avoid vaccinating for for IBR and BVD
    during times of stress
  • Treatment penicillin, oxytetracycline

65
Diseases
  • Mastitis
  • Sheep
  • Pasteurella hemolytica most common
  • Goats
  • Staphylococcus epidermidis most common
  • Cattle
  • Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus spp., E.
    coli, Enterobacter aerogenes, Serratia
    marcescens, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Mycoplasma
    spp., Salmonella spp.
  • Mastitis is disease of greatest economic impact
    for dairy cattle

66
DiseasesBacterial
  • Infectious Bovine Keratoconjunctivitis (Pinkeye)
  • Agent Moraxella bovis
  • Cattle only
  • Signs lacrimation, photophobia, blepharospasm,
    conjunctival injection, ulceration
  • More severe in animals infected with IBR or who
    have recently been vaccinated for IBR
    (modified-live vacc)
  • Transmission
  • shed in nasal secretions
  • Fomites, flies, aerosols, direct contact
  • Treatment
  • Topical antibiotics
  • Subconjunctival injections of Pennicillin

67
DiseasesBacterial
  • Tuberculosis
  • Cause Acid-Fast Bacteria
  • Mycobacterium bovis (sheep, goats, cattle)
  • Mycobacterium avium (sheep, goats)
  • Mycobacterium tuberculosis (goats)
  • Signs
  • may be asymptomatic
  • dyspnea, coughing, and pneumonia
  • diarrhea, bloat, constipation
  • Prevention intradermal tuberculin test, cull and
    slaughter
  • Treatment None
  • Zoonotic

68
DiseasesBacterial
  • Johnes Disease (Paratuberculosis)
  • Chronic, contagious, granulomatous disease of
    adult ruminants
  • Cause Mycobacterium paratuberculosis (acid-fast)
  • Long incubation period
  • Signs chronic wasting, pasty feces, diarrhea
  • Transmission direct or indirect contact
  • Prevention Test and slaughter
  • Treatment None

69
DiseasesBacterial
  • Respiratory Disease Complex of Ruminants
  • BRDC in cattle, BRD in calves, shipping fever
  • Most economically important disease of beef
    cattle
  • Combinations of numerous agents
  • Bacterial Pasteurella haemolytica, P. multicida,
    Hemophilus somnus, Corynebacterium pyogenes
  • Viral Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis (IBR).
    Parainfluenza-3 (PI-3), Bovine Respiratory
    Syncytial virus (BRSV), Bovine Viral Diarrhea
    (BVD)
  • Mycoplasma bovis, M. dispar

70
DiseasesBacterial
  • Respiratory Disease Complex of Ruminants
  • Onset of disease related to stress
  • Shipping, weaning, weather changes, dietary
    changes, overcrowding, shearing
  • Signs nasal discharge, fever, coughing, dyspnea,
    diarrhea, depression, death
  • Treatment
  • Antibiotics ceftiofur, tilmicosin, florfenicol,
    oxytetracycline, tilosin
  • Anti-inflammatory Banamine
  • Supportive Care
  • Prevention reduce stress, precondition,
    vaccinate

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72
DiseasesBacterial
  • Contagious Caprine Pleuropneumonia
  • Cause Mycoplasma mycoides biotype F38
  • Signs severe dyspnea, nasal discharge, cough,
    and fever
  • High morbidity and mortality
  • Transmission aerosol
  • Prevention vaccinate quarantine
  • Treatment Tylosin and Oxytetracycline

73
DiseasesBacterial
  • Q-Fever
  • Highly contagious disease of sheep and goats
  • Agent Coxiella burnetti - rickettsial organism
  • Transmission
  • Ixodid or Argasid ticks
  • Ingestion of infected materials (placenta, milk,
    urine , feces, nasal secretions)
  • Major cause of late abortion in sheep
  • Usually asymptomatic in cattle and goats
  • Treatment oxytetracycline
  • Zoonotic (single organism shown to cause disease)

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75
DiseasesViral
  • Bluetongue Virus
  • Most common ulcerative disease of sheep in US
    (less common in goats and cattle)
  • Cause
  • Reoviridae family, Orbivirus genus
  • Transmission biting midge (Culicoides
    variipennis)
  • Signs
  • hemorrhage and ulcers in mouth and nose, cyanosis
    of the tongue, ulcerations of coronary band,
    lameness, pneumonia, abortions, diarrhea, death
  • Prevention modified live virus vaccine
  • Treatment supportive care
  • Reportable disease (resembles FMD)

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77
DiseasesViral
  • Bovine Lymphosarcoma
  • Adult cattle
  • associated with Bovine Leukemia Virus (BLV)
  • Transmission inhalation, colostrum, fomites
  • 2 forms
  • Malignant Lymphoma most common bovine neoplastic
    disease in the U.S.
  • Leukosis (B-lymphocyte proliferation) rare
  • Young cattle
  • not associated with BLV
  • Rare
  • Sheep natural infection has occurred
    experimental model
  • Goats seroconvert to BLV, but do not develop
    clinical disease

78
DiseasesViral
  • Bovine Viral Diarrhea Virus (Flavivirus)
  • BVD virus is ubiquitous (70-90 of all cattle
    seropositive)
  • Acute Form (NCP)
  • Affects immunocompetent, but immunologically
    naïve cattle
  • Signs diarrhea, fever, leukopenia, oral
    erosions, oculonasal discharge, hypogalactia
  • In utero infection (NCP)
  • abortions, congenital anomalies, persistently
    infected calves
  • Mucosal Disease
  • PI animal that becomes infected with a CP strain
    (mutant)
  • Usually results in death
  • 10 will survive to first calving? Real Problem
  • Prevention Vaccination

79
DiseasesViral
  • Caprine Arthritis Encephalitis Virus
  • Most important viral disease of goats
  • Cause Lentivirus (similar to OPPV)
  • Transmission
  • vertical via colostrum and milk
  • Signs
  • progressive arthritis (six months and older)
  • Carpal joint most common, followed by stifle,
    hock, and hip
  • neurological symptoms in kids
  • pneumonia (older animals)
  • mastitis (older animals)
  • Prevention
  • remove kids at birth test and cull
  • Treatment None Infection is lifelong

80
DiseasesViral
  • Infectious Bovine Rhinotracheitis
  • Agent IBR virus, Bovine Herpesvirus 1
  • BHV-1.1 (IBR)
  • BHV-1.2 (IBR-Infectious Pustular Vulvovaginitis)
  • BHV-1.4 (neurologic disease)
  • Fibronecrotic rhinotracheitis is pathognomonic
  • Signs gray pustules/plaques on muzzle, nasal
    discharge, open-mouth breathing,
  • IBR and BVD are the most common causes of bovine
    abortion
  • Treatment antibiotics
  • Prevention vaccinate

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82
DiseasesViral
  • Border Disease (Hairy Shaker Disease)
  • Primarily a disease of sheep
  • Cause Pestivirus closely related to BVD virus
  • Transmission PI animals shed virus in urine,
    feces, and saliva
  • In Utero infections result in
  • early embryonic death
  • abortion
  • developmental abnormalities - tremor, hirsutism,
    hypothyroidism, CNS defects, joint abnormalities
  • Prevention Vaccinate with killed BVDV vaccine
  • Treatment supportive care

83
DiseasesViral
  • Contagious Ecthyma (Orf)
  • Viral infection of sheep and goats
  • Cause parapoxvirus - capable of surviving for
    years
  • Usually seen in young animals
  • Signs
  • lesions and scab formation around mouth,
    nostrils, eyes, non-wooled areas around mammary
    gland and vulva
  • Most commonly at commissures of mouth
  • Infected lactating ewes may abandon lambs
  • Treatment supportive
  • Prevention
  • Vaccinate
  • Disinfect equipment etc. in between use
  • Zoonotic

84
DiseasesViral
  • Malignant Catarrhal Fever (MCF)
  • Severe disease primarily of cattle, but all
    ruminants susceptible
  • Signs
  • Corneal edema starting at limbus and progressing
    centripetally is nearly pathognomonic
  • Other signs include oral erosions, purulent
    nasal discharge, encephalitis, lymphadenopathy,
    shed horns and hooves, diarrhea, sudden death
  • Transmission
  • Goats and cattle that survive are reservoirs
  • Shed from nasopharynx
  • Direct contact, water troughs, placenta,
    aerosols, fomites
  • Infection is lifelong

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86
DiseasesViral
  • Ovine Progressive Pneumonia Virus (OPPV,
    Maedi/Visna)
  • Cause Lentivirus (closely related to CAEV)
  • Signs
  • after long incubation period (up to 2 years)
  • progressive weight loss, pneumonia, lameness,
    paralysis, mastitis, death
  • Transmission
  • horizontal (aerosol)
  • vertical - in utero and via infected milk and
    colostrum
  • Prevention
  • Test and cull
  • Remove lambs from ewes at birth
  • Treatment none

87
DiseasesViral
  • Pulmonary Adenomatosis (Jaagsiekte)
  • Rare Disease
  • progressive respiratory signs (dyspnea,
    hyperpnea) and wasting
  • Incubation up to 2 years
  • Cause Type D retrovirus
  • Transmission aerosol
  • Treatment None

88
DiseasesViral
  • Papillomatosis (Warts, Verrucae)
  • Agent Bovine Papillomavirus (types 1-5)
  • BPV-1 and BPV-2 fibropapilomas on teats, penis,
    head, neck, dewlap
  • BPV-3 flat warts anywhere on body
  • BPV-4 warts in GI tract
  • BPV-5 small white warts on teats
  • Very common in cattle, less common in sheep and
    goats
  • Sheep and goats rarely get verrucious type warts
    which may develop into squamous cell carcinomas
  • Transmission direct/indirect contact through
    wounds
  • Treatment often spontaneously resolve (not BPV-3
    and BPV-5) surgical excision cryosurgery
  • Prevention commercial vaccine (cattle)
    autogenous

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90
DiseasesViral
  • Pseudorabies (Mad Itch, Aujeszkys Dz)
  • Primarily a clinical disease of cattle (less
    frequently in sheep and goats)
  • Signs abrasions, swelling, pruritis,
    hyperthermia, vocalize frantically, salivation,
    neurologic signs
  • Usually fatal
  • Transmission
  • Swine are primary host and reservoir and are
    usually assymptomatic
  • Oral, intranasal, intradermal, or SQ introduction
    of virus (including modified-live swine vaccine)
  • No treatment
  • Reportable nationwide eradication program

91
Diseases
  • Tranmissible Spongiform Encephalopathies
  • Caused by prion (nonantigenic replicating
    proteins)
  • Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy
  • Incubation period of years
  • Progressive neurological illness
  • Scrapie
  • More common in sheep than goats
  • Affects young animals, but incubation 2-5 years
  • Signs excitable, tremors of head and neck
    muscles, uncoordinated movements, bunny
    hopping, severe pruritis, blindness, death
    within 4-6 weeks
  • Suffolk especially susceptible Targhee resistant
  • USDA prohibits feeding mammalian proteins to
    ruminants
  • Reportable

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93
DiseasesViral
  • Vesicular Stomatits
  • Agent Vesicular Stomatitis Virus (Rhabdoviridae)
  • Disease of Cattle rarely sheep (also horses
    swine)
  • Signs vesicles on oral MM, teats and
    interdigital spaces, ulcers and erosions
    anorexia, salivation
  • Transmission secretions spread by fomites, human
    hands, possibly contaminated feed and water, and
    possible some flying insects (mechanical vectors)
  • Treatment segregate topical antibiotics for 2o
    infections
  • Prevention vaccine during outbreak
  • Reportable because similarity to FMD
  • Zoonotic flu-like disease in humans

94
DiseasesViral
  • Viral Diarrhea Diseases
  • 1o young animals
  • Sheep
  • Rotaviruses, Coronaviruses
  • Goats
  • Rotaviruses, Coronaviruses, Adenoviruses
  • Cattle
  • Rotaviruses diarrhea is typically distinctive
    yellow may become zoonotoic
  • Coronaviruses
  • Parvoviruses
  • Winter Dysentary diarrhea has distinctive musty
    sweet odor, light brown and bubbly
  • Prevention good quality colostrum

95
DiseasesChlamydial
  • Enzootic Abortion
  • Cause Chlamydphila psittaci (formerly Chlamydia
    psittaci)
  • Signs
  • late abortion
  • birth of stillborns
  • birth of weak kids/lambs
  • Transmission
  • direct contact with infectious secretions
    (placental, fetal, and uterine fluids)
  • Indirect contact with contaminated feed and water
  • Prevention
  • Vaccinate prevents abortions, but not infection
  • Quarantine - recovered does/ewes usually immune
    thereafter
  • Treatment - Oxytetracycline

96
Diseases
  • Conjunctivitis-Polyarthritis Syndrome
  • Cause Chlamydphila psittaci
  • (Formerly Chlamydia psittaci)
  • Signs
  • ocular lesions
  • Most common cause of infectious
    keratoconjunctivitis in sheep
  • Conjunctival hyperemia, edema, ulceration,
    opacity
  • arthritis
  • Lameness in one or all legs
  • Prevention Quarantine
  • Treatment
  • Self-limiting resolves spontaneously in 2-4
    weeks
  • Ocular - tetracycline ophthalmic medication
  • Systemic Disease - Oxytetracycline

97
DiseasesParasitic
  • Anaplasmosis
  • Agent Anaplasma marginale (protozoa)
  • Hemolytic disease of cattle
  • Spread by Dermacentor andersoni and D.
    occidentalis
  • Tx oxytetracycline
  • Babesiosis
  • Agent Babesia bovis and Ba. Bigemina (protozoa)
  • Subclinical infections in cattle
  • Spread by Boophilus ticks
  • Hemolysis ? liver and kidney disease
  • Reportable

98
DiseasesParasitic
  • Coccidiosis (protozoa)
  • Causes hemorrhagic diarrhea in ruminants
  • Transmitted via ingestion of sporulated oocysts
  • Treatment
  • Coccidiostats preferable to coccidiocidals
    because the former allow development of immunity
  • Sulfonamides, amprolium, decoquinate, lasalocid,
    monensin
  • Cryptosporidiosis (protozoa)
  • Common cause of diarrhea in young ruminants
  • Dx oocysts in iodine-stained feces fecal floats
    without sugar
  • Tx none - self-limiting
  • Zoonotic

99
DiseasesParasitic
  • Neosporosis
  • Neospora caninum (protozoa)
  • Common cause of bovine abortion (3rd -7th month)
  • Transmission transplacental ingesting ooccysts
  • No treatment
  • Definitive host canine
  • Toxoplasmosis
  • Toxoplasma gondii (protozoa)
  • Major case of abortions in sheep and goats
  • Transmission ingesting oocysts transplacental
  • No effective treatment
  • Definitive host feline
  • Zoonotic

100
DiseasesParasitic
  • Trichomoniasis
  • Agent Tritrichomonas fetus (protozoa)
  • Signs infertility, pyometras, abortions
  • Organism does not interfere with conception
    embryonic death occurs within 2 months of
    infection
  • Transmission venereal
  • Prevention vaccinate cull chronically infected
    bulls
  • Treatment imidazole effective, but cannot be
    used in food animals

101
DiseasesParasitic
  • Nematodes
  • Haemonchus contortus (barber pole worm)
  • Most important internal parasite of sheep and
    goats
  • Anemia, hypoproteinemia, intermandibular and
    cervical edema
  • Ostertagia circumcincta (medium stomach worm)
  • Sheep and goats
  • Ostertagia ostertagia (cattle stomach worm)
  • Most pathogenic and costly cattle nematode
  • Dictyocaulus (lungworms)
  • Various respiratory signs in all ruminants
  • Tx Ivermectin, Levamisole

102
DiseasesParasitic
  • Trematodes
  • Fascioliasis (liver fluke disease)
  • Agents
  • Fasciola hepatica
  • Fascioloides magns
  • Dicrocelium dendriticum
  • Intermediate host usually a freshwater snail
  • Signs of acute liver disease related to migration
    of immature flukes through the liver
  • Chronic disease from damage to bile ducts and
    cholangiohepatitis
  • Predisposes to invasion with Clostridial spp.
  • Necropsy livers pale and friable /- migration
    tunnels
  • Tx albendazole

103
DiseasesParasites
  • Mites rare in ruminants in the U.S., but
    Sarcoptes and Psorergates are reportable
  • Lice
  • Sheep
  • Biting Damalinia ovis
  • Sucking Linognathus ovillus, L. pedalis
  • Goats
  • Biting D. caprae, D. limbatus, D. crassipes
  • Sucking L. stenopis, L. africanus
  • Cattle
  • Biting D. bovis
  • Sucking L. vituli, Solenoptes capillatus,
    Haematopinuseurysternus, H. quadripertusis
  • Ticks many Ixodidae and Argasidae species

104
DiseasesParasites
  • Other parasites
  • Nasal bots/head grubs (Oestrus ovis)
  • Screwworm flies (Cochliomyia hominivorax)
  • Reportable
  • Sheep Keds (Melophagus ovinus)

105
DiseasesFungal
  • Dermatophytosis (Ringworm)
  • Common fungal infection of cattle
  • Trichophyton verrucosum is 1o agent
  • Signs multiple, gray, crusty, circumscribed,
    hyperkeratotic lesions around head, neck and ears
  • Dx Dermatophyte Test Media (DTM)
  • Spontaneous recovery 1-4 months
  • Treatment
  • Topical 2-5 lime-sulfur solution, 3 captan,
    iodophors, thiabendazole, and 0.5 hypochlorite
  • Systemic griseofulvin
  • Zoonotic

106
DiseasesGenetic
  • Entropion sheep and goats
  • Beta-Mannosidosis goats (Nubian)
  • Lysosomal storage disease
  • Intention tremors, difficulty standing, deaf
  • Congenital Myotonia goats
  • fainting goats transient spasms of skeletal
    muscle brought about by visual, tactile, or
    auditory stimuli
  • Congenital erythropoietic porphyria cattle
  • Leukocyte Adhesion Deficiency Syndrome cattle
    (Holstein)
  • Goiter of Sheep sheep (Merino)
  • Spider Lamb Syndrome sheep (Suffollk and
    Hampshire)
  • Hereditary chondrodysplasia

107
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Abomasal displacement
  • RDA
  • May be complicated by torsion
  • surgical emergency
  • LDA
  • More common
  • Signs anorexia, decreased cud chewing, decreased
    ruminal contractions, decreased respiratory rate,
    increased heart rate
  • Dx Pinging
  • Cause
  • Gas accumulation causes abomasum to float up
  • No exact cause identified
  • Treatment
  • RDA surgery
  • LDA surgical or non-surgical correction

108
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Rumen Tympany (Bloat)
  • Frothy bloat - excessive ingestion of highly
    fermentable carbohydrates
  • Treatment
  • Mineral oil, household detergents, or
    anti-fermentatives via stomach tube
  • Trocarize rumen
  • Free gas bloat
  • Interference with normal eructation mechanism
  • Esophageal obstruction, vagal nerve paralysis,
    some CNS conditions
  • Prevention
  • withhold feed for at least 24 hours prior to
    anesthesia, etc.
  • Treatment
  • pass stomach tube
  • trocarize rumen

109
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Lactic Acidosis (Grain overload)
  • Cause excessive ingestion of highly fermentable
    carbohydrates
  • Leads to shift from gram-negative rumen bacterial
    population to gram-positive Streptococcus and
    Lactobacillus
  • Lactic acid acidifies the rumen leading to
    inflammation
  • ? ulcers, liver abscesses, laminitis,
    polioencephalomalacia
  • Prevention
  • avoid sudden dietary changes
  • avoid over feeding of high carbohydrate diets
  • Treatment
  • IV fluids
  • magnesium hydroxide intraruminal Na bicarb IV
  • flush rumen or rumenotomy
  • transfaunation

110
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Traumatic Reticulitis-Reticulopertonitis
  • Also Traumatic Reticulitis-Pericarditis
  • Aka. Hardware disease
  • Cattle, rarely small ruminants
  • Caused by ingestion of sharp metallic objects
    which drop into the reticulum penetrates the
    reticulum further migrations may lead to
    penetration of the diaphragm and pericardium
  • Prevention
  • Eliminate sharp objects in food and environment
  • Forestomach magnets

111
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Pregnancy Toxemia (Ketosis, Twin Lamb Disease)
  • 1o in Sheep and Goats that are overweight or
    bearing twins
  • Seen in during late gestation or early lactation
  • Signs
  • depression, anorexia, weakness, neurologic signs,
    fetal death, ketonuria
  • Cause inadequate glucose production secondary to
    increased requirements
  • Prevention increase nutrition
  • Treatment
  • IV fluids, IV glucose, B vitamins, propylene
    glycol, induce abortion or c-section
  • Protein Energy Malnutrition in heifer cattle is
    similar, but generally not associated with
    overconditioning or twins

112
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Hypocalcemia (Parturient Paresis, Milk Fever)
  • Sheep overweight ewes during last six weeks of
    gestation or first few weeks of lactation
  • Signs muscle tetany, incoordination, paralysis,
    coma, death
  • Goats not as common
  • Signs bloated, weak, unsteady, recumbent
  • Cattle 24-48 hours before/after parturition
  • Signs weak, muscle tremors, inability to stand,
    coma, death
  • Cause
  • calcium needs exceed bodys uptake of calcium
  • Prevention
  • Maintain proper nutrition during last trimester
  • appropriate CaP ratio
  • limit Ca intake early on
  • Treatment IV calcium borogluconate, calcium gels
    boluses

113
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Urinary Calculi (Obstructive Urolithiasis, Water
    Belly)
  • Rare in ruminants
  • Urethral blockage
  • male sheep and goats pizzle
  • male cattle sigmoid flexure
  • Signs
  • treading, straining, arched back, raised tail,
    squatting, pizzle may be discolored
  • Type 1o struvite
  • Prevention
  • diet with 21 CaP ratio, ? dietary roughage and
    salt, add ammonium chloride to diet
  • Treatment
  • surgical - amputate pizzle, perineal urethrostomy

114
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Copper Intoxication
  • 1o a disease of sheep
  • Acute hemolytic crisis
  • sudden weakness, recumbency, hemoglobinuria,
    intravascular hemolysis, anemia, icterus, sudden
    death
  • Cause chronic ingestion of copper
  • Feeding cattle feeds and concetrates to sheep
  • Copper-containing pesticides
  • Soil additives
  • Prevention Feed proper ration
  • Treatment
  • ammonium molybdenate, sodium molybdenate,
    D-penicillamine, transfusion

115
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Selenium/Vitamin E Deficiency (White Muscle
    Disease)
  • A nutritional muscular dystrophy
  • Two forms
  • Cardiac - seen most often in neonates
  • Respiratory difficulty due to damage of cardiac,
    diaphragmatic, and intercostal muscles locomotor
    disturbances and circulatory failure
  • Skeletal
  • Reluctant to move painful muscles
  • Cause Selenium (most common) and/or Vit. E
    Deficiency
  • Prevention proper diet awareness of regional
    selenium deficiencies
  • Treatment injectable selenium and/or Vitamin E

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117
DiseasesMetabolic
  • Thiamine Deficiency (Polioencephalomalacia)
  • Animals affected
  • Adult ruminant on high-concentrate diets most
    common
  • Ruminants exposed to toxic plants or moldy feed
    containing thiaminases
  • Ruminants on high-sulfate feeds
  • Signs bruxism, hyperesthesia, involuntary muscle
    contractions, opisthotonus, seizures, wandering
    aimlessly, head-pressing, death
  • Prevention provide enough high quality roughage
    to prevent overgrowth of thiaminase-producing
    ruminal flora
  • Treatment thiamine hydrochloride

118
DiseasesManagement-Related
  • Failure of Passive Transfer
  • Laminitis
  • Photosensitization - 2o (liver dz) most common)
  • Vaginal Uterine Prolapses
  • Rectal Prolapses
  • Trichobezoars

119
DiseasesNeoplastic
  • Neoplasia and tumors relatively rare in ruminants
  • Sheep
  • Lymphosarcoma/leukemia results from a virus
    related to BLV
  • Pulmonary carcinoma (pulmonary adenomatosis)
  • Goats
  • Thymoma
  • Cutaneous papillomas which may progress to SCC
  • Cattle
  • Lymphosarcoma of various organ systems
  • Ocular Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) cancer
    eye
  • Papillomatosis (warts) are common

120
DiseasesMisc.
  • Amyloidosis cattle
  • Accumulations of amyloid in kidney, liver,
    adrenal glands, and GI tract associated with
    chronic inflammatory disease
  • Signs chronic diarrhea, wt. loss, proteinuria
  • Poor prognosis no treatment
  • Dental Wear sheep
  • Associated with dietary contamination with
    silica, or grazing in sandy environments
  • Sole Abscesses cattle
  • Fusobacterium necrophorum often involved

121
Diseases
  • Other Important Diseases
  • Rabies zoonotic, reportable
  • Leptosporosis - zoonotic
  • E. coli - zoonotic
  • Salmonellosis - zoonotic
  • Lyme Disease - zoonotic
  • Tularemia - zoonotic
  • Foot Mouth Disease reportable
  • Proliferative Stomatitis - zoonotic
  • Pseudocowpox - zoonotic

122
Recent Literature
  • The Genetic Immunodeficiency Disease, Leukocyte
    Adhesion Deficiency, in Humans, Dogs, Cattle, and
    Mice. CM, Vol. 54, No. 4, August 2004
  • Ovine Model to Evaluate Ovarian Vascularization
    by Using Contrast-Enhancd Sonography, CM, Vol.
    55, No. 2, April 2005

123
References
  • Laboratory Animal Medicine, 2nd Edition,
    2002,pages 519-614.
  • Large Animal Internal Medicine Diseases of
    Horses, Cattle, Sheep, and Goats, 2nd Edition,
    Smith, 1996.
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