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The Benefits of Dairy Calf Health Management within the New York City Watershed

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The Benefits of Dairy Calf Health Management within the New York City Watershed Elizabeth Walker, MPH student Walden University PUBH 6165-2 Instructor: Dr. Howard Rubin – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: The Benefits of Dairy Calf Health Management within the New York City Watershed


1
The Benefits of Dairy Calf Health Management
within the New York City Watershed
  • Elizabeth Walker, MPH student
  • Walden University
  • PUBH 6165-2
  • Instructor Dr. Howard Rubin
  • Spring, 2011

2
Introduction Environmental Health Importance
  • Dairy Calves
  • Water sources
  • New York City

3
Water Facts
  • Water on Earth
  • Illnesses by water
  • World-wide
  • United States

Jongo News, 2007
Moeller, 2005 Circle of Blue, 2009
4
History of the Watershed
Croton Watershed, 1842 Filtered
Catskill/Delaware system, 1907 Treated, unfiltered
Cheeseman, 2011
Nicole, 2011
Watershed Agricultural Council WAC,
2010a,b Environmental Protection Agency EPA,
2010
USEPA, 2010 Catskill Watershed Corporation, 2005
5
Regulations
  • Safe Drinking Water Act, 1986
  • Surface Water Treatment Rule,1989

Southern Nevada Water Authority, 2011
USEPA, 2010 NYC Department of Environmental
Protection DEP, 2011
6
Watershed Agricultural Programs
  • Whole Farm Planning
  • Nutrient Management
  • Youngstock Pathogen Management

WAC, 2010b
7
Dairy Calf Health Biosecurity
Kansas State University, 2003
8
General Calf Health
  • Calf immunity
  • Common diseases
  • Early health

Squash Blossom Farm, 2009
Penn State University PSU, 2008 Cornell
University, 2011d
9
Factors Affecting Calf Health
  • Calving area
  • Feeding
  • Weaning
  • Farm pathogen load
  • Housing
  • Environment
  • Stress
  • Cattle Health Assurance Program

10
Simple Mitigation Strategies Benefits
  • For Factors Affecting Calf Health

11
Calving Area/Maternity Pen
  • Clean dry
  • Fresh bedding
  • No other animals

Land O Lakes, 2010
EPA, 2005
12
First Feeding After Birth
  • Antibody uptake
  • First Hour of Birth
  • Quality of colostrum

Mallories Dairy, Inc., 2010
Land O Lakes, 2010 PSU, 2008
13
Feeding After Birth
  • Colostrum from other cows
  • Further feeding
  • Effect on milk yield

Land O Lakes, 2010 Cornell University, 2011b,c,d
University of Minnesota Extension, 2011 Sirois,
2004
14
Housing
  • Individual structures
  • Ventilation
  • Draft-free
  • Comfortable

Hilson Westenbroek, 2003b Starkey, et al., 2006
UK Agriculture, 2011 Curtis, et al, 1988
15
Environment Stress
  • Microenvironment (Farm)
  • Hygiene
  • Bedding
  • Routine tasks
  • Macroenvironment (Nature)
  • NYS seasons
  • Flooding

STRESS!
16
Time of Weaning the Calf
  • Wean from mother
  • Wean from milk and housing

Land O Lakes, 2010 Hilson Westenbroek, 2003a
17
NYSCHAP
  • New York State Cattle Health Assurance Program
  • Free service
  • Risk-assessment
  • Herd Plan

NYSCHAP, 2009
Cornell University, 2011a
18
Other Strategies
  • Iodine
  • Chores
  • Vaccinations
  • Record Keeping

Land O Lakes, 2010
Welsh Lamb and Beef Producers, 2009
19
Diseases and Pathogens of Interest
Growing Notes, 2003
20
Gastrointestinal (GI) Pathogens
  • Virus
  • Rota-virus
  • Corona-virus
  • Bacteria
  • E.coli
  • Clostridium
  • Salmonella
  • Parasites
  • Cryptosporidia
  • Giardia

Land O Lakes, 2010
Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, 2011
21
Mammary/Milk Transmitted Pathogens
  • Bacteria
  • Salmonella
  • Infectious Mastitis
  • Mycoplasma Bovis (pneumonia)
  • Virus
  • Bovine Viral Diarrhea (BVD)
  • Bovine Leukosis Virus (BLV)

22
Human Threats Zoonoses
  • E.coli
  • Salmonella
  • Cryptosporidia
  • Giardia

University of California, Davis, 1995
Traders City, 2009
23
NYC Watershed Interest
  • Cryptosporidia
  • Giardia

University of California, Davis, 1995 Collick, et
al., 2006 Mark-Carew, et al., 2010
Gonzalez, 2002 Caduceus Newsletter, 2004
24
Summary of Benefits
  • Farms, Animals, Environment,
  • People

25
Farms

Stress Immunity
Pathogen Transfer Early health
Calf mortality Productivity of the animal
INCREASE
DECREASE
Cornell University, 2011d
26
Animals
  • Farm animals
  • Pets
  • Wildlife

Halliburton Farms, 2006
27
Environment
  • Manure spreading
  • Pathogen runoff
  • Wildlife

Free George, 2011
28
People

Pathogen transfer Clean water
Pathogen infection Survivability
Water-borne disease Appreciation of farm efforts
DECREASE
INCREASE
DEP, 2011
29
Conclusion
  • MANAGEMENT
  • Record keeping
  • Recognition
  • Suggestions
  • Farm efforts

Walker, 2010b
30
Questions
Penn State University, 2007
31
Local Resources
  • Cornell Cooperative Extension of Delaware County
  • Website http//www.ccedelaware.org/Home.aspx
  • Telephone (607) 865-6531
  • Delaware County Soil and Water Conservation
    District
  • Website http//www.dcswcd.org/
  • Telephone 607-865-7161
  • New York City Department of Environmental
    Protection
  • Website http//www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/home/hom
    e.shtml

32
Additional Resources
  • New York State Cattle Health Assurance Program
  • http//nyschap.vet.cornell.edu/
  • United States Department of Agriculture
  • Animal Disease Traceability http//www.aphis.usda
    .gov/traceability/
  • Clinical Textbook for Veterinary Technicians
  • Author Dennis M. McCurnin
  • Penn State University Cooperative Extension
  • http//extension.psu.edu/production-agriculture/da
    iry

33
References
  • Catskill Watershed Corporation. (2005). A brief
    history. Retrieved on April 12, 2011 from
    http//cwconline.org/about/ab_hist.html.
  • Circle of Blue. (2009). Infographic Ten things
    you should know about water. Retrieved on April
    12, 2011 from http//www.circleofblue.org/waterne
    ws/wp-content/uploads/2009/07/waterinfo.pdf.
  • Collick, A.S., Fogarty, E.A., Ziegler, P.E.,
    Walter, M.T., Bowman, D.D., and T. S. Steenhuis.
    (2006). Survival of cryptosporidium parvum
    oocysts in calf housing facilities in the New
    York City watersheds. Journal of Environmental
    Quality, 35, 680-587. Doi 10.2134/jeq2005.0273.
  • Cornell University. (2011a, February). Healthy
    herds Cattle health program helps herds and
    humans. Scopes Magazine. Retrieved from
    http//www.vet.cornell.edu/news/documents/Scopes_
    FEB11_FLtoPrint.pdf.
  • Cornell University. (2011b). 2011 Herd health and
    nutrition conferences. Retrieved on April 12,
    2011 from http//www.ansci.cornell.edu/prodairy/H
    HNC/proceedings/2011CompleteProceedings.pdf.
  • Cornell University. (2011c). Interactions of
    health, disease, and nutrition in dairy calves.
    Retrieved on April 12, 2011 from
    http//www.abc.cornell.edu/prodairy/HHNC/proceedin
    gs/HHNC2011.4.Nydam.pdf.
  • Cornell University. (2011d). Taking the long
    view Treat them nice as babies and they will be
    better adults.
  • Curtis, C.R., Scarlett, J.M., Erb, H.N., White,
    M.E. (1988). Path model of individual-calf risk
    factors for calfhood morbidity and mortality in
    New York holstein herds. Preventative Veterinary
    Medicine, 6, 43-62.
  • Hilson, J., T. Westenbroek. (2003a). Day one-
    Newborn calves. Calf Management Newsletter, 1(1),
    p. 1-2.
  • Hilson, J., T. Westenbroek. (2003b).
    Replacement housing- young calves. Calf
    Management Newsletter, 1(3), p. 1-2.
  • Land O Lakes. (2010). Biosecurity in calf
    management.
  • Mark-Carew, M.P., Khan, Y., Wade, S.E., Schaaf,
    S. H.O. Mohammed. (2010). Incidence of and
    risks associated with Giardia infections in
    herds on dairy farms in the New York City
    Watershed. ACTA Veterinaria Scandinavica,
    52(44), p.1-8.

34
References
  • Moeller, D. W. (2005). Environmental health (3rd
    ed.). Boston Harvard University Press.
  • New York City Department of Environmental
    Protection NYCDEP. (2011). Regulatory
    background. Retrieved on April 12, 2011 from
    http//www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/watershed_protect
    ion/regulatory_background.shtml
  • Pennsylvania State University. (2008). Calf
    health Birth to weaning. Retrieved on April 14,
    2011 from http//www.das.psu.edu/research-extensi
    on/dairy/capitalregion/newsletter/articles/df-2007
    11-04
  • Sirois, M. (2004). Principles and practice of
    veterinary technology (2nd ed.). St. Louis
    Mosby, Inc.
  • Starkey, S.R., Kimber, K.R., Wade, S.E., Schaaf,
    S.L., White, M.E., H.O. Mohammed. (2006). Risk
    factors associated with Cryptosporidium
    infection on dairy farms in a New York State
    watershed. Journal of Dairy Science,89,
    4229-4236.
  • United States Environmental Protection Agency
    USEPA. (2010). Filtration avoidance. Retrieved
    on April 12, 2011 from http//www.epa.gov/region2
    /water/nycshed/filtad.htm.
  • University of California, Davis. (1995).
    Cryptosporidium parvum and cattle Implications
    for public health and land use restrictions.
    Retrieved on April 12, 2011 from
    http//www.nal.usda.gov/wqic/printPHP2.php
  • Watershed Agricultural council WAC. (2010a).
    East of Hudson. Retrieved on April 12, 2011 from
    http//www.nycwatershed.org/ag_eastofhudson.html.
  • WAC. (2010b). Watershed agricultural program 2009
    annual report and 2010 workload for the New York
    City Catskill/Delaware and Croton Watersheds.
    Retrieved on April 12, 2011 from
    http//www.nycwatershed.org/pdfs/2009WAPannualRep
    ortCompressed.pdf.

35
Image References
  • Caduceus Newsletter. (2004). Cryptosporidium.
    Retrieved on April 24, 2011 from
    http//www.cbu.edu/seisen/CadSu0402.htm.
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention CDC.
    (2011). Clostridium perfringens. Retrieved on
    April 24, 2011 from http//www.cdc.gov/foodbornebu
    rden/clostridium-perfringens.html.
  • Cheeseman, J. (2011). Croton lake gate house. New
    York City Department of Environmental
    Protection.Retrieved on April 24, 2011 from
    http//www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/watershed_protect
    ion/index.shtml.
  • Gonzalez, A. (2002). Giardia lamblia and
    giardiasis. Retrieved on April 24, 2011 from
    http//www.sierranaturenotes.com/naturenotes/Giard
    ia.htm
  • Growing Notes. (2003). E.coli. Retrieved on April
    24, 2011 from http//aerogreen.tripod.com/notes.ht
    m
  • Halliburton Farms. (2006). Getting to youre your
    new friend. Retrieved on April 24, 2011 from
    http//www.britishwhite.com/powarchive12.htm
  • Jongo News. (2007). Severely polluted lakes and
    rivers in China. Retrieved on April 21, 2011 from
    http//www.jongonews.com/articles/07/0821/30781/Mz
    A3ODEsRqd5Uv4.html
  • Kansas State University. (2003). Integrating
    biosecurity practices into livestock management
    production. Retrieved on May 16, 2011 from
    http//www.vet.ksu.edu/ce/archive/2003/biosecurity
    .htm
  • Mallories Dairy, Inc. (2010). Retrieved on April
    24, 2011 from http//www.malloriesdairy.com/photo_
    tour.htm.
  • Nicole, C. (2011). Rainbow over the east basin of
    the Ashokan Reservoir. New York City Department
    of Environmental Protection. Retrieved on April
    24, 2011 from http//www.nyc.gov/html/dep/html/wat
    ershed_protection/index.shtml.

36
Image References
  • NYSCHAP. (2009). Logo. Retrieved on April 24,
    2011 from http//nyschap.vet.cornell.edu/module/le
    ukosis/section1/leukosis1.asp.
  • Penn State University. (2007). Calf management
    tips for cold weather. Retrieved on April 24,
    2011 from http//www.das.psu.edu/research-extensio
    n/dairy/dairy-digest/articles/dd200712-04
  • Southern Nevada Water Authority. (2011). Safe
    drinking water act. Retrieved on April 24, 2011
    from http//www.snwa.com/html/wq_sdwa.html.
  • Squash Blossom Farm. (2009). Jersey Calves.
    Retrieved on April 24, 2011 from
    http//squashblossomfarm.blogspot.com/2009/04/jers
    ey-calves.html.
  • The Free George. (2011). The fight for clean
    water Agribiz vs. environmentalists. Retrieved
    on April 24, 2011 from http//thefreegeorge.com/th
    efreegeorge/clean-water-agribiz-versus-environment
    alists/.
  • Traders City. (2009). Cow manure. Retrieved on
    April 24, 2011 from http//www.traderscity.com/boa
    rd/products-1/offers-to-sell-and-export-1/cow-manu
    re-fertilizer-exporters-indian-suppliers-79619/.
  • UK Agriculture. (2011). http//www.ukagriculture.c
    om/livestock/calf_housing_health.cfm
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    feeding utensils help keep calves healthy.
    Retrieved on April 24, 2011 from
    http//www1.extension.umn.edu/dairy/calves-and-hei
    fers/clean-feeding-utensils-help-keep-calves-healt
    hy/index.html.
  • USEPA. (2005). Ag 101 Dairy production.
    Retrieved on April 24, 2011 from
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    iculture/ag101/printdairy.html.

37
Image References
  • Walker, E. (2005). Feeding dairy calves.
  • Walker, E. (2010). Riverdale barn.
  • Welsh Lamb and Beef Producers. (2009). Welsh lamb
    beef producers animal health plan. Retrieved on
    April 24, 2011 from http//healthplan.wlbp.co.uk/w
    lbp/AHPInfo.aspx.
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