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Age of Absolutism leads to the Age of Revolutions


Enlightenment (includes Scientific Revolution) Absolutism ... music (Lully) ... Although in drill, training, and marching much is forced and affected, nearly ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Age of Absolutism leads to the Age of Revolutions

Age of Absolutism leads to the Age of Revolutions
  • 1450 1750
  • Political System
  • Social System
  • Economic System
  • Cultural System (mannerism to baroque)
  • More secular
  • Education
  • Enlightenment (includes Scientific Revolution)

Absolutism and its limits
  • Absolutism was possible because the European
    economy was expanding, allowing the creation of
    (comparatively) larger bureaucracies
  • Kings found ways to strip nobles of their
    political power
  • However, kings had to concede freedom from
    taxation to nobles
  • The limits of a pre-industrial economy limited
    the effectiveness of royal power.
  • Main concern of governments was still raising
    taxes and fighting wars.
  • Even this proved too costly for most kings

Absolute Monarchs Gunpowder EmpiresLate 1500s
  • Akbar (1556-1605)
  • Kangxi (1661-1722)
  • Tokugaw Iseyasu (1598-1616)
  • Peter the Great (1682-1725)
  • Suleiman (1520 1566)
  • Queen Nzinga (1583-1663)
  • Louis XIV (1643 -1715)
  • Shah Abbas (1588-1629)
  • Frederick William the Great Elector (1640-1688)
  • Charles V (1519-1556)
  • Elizabeth I 1558-1603)
  • Phillip II (1556-1598)

Repeating Characteristics
  • Appearances of authority
  • Accoutrements of power
  • New cities
  • Great Monuments
  • Divine Authority
  • Must 1st control the aristocracy and replace with
    a new bureaucracy
  • Administrative body that has non-elected
    officials and procedures
  • Chosen through different processes such as
    through inheritance or by merit
  • Military structures and new types of persons to
    control the military
  • Taxing structures and tax collectors
  • How does the aristocracy fight back
  • Mercantilist practices
  • Self-sufficiency
  • Control of trade through tariffs
  • Control of trade routes
  • Increase production of goods
  • Deal with the issue of merchants and increased
  • Increase banking practices and use and control of
    silver and gold
  • Religious conflict

Louis XIV
  • 1643-1715
  • Centralized the administration of France
  • Government
  • Financial
  • Military
  • Expanded the territories of France

Absolute Best Example Sun KingLouis XIV
  • Revoked the Edict of Nantes
  • Used the position of Intendents created by
    Cardinal Richelieu under Louis XIII
  • Aristocracy required to live at Versailles and
    serve him personally
  • They advance by getting royal favors and offices
  • Built Palace at Versailles

Financial Stability
  • With his minister Colbert, he carried out the
    administrative and financial reorganization of
    the kingdom, as well as the development of trade
    and manufacturing.
  • Streamlined the tax (taille) collection system
  • revoked the Edict of Nantes in 1685 which caused
    some 200,000 people to flee France
  • These were some of the most industrious peoples
    of France and they took their capital with them

  • state intervention to create a self-sustaining
  • Colbert used an aggressive tariff policy to
    manipulate the import of raw materials and the
    export of manufactured goods to improve the
    balance of payments.
  • He also fostered domestic trade and industry by
    improving communications (roads and canals),
    eliminating internal tolls, expanding the navy,
    increasing colonial trade through the East India
    Company and by subsidizing certain industries
    (tapestries and furniture).

Military Reform
  • With the Marquis de Louvois, he reformed the army
    and racked up military victories.
  • War with others across Europe in 30 Years war to
    create balance of power
  • War of Spanish Succession
  • Phillip II his grandson gets Spain but Treaty of
    Utrecht forbids the Bourbons to combine the
    crowns of France and Spain

Cultural Patronage
  • Finally, Louis encouraged an extraordinary
    blossoming of culture
  • theatre (Molière and Racine)
  • music (Lully)
  • architecture, painting, sculpture, and all the
    sciences (founding of the royal academies)
  • Versailles became the seat of lavish spectacles,
    such as ballets, balls, hunts, and receptions,
    all presided over by the Sun King himself and
    attended by the educated international nobility. 
  • French became the universal language of Europe

Controlled the Aristocracy
  • Had no time to tend to our own affairs and the
    landed gentry and their properties developed in
  • Peasants on the land
  • Forced the Parliments of Paris to register its
    edicts before issuance
  • established state factories for luxury goods (the
    most famous was Les Gobelins).
  • regulated every possible aspect of the private
    sector  - the innumerable guild ordinances and
    product règlements were meant to ensure high
    manufacturing standards, but they spawned a
    parasitic bureaucracy  and cramped the free
    development of industry.

  • Within the confines of his particular district,
    each Intendant gave form and shape to all facets
    of the royal government. 
  • For example, the Intendant supervised the local
    law courts and nobles, worked to eradicate
    smugglers and bandits, recruited soldiers,
    oversaw the collection of taxes, regulated the
    marketplaces, guarded against famine, and dealt
    with the guilds and towns. 
  • Moreover, he sometimes would decide court cases
  • These Intendants were in constant contact with
    the Kings court, communicating with him and the
    state councils about what was happening in their
    districts, and receiving orders on what was to be
    done next.
  • An important aspect of the Intendants was their
    social origins.  The king chose to use
    individuals whose upper-class status was
  • These men were not embedded in the traditional,
    centuries-old power arrangements, as were the
    ancient nobility.  The new aristocrats had no
    independent political power or influence  they
    owed their authority and status to the king

  • While we were tending to his personal needs in
    the Palace the bourgeoisie undermined our
    position as lords of our domains. The peasants
    are beginning to refuse to pay their feudal
    obligations to use the village oven and the flour
    mill and the wine press. Even though we are
    exempt from the Taille we pay for our worship of
    the sun king through our lands.
  • He is unchecked and has waged wars across Europe.
  • He will bankrupt the economic system and
    eventually allow too much power to the
    bourgeoisie. They will revolt!

The Bourgeoisie
  • Bourgeois
  • city dweller, eventually meant middle-class
  • Transformation of the European economy in the
    middle ages led to increased numbers of a
    wealthy, non-aristocratic merchants and craftsmen
    based in cities
  • This group traditionally allied with the king
    against the nobles
  • The bourgeoisie provided a pool of educated men
    that the king could place in the bureaucracy
  • The king got loyal, competent bureaucrats and did
    not have to rely on the aristocracy to help him
  • The bourgeoisie obtained power and prestige
    usually denied to non-nobles, and even the
    possibility of becoming noble

End of War and Louis XIV
  • 1713
  • Treaty of Utrecht ended the War of Spanish
    succession which involved a Bourbon successor to
    the throne which was a concern to other monarchs
    throughout Europe as this might upset a balance
    of power
  • Philip was allowed to remain King of Spain as
    long as the thrones of France and Spain were not
  • Louis died in 1715 - prompting great celebration
    throughout France

Gardens of Versailles
Imagery at Versailles (Le Roi Soleil)
France after 100 years War 1453
Four major powers in Europe early 16th century
prior to Louis XIV
(No Transcript)
Europe The Age of Absolutism
Charles V
  • Hapsburg remnants of Holy Roman Empire began with
    Otto I (936 973)
  • Charles V (Holy Roman Empire) (1500-1558), Holy
    Roman emperor (1519-1558), and,as Charles I,
    king of Spain (1516-1556),
  • Has to fight the Ottomans
  • Has a diverse and separated empire to hold
  • Watches it begin to disintegrate
  • Signs the Peace of Augsburg (1555) to resolve
    some of the religious conflict and thereby gives
    up a great deal of authority over his Germanic

Empire issues
  • Plus ultra to describe his empire
  • His reference is to Even further for his empire
  • King of Spain
  • Emperor of Holy Roman Empire
  • Includes the Netherlands because of Spanish
  • Born in Ghent (his father Phillip ruled the
    Netherlands and was Duke of Burgundy)
  • Spoke French as his first language
  • Also Kingdom of Naples as heir to Aragon
  • Iron hand in a velvet glove

  • Attempted to create a constitution, and increase
    its financial and military strength.
  • An agreement was reached as to how the estates of
    the realm should share in its government,
    according to a scheme called the
    Reichsregimenthow the expenses of the imperial
    chamber etc. were to be met and how the estates
    were to furnish the emperor military assistance
    in war
  • Too many realms and divisions
  • Empire was not contiguous

1700 Europe After the 1648 Peace of Westphalia
1700 Europe
The Global Empire of Charles V
Economic and political stability
  • With individuals Charles dealt still more
    effectivelyin Spain chiefly with the burghers,
    in the Netherlands with the higher nobility.
  • The latter he won to his support by bestowing on
    them the most important offices and holding out
    hopes of the Golden Fleece
  • the former he hoped to win by leaving them the
    control of taxation, so that they might regulate
    it uniformly, and therefore less oppressively
  • Church benefices
  • Textile regulation in the Netherlands

  • In Spain the opposition to Charles' policies was
    found in the Cortes and in the city governments,
    but still more among the lesser nobility, the
    Hidalgueria, who resisted all agricultural
    progress as well as the emperor's external policy

Rebuttal- Charles gives up
  • There is just too much going on around me for me
    to hold this realm together. Turks to the east,
    natives in the Americas, economic changes in the
    Netherlands and religious problems throughout.
    Although I tried, no one policy could pull it all

Frederick William the Great ElectorPrussia
  • 1640-1688
  • Frederick William I (ruled 1709-1710)
  • his grandson Frederick the Great (1710-1740)
  • Hohenzollern
  • Brandenburg
  • Combined territories to form Prussia

Frederick William the Elector of Prussia
Brandenburg to Hohenzollern (r. 1640-1688)
Frederick William I
  • The Prussian Army
  • The General War Commissariat
  • The militarized state
  • The deal with the Junkers
  • Inviting immigrants
  • Mercantilist economics
  • Left the Prussian empire economically sound, with
    an efficient military, and centralized authority

  • The Great Elector increased taxes threefold and
    increased the size of his army tenfold
  • Had an army of 40,000 which was the fourth
    largest in Europe
  • Recruited men who were over 6 foot tall
  • Created the bureaucratic agency called the
    General War Commissariat to levy taxes for the
    army and administer its growth

General War Commissariat1688
  • established to levy taxes needed to support the
    Army and its growth.
  • became an civil government agency as well.
  • Commissariats was used to govern everything.
  • Had to be strangers to the district for which
    they were appointed
  • This agencies help centralize power and allowed
    for Fredrick Williams successors

Absolutism in Prussia
  • Holy Roman Empire fragmented after the 30 Years
    War (1618-1648)
  • Frederick William, the Great Elector of
    Brandenburg-Prussia (r. 1640-1688)
  • Turned small collection of German states into
    rising European power
  • Made deal with Junkers
  • Prussian nobles
  • Junkers allowed him to raise taxes to pay army,
    in return, Frederick allowed them complete
    control over their serfs
  • Created the War Commissariat

Prussian Grenadier
Count von von Seckendorf ambassador from Vienna
comments on the Prussian military
  • It is certain that nowhere in the world one can
    see troops comparable with the Prussians for
    beauty, cleanliness, and order. Although in
    drill, training, and marching much is forced and
    affected, nearly everything is useful and
    efficient. Besides, it must be admitted that the
    army and the troops lack nothing that is needed.
    The soldiers number 70,000, and every regiment
    has at least a hundred more men than the normal
    figure. The Arsenal is superabundantly provided
    with field artillery and siege artillery, and
    only the teams are missing. Moreover, there is
    such an enormous store of powder, shot, and
    shells as if a great war was threatening. In
    Berlin and all about Brandenburg one sees as many
    troops moving as one saw in Vienna during the
    last war against the Turks. All this activity is
    directed by the King in person, and only by him.
    Besides, he looks after the whole public
    administration in all its branches With such care
    and thoroughness that not a thaler note a
    monetray unitis spent unless he has given his
    signature. Those who do not see it cannot believe
    that there is any man in the world, however
    intelligent and able he may be, who can settle so
    many things personally in a single day as
    Frederick William the First, who works from 3
    o'clock in the morning till 10, and spends the
    rest of' the day in looking after and drilling
    his army....

Deal with the Junkers
  • In order to eliminate the power that the members
    of the nobility could exercise in their
    provincial Estates-General, Frederick William
    made a deal with the Junkers. 
  • In return for a free hand in running the
    government (in other words, for depriving the
    provincial Estates of their power), he gave the
    nobles almost unlimited power over their
    peasants, exempted them from taxation, and
    awarded them the highest ranks in the army and
    the Commissariat with the understanding that they
    would not challenge his political control. 
  • As for the peasants, the nobles were allowed to
    appropriate their land and bind them to the soil
    as serfs (Spiel.4th Ed. 436-7).

Religious toleration led to financial security
  • Many Hugeonots migrated to Prussia (Edict of
    Potsdam 1685)
  • Frederick William positively encouraged religious
    toleration as he believed that it would benefit
    his state. Jews and Roman Catholics were both
    tolerated in Brandenburg -Prussia as long as they
    had a talent Frederick William wanted for
    Brandenburg-Prussia. Frederick William was
    especially keen to tempt Huguenots to
    Brandenburg-Prussia as they had a European
    reputation for expertise in business.
  • In 1672, a French Protestant Church was
    established in Berlin and, in total, about
    100,000 Huguenots came to Brandenburg-Prussia
    ands greatly assisted in her modernisation.
  • By 1700, one-third of Berlins population was
    Huguenot and their skills allowed
    Brandenburg-Prussia to develop a flourishing
    candle and paper-making trade, mirror and glove
    manufacturing etc. Frederick William himself
    estimated that religious toleration increased
    Brandenburg-Prussias population by 33.

Rebuttal by Junker
  • According to the RECESS, although I can now do as
    I please with my territory and the workers cannot
    leave me, I am afraid to confront the Great
    Elector because he has used my money to create
    such a great army, I can longer oppose anything
    he does. What am I to do?
  • He is using my money, my hard earned profits from
    my estates, to buy his army which he then uses
    against me.
  • I guess I will have to go join the army.

Succeeded by Enlightened
  • Frederick the Great (Frederick II -1712-1786)
  • "first servant of the state."
  • Prussian Hohenzollern
  • Started the 7 Years War (1756-1753)
  • Impacted three world regions Europe, North
    America, South Asia
  • Treaty of Hubertusburg

Shah Abbas(1588-1629) Safavids (1501 -1732)
  • Obscure origin which is most probably Sunni and
    Kurdish, the Safavids (named after a sufi master,
    Shaykh Safi)
  • forged for themselves an illustrious genealogy
    that goes back to Ali, and proceeded to forcibly
    change Iran into a Shiite state.
  • In the process they shaped the modern image of
    the Iranian nation.
  • The greatest Safavid monarch,
  • he moved the capital to Isfahan in 1598,
  • built there a royal city that extended to the
    south of the old city and connected it with the
    Zayandeh river via a wide avenue, the Chahar Bagh
    (Four Gardens) Avenue.

Shah Abbas Mosque - Isfahan
Safavid Empire
Cultural control
  • 1st Safavid ruler to conquer the territory of
    Persia was a 14-year-old boy by the name of
    Ismael (Shah Ismael Shah being the title the
    Safavids used for "emperor").
  • Ismael lived up to the legend of descent from
    Muhammad in his exploits.
  • He was apparently quite devout, and seemed also
    to be unable to lose a military campaign.
  • His "red cap" army was absolutely devoted to him,
    and took extreme risks in his name.
  • Ismael established the first Safavid Capitol City
    in Isfahan, and went on to rule according to
    Islamic principles.
  • His claim to descent from the 12th Imam meant, of
    course, that he had to rule according to Shiite,
    rather than Sunni principles of Islam, and he and
    his successors were often quite brutal in forcing
    their subjects to become Shiite Muslims (the
    majority had been Sunni prior to the Safavid
  • To do this, subjects often were required to prove
    their change by cursing the names of the first
    three Caliphs
  • There were often small uprisings as a result and
    the red cap army of the Shah had to remain
    large and significant

  • local Qezelbash chiefs had grown wealthy in land
    and in collecting taxes.
  • Abbas put to death many of the Qizilbash
    tribesmen who had traditionally been associated
    with Safavid rule up to this point, and instead
    surrounded himself with an elite household guard.
  • He used slaves as governmental officials
  • thousands of Georgian, Circassian and Armenian
    prisoners captured in campaigns fought in the
    Caucasus in the 1540s and 1550s. Female slaves
    entered the royal harem, becoming mothers of
    princes and a force in court politics and
    dynastic quarrels.
  • Some of the male slaves began to acquire
    positions of influence, under Shah Abbas I,
    reaching high offices that challenged the
    supremacy of the Qezelbash.

  • He recruited soldiers from Persian villages and
    from among Christians, Georgians, Circassian,
    Armenians and others, equipped them with
    artillery and muskets.
  • The Christians were proud to serve the shah and
    to call themselves "Ghulams" (boys) of the shah
    although slaves they were not.
  • To finance the new army, Shah Abbas converted
    large pieces of land traditionally granted to
    tribal chiefs as assignments into crown lands
    that he taxed directly.
  • This new military force was trained on European
    lines with the advice of Robert Sherley.
  • Sherley was an English adventurer expert in
    artillery tactics who, accompanied by a party of
    cannon founders, reached Qazvin with his brother
    Anthony Sherley in1598.
  • In a short time Shah Abbas created a formidable
    army, consisting of cavalry, infantry and

Military reorganizationcreated a national army
  • Hired Robert and Anthony Sherley British
    mercaneries to help reshape his military
  • Three bodies of troops were formed, all trained
    and armed in the European manner and paid out of
    the royal treasury the ghulams (slaves), the
    tofongchis (musketeers), and the topchis
  • With his new army, Abbas defeated the Ottoman
    Turks in 1603, forcing them to relinquish all the
    territory they had seized, and captured Baghdad.
  • He also expelled (1602,1622) the Portuguese
    traders who had seized the island of Hormuz in
    the Persian Gulf in the 16th century.
  • Shah Abbas remarkable reign, with its striking
    military successes and efficient administrative
    system, raised Iran to the status of a great

Economic Stability
  • His domestic policy was marked by a real interest
    in building up the infrastructure for a
    successful economy. New roads and bridges were
    built and he imported skilled merchants from
    Armenia to help build up the silk trade with
  • As part of the stabilization process he enforced
    adherence to Shi'ism and acceptance of Farsi as
    the national language.

Economic and Religious stability
  • Created a monopoly within his empire to profit
    from the production of silk and silk carpets
  • adherence to Shi'ism
  • Tolerant of Christianity and allowed many
    churches to be built and allowed Christians to
    dress in what they wanted and allowed them to own
    property within the empire
  • Mosques Masjid i Shah and the Masjid i Sheykh
    Lotfollah and other monuments including the Ali
    Qapu, the Ghehel Sotun, and the Meydan-i Shah.

Cultural Mecca
  • Philosphers an Scientists
  • Molla Sadra, Mir Damad,
  • Sheikh Baha-e-Din Ameli, or Sheikh Bahai
  • a great philosopher and scientist.
  • created a system of heating in a public bath that
    would provide enough warm water for people to
    bathe with the power of a single candle

Great Monarch
  • He used Western economic principles and allied
    with westerns to defeat the Ottomans and the
    Portuguese providing stability to his empire
  • With this stability he built a new city,
    encouraged new schools to be built, and fostered
    the arts demonstrated in the many new types of
    patterns of carpets and new and different types
    of mosques that were built

Rebuttal by Qezelbash chiefs
  • As he takes our land and uses the profits to pay
    the Ghulams he takes away the religious strength
    of our empire. We made him what he is through
    our organization and he tries to take what we
    have built over many generations. He doesnt
    serve our empire and our religion he serves
    himself with great palaces and a great harem.

Queen Nzinga
  • 1583-1663
  • Known as the Queen Warrior
  • Took the name Pande Dona Ana Souza
  • Centralized the Mbundu a Bantu Zulu tribe in
    Western Africa

Trading Posts
  • Along the Atlantic coast of Africa, the
    Portuguese established trade forts and trading
    posts, the most important of which was El Mina.
  • Forts normally existed with the consent of local
    rulers, who benefited from European trade.
  • The initial Portuguese ports were located in the
    gold- producing region, where the Europeans
    penetrated already extant African trade routes.
  • From the coast, Portuguese traders slowly
    penetrated inland to establish new trade links.
    In addition to trade, the Portuguese brought
    missionaries, who attempted to convert the royal
    families of Benin, Kongo, and other coastal
  • Only in Kongo, where Nzinga Mvemba accepted
    conversion, did the missionaries enjoy success.

Centralization of tribes against the Portuguese
  • Queen Nzingha of Ndongo belonged to the Mbundu, a
    large and ancient ethnic group that lived in
    modern-day Angola.
  • The Mbundu were divided into tribes, including
    the Songo, Lenge, Libolo, Hungu, Pende, Ndongo,
    and Imbangala.
  • Every group was made up of clans descended from
    their mother's side of the family.
  • Every clan was identified with their mother's
    clan and all the marriages were marriages between
    clans related maternally. Nzingha's family ruled
    the Ndongo people.

Limited by History Queen NzingaKINGDOM OF
  • Converted to Christianity to enhance her
    political dealings with the Portuguese who had
    shifted their slave trading from the west coast
    of Africa to the tribal land of the Mbundu
    (became known as Angola)
  • Married a local tribal chief, uniting their
    tribes in their quest to expel the Portuguese
  • She later allied with the Dutch in an effort to
    expel the Portuguese
  • In1624 she named all those in Angola to be free,
    encouraging captives from all across Africa to
  • She renounced her Western name and her conversion
    and encouraged all of her subjects to do the same
  • To her people she claimed her royal position
    simply as I Am, and they followed her by
    resisting the Portuguese for 40 years
  • She provided sanctuary to runaway slaves and
    Portuguese-trained African soldiers and adopted a
    form of military organization known as kilombo,
    in which youths renounced family ties and were
    raised communally in militias.
  • They used guerilla techniques for 20 years,
    disrupting the slave trade of the Portuguese
  • She fought along side her soldiers, dressing like
    a man

Africa 1700s (Congo)
  • We cannot reckon how great the damage is, since
    the merchants daily seize our subjects, sons of
    the land and sons of our noblemen, vassals and
    relatives ... and cause them to be sold and so
    great, Sir, is their corruption and
    licentiousness that our country is being utterly
    depopulated. Afonso I, in a letter to King João
    of Portugal, 1526

Alfonso thought he could use the Portuguese for
technology but they used him instead
  • From 1514, the slave trade became an integral
    part of the economy. Afonsos attempts to control
    and later abolish the slave trade were futile, as
    the Portugese appetite for slaves was insatiable.
  • By 1516, Kongo was exporting 4,000 slaves
    annually until 1540, when it increased to
    approximately 7,000.
  • The Portugese pressed for more slaves, and the
    demands of the tribute system forced Afonso to
    comply with their excessive demands.
  • The standard source of slaveswar captives and
    criminalswas drying up and new sourcesslave
    raiding and buying slaves from the Tio region
    with nzimbu shellswere found.
  • The revenue from the slave trade financed the
    hiring of priests, artisans, and teachers, and
    purchased luxury items for the nobility.

Rebuttal by Dutch Trader
  • These Kongolese and Mbundu would best benefit if
    they helped us rid the countryside of the tribes
    competing with them. They could ally with us,
    expel the Portuguese who mistreat their people
    so, and help us conquer the other tribes. We
    would send the healthy men to the Americas and
    they could use the women and children to serve

Islamic Gunpowder Empires
Akbar the Great of Mughal dynasty (1556-1605)
  • Expanded territory westward
  • Built the pillar of heads of fallen forces
  • Gave Calcutta to the British
  • Provided cotton textiles to the west
  • Undercut the Ottomans contacts and forced them
    into competition with the western Christians
  • He rebuilt the military and administrative system
  • Married a Rajiput princess
  • Repealed the jiza (tax on non-Muslims), an act
    which favored the Rajiputs
  • Suceeded by Shah Jahan and Aurangzeb
  • Akbarnama, or three volume history of Akbar
    chronicles the Mughal dynasty back to Timur

Religious toleration
  • founder of the Din-i-Ilahi faith
  • Merged Hinduism and Islam but also had Christian,
    Janism and even Zorastacism
  • Idea that no one religion held the idea of truth
  • Allowed other religions to flourish
  • Restored Hindu temples

Administration and building
  • Navratnas
  • Nine court jewels or administrators
  • Divided the expanded government into Sarkar(s)
  • Moved the court from Delhi to Fatehpur Sikri and
    built a series of forts which were added to by
    his successor shifted to Agra Red Fort
  • Fatepur Sikri was abandoned due to lack of water

  • Rajiputs, warrior class, provided administration
    helped collect new tax
  • Cadaster
  • Based on income producing instead of value
  • Abolished the jizya(h)

Babur on India
Without means and resources there is no empire
and conquest, and without lands and followers
there is no sovereignty and rule. - The
Babur-nama in English
Mughal Empire Akbar Shah Jahan
Ming and Qing Dynasties
Ming to Qing (Manchu)
  • "By Qing times after 1644 the non-Chinese Inner
    Asian ingredient of military control had been
    absorbed into chinas social-political system.
    The symbiosis of China with Inner Asians (Manchus
    and Mongols) confirmed and perfected the
    Neo-Confucian order. It was an agrarian-nomadic-bu
    reaucratic style distinctly different from the
    industrial-military- entrepreneurial style then
    developing among the Western nations"

Kangxi (1661-1722)Manchu Qing Ching Ching
  • The Chinese political and social order is at its
    height in this "late imperial" period of the last
    two dynasties the examination system has, from
    the Tang dynasty onward, created a strong
    centralized and fully functional civil service in
    place of an aristocratic elite with a territorial
    base of power.
  • Scholar-gentry, residing at home as they study
    for the next level of examination or await
    official appointment, support the work of the
    appointed district magistrate (who, by
    regulation, cannot be from the district) and form
    one elite class of Confucian literati that
    governs China.

Manchu outsiders
  • Kangxi Emperor always spoke Chinese with a Manchu
  • This reflects the fact that Kangxi had a decent
    but not a perfect Chinese education, and is
    symbolic of the fact that he always remained a
    Manchu in his values.
  • He was sympathetic to Chinese culture, knew a
    fair amount about it, but he always approached it
    as a sympathetic outsider.
  • In other words, he was a perfect example of the
    kind of Manchu aristocrat it would take to rule
  • a conquest ethnic aristocrat acculturated to, but
    not swallowed up by the Chinese host culture.
  • Original astrophysical studies and correspondence
    in Manchu and he later did NOT encourage the
    translation of these into Mandarin for the

Increase in population under his watch
  • triple cropping of rice caused the population of
    China to more than double from between 180
    million in 1700 to 400 million in 1800

Kangxis martial exploits and achievements
  • Incorporation of Taiwan by defeating and subduing
    the Ming loyalist Zheng Chenggong his
    successors (1683)
  • Defeating the Russians in the north signed the
    treaty of Nerchinsk
  • Won the war against Three Feudatories
  • Won the war against Western Mongols who
    controlled Tibet
  • 1720, Qing entered Tibet installed a
    pro-Chinese Dalai Lama

Emperor Kangxi (1662-1722)
  • The unification of the Jurchen tribes under
    Nurgaci (1559-1626)
  • The Banner system a military-civilian unit of
    120-278 companies),
  • Ethnicity based units 8 Banners for each
    ethnicity of Manchu, Mongol, and Chinese
  • Kangxi, the second emperor, consolidated the
    Manchu rule, creating the Golden Age of Qing in
    17-18 centuries

Kangxis political economic policy
  • Two-sided policy toward the Chinese elite
  • The continuity of Chinese traditions
  • A patron of Confucianism Chinese art the
    Kangxi Dictionary a special civil service
  • Preservation of the Manchu identity and
    superiority and courting the Chinese loyalty
  • Brutal suppression of any dissenting voice
  • Tax reform one whip tax combining land and
    head taxies once accessed, the amount was fixed
    for 50 years

Ming Empire
The Ching Empire at its peak
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Manchu origins and expansion
The Qing Empire and tributaries 1700s
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Rebuttal by Eunuch
  • He does not allow us to pass along our material
    gains to our families

Tokugaw Iseyasu (1598-1616)
  • Hideyoshi decreed in 1586 that farmers must stay
    on their land. In 1587 he decreed that only
    samurai would be allowed to carry the long sword,
    which would later define them as a class. As
    economic conditions changed, the shoguns were
    less successful, however, in maintaining the
    rigid boundaries separating the other classes
  • eta were outcastes, forced to live in their own
    communities and avoided by other members of
    Japanese society.
  • They held this low status due to their
    occupations, which were associated with death
    disposing of animal carcasses and tanning animal
  • Responsible for distribution of the rice
  • There were over 270 daimyo in Tokugawa Japan who
    received at least 10,000 koku (1 koku measurement
    of feeding one person for a year about 5 bushels)
  • 1597 issued a third banning edict of Christianity
    and executed 26 Franciscan monks in Nagasaki

Road to partial isolation
  • Within a century of the arrival of the Portuguese
    in Japan in 1543, they are followed by the Dutch
    and British who have battled to break the
    Portuguese and then Spanish control of the Asian
    spice trade.
  • The East India companies established by the Dutch
    and British, respectively, become active in the
    early 1600s the Dutch (1609) and the British
    (1613) establish trading relations with the
    Japanese with bases on a Japanese island.
  • In an effort to reestablish order in its
    international relations, however, the Tokugawa
    Shogunate prohibits trade with Western nations,
    prohibits Japanese from going abroad to trade
    (ending the unofficial piracy and trade on the
    China coast), and reaffirms Japan's official
    relations with China and Korea within the East
    Asian international structure.
  • Following the "Act of Seclusion" (1636) setting
    forth these conditions, Japan is effectively
    "secluded" from interchange with Western Europe
    (but not with East Asia) for the next 200 years.
  • Only the Dutch retain a small outpost on an
    island in Nagasaki Harbor books obtained from
    the Dutch are translated into Japanese and "Dutch
    learning" forms the basis of the Japanese
    knowledge of developments in the West throughout
    this period.
  • Within East Asia, trade continues with the
    Koreans and Chinese, and exchange of goods and
    ideas with China is maintained. The East Asian
    political order, with China at the center is

  • First step taken was persecution of Christians,
    then banning of Christianity in 1614
  • after 1616 foreign merchants limited to few ports
  • by 1640s, only Dutch and Chinese admitted at
  • Neo-Confucian philosophy gave way to the
    influence of thinkers who championed the school
    of "National Learning. based on indigenous
    Japanese culture
  • differed from Chinese in maintaining oversight of
    European technological developments.

Tokugawa Japan
Osaka Castle. seized by forces of Tokugawa Ieyasu
in 1615
  • Daimyo
  • fudai (inside) daimyo
  • tozama (outside) daimyo
  • Ronin
  • "masterless" samurai, without a lord to answer
    to, but also without any definite means of
    support. The ronin might settle down in a
    particular location to teach or perform other
    duties, though many of them wandered the
    countryside, looking for gainful employment. Some
    sold their services as hired warriors to the
    highest daimyo bidder. Of the approximately 30
    million Japanese during the Tokugawa period,
    about 2 million were samurai.
  • Bakufu
  • Governing council

RebuttalPortuguese trader
  • We have an opening into the empire as the
    Tokugawa need our saltpeter to continue their
    have viable threats against their hostages.
  • We can only take so much Kabuki and Buddhism but
    will stay in Nagasaki for as long as it takes to
    push them out of their stronghold in Edo.

Peter the Great
  • Prior to Peter the czars confiscated privately
    held lands in the conquered principalities and
    gave these estates to calvarymen who pledged
    continual military service in return. In the 16th
    century the streltsy, a regular infantry corps
    armed with firearms, was formed.
  • The tsars now had an army of their own and were
    no longer dependent on the military forces raised
    by the boyars.
  • Rise of the Romanov beginning with Michael
    selected by the boyars (zemsky sobor )
  • Peter expanded Russia towards Europe and European
    interests and followed the Muscovy efforts to
    protect themselves from any further incursions of
    the Mongolian hordes.
  • Peter's wars with the Ottoman Empire and Sweden
    indicated a westward shift in Russian expansion.
  • Wanted a large army to expand Russian borders to
    for buffer zones
  • Needed iron weapons, ships made of new metals and
    technologies as Russia had no navy, and needed
    guns for his very large army.

European Populations and Armies
Finance and control
  • He implemented taxes on everything imaginable to
    include candles, nuts, boots, hats, horses,
    beehives, beards, chimneys, and drinking water
  • In 1721, the church hierarchy was officially
    abolished by the Ecclesiastical Reservation and
    the church was placed under the control of the
    Holy Synod and was fully linked to the state.
  • The 1721 Regulation specifically stated what the
    clergy could do
  • it was designed to control their daily life so
    that they became an apparatus of the state.
  • The task of the clergy was seen as two-fold
  • to work for the state and to make their
    congregations totally submissive to the state by
    convincing them that Peter was all but God-like
    to ensure the population of Russia's total
    subordination to the crown

Education and culture
  • In 1701, the School of Navigation and Maths was
    founded in Moscow.
  • This was run by British teachers. In the same
    year, similar schools were created for artillery
    and languages.
  • In 1707, a School of Medicine was created and in
    1712 a School of Engineering.
  • Thirty maths schools were created in the
    provinces and in 1724, a year before Peter's
    death, a School of Science was established though
    the lack of scientists in Russia meant that it
    had to be initially staffed by foreigners.
  • Young boyars required to attend
  • Dress western european

Economic shift
  • Remained significantly agriculturally based and
    dependent on the large coercive labor force
  • Westernization was limited to the elite and
  • In 1718, two colleges were created for commerce
    and mines and manufacturing.
  • His technological advancements were to obtain
    self-sufficiency in building his navy and guns
  • Under state direction, factories of all types
    were developed.
  • Prices were fixed by the state and the state had
    the right to be the first purchaser from the
    producers - but at a price fixed by the state.
  • Private businesses could make a profit only on
    the surplus of produce which the state did not
    want and many successful enterprises were simply
    taken over by the state.

Coercive labor
  • Barshchina is the labour, mostly agricultural,
    performed by a Russian peasant or serf for a
    landlord, whether the church, the state, or an
    individual landowner.
  • Barshchina originated in Kievan Rus and became
    widespread in the later part of the Mongol Yoke,
    when agricultural production increased.
  • The labour was performed one day weekly in the
    fifteenth century, and increased to three days in
    the seventeenth century.
  • In 1797, it was forbidden to work on Sundays.
  • Both men and women performed the labour, and
    children began limited services at age fourteen.
  • Barshchina often included sowing, reaping and
    bringing in crops constructing buildings and
    fences and keeping them in repair hunting and
    fishing spinning flax brewing beer baking
    bread working in flour and weaving mills making
    bricks and carting goods to market.
  • Barshchina did not end in 1861, as freed peasants
    had to meet their obligations to former landlords
    for two years or until they had redeemed their
    land from the landlord.
  • Obrok is rent paid for the use of land, either in
    kind (i.e. poultry, eggs, meat, honey, cloth,
    grain) or in money.
  • Obrok was more widespread than barshchina from
    the thirteenth to the early sixteenth century.
  • Obrok decreased in the sixteenth century, as the
    practice of service-tenure landholding developed.
  • In the eighteenth century, obrok was more
    predominant in areas of poorer farmland and where
    trade was developed, and more commonplace among
    church and crown peasants.
  • With the development of peasant trade in the
    second half of the eighteenth century, their was
    more widespread payment of obrok in money rather
    than in kind.
  • Generally, peasants who paid obrok had more
    economic freedom than those who performed
  • After 1861, obrok was replaced by the system of
    redemption payments.

Peter the Great r.1682-1725
  • The Russian official rank system was based on
    Peter the Greats decree
    of 4 February 1722 that provided
    a system for equivalencies of ranks among
    the army branches and the civilian
  • The Table comprised of 14 classes of ranks and
    civilian positions, although it did not extend
    top the lower levels of service.
  • It remained in effect with slight modifications
    until the October Revolution of 1917.
  • As Peter the Great launched his reforms in
    Russia in early 1700s, it became evident that a
    new system of promotion was required to organize
    his new army and society.
  • That was particularly important for the nobility
    who were obliged under Peters decrees to serve
    in the army.
  • In addition, as he formed his army along the
    European lines, Peter the Great endeavored to
    simplify the transfers from one branch of service
    to another as well as determining the precedence
    of the officials in civilian service and court.

St. Petersburg "Peters Window on the West" and
"Venice of the North Also the city built on
Rebuttal from a boyar
  • His liking for the crudest sort of practical
    jokes, and the grossness of many aspects of life
    at the Russian court, were certainly not without
    parallels elsewhere in Europe. Nevertheless, they
    were carried to lengths which foreign observers
    witnessed with a mixture of horror, amusement,
    and astonishment. One of them noted in October
    1698 that at another banquet 'Boyar Golovin has,
    from his cradle, a natural horror of salad and
    vinegar so the Czar directing Colonel Chambers
    to hold him tight, forced salad and vinegar into
    his mouth and nostrils, until the blood flowing
    from his nose succeeded his violent coughing.'
  • A.G. Dickens (Ed.). The Courts of Europe
    Politics, Patronage and Royalty 1400-1800.
    McGraw-Hill, 1977

Rebuttal from a Cossack
  • Peter doesnt ride like the wind like we do
  • He gave us promises
  • We agreed to move into the new areas and in
    return we were suppose to be able to control
  • We keep our horses and our traditions and one day
    will take over and these Rus will submit to our
  • Pugachev Rebellion supported by the Cossacks

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Growth of Russia
Suleiman1494-1566r. 1520 1566
  • The Ottomans had a high tolerance of alien
    cultures and religions
  • The men of the ruling Dynasty, the house of
    Osman, always married women with mixed heritage,
    Turkish, Greek, Arab, Russian, Serbian, thus
    themselves were mixed.
  • Janissaries
  • Allowed conquered regions to tax themselves and
    govern under their civil law a system known as
    the millet
  • Later developed the devshirme in conqueored
    regions which provided the young boys who as
    trained and educated became the Janissaries

Suleiman the Lawgiver
  • Kunan has grown to be a signficant part of
    Shariah (teachings)
  • kanun-i 'Osmani
  • Adapted the Yasa and the Shari
  • Patron of Sinan - one of the greatest and most
    prolific mosque builder
  • over 80
  • Mosque of Suleiman
  • Wrote under the nom de plume of Muhibbi, the
  • Between 83 210 collected poems

To a women in his harem
  • Throne of my lonely niche, my wealth, my love,
    my moonlight.My most sincere friend, my
    confidant, my very existence, my SultanThe most
    beautiful among the beautiful...My springtime,
    my merry faced love, my daytime, my sweetheart,
    laughing leaf...My plants, my sweet, my rose,
    the one only who does not distress me in this
    world...My Istanbul, my Caraman, the earth of my
    AnatoliaMy Badakhshanmy Baghdad, my KhorasanMy
    woman of the beautiful hair, my love of the
    slanted brow, my love of eyes full of
    mischief...I'll sing your praises alwaysI,
    lover of the tormented heart, Muhibbi of the eyes
    full of tears, I am happy.

Growth in the military under Suleyman -Devsirme
  • Janissary army from 12,000 to between 35-40,000
  • Needed to stop the incursions of Shah Abbas of
    the Safavid Empire
  • Janissaries were conscripted from Christian
    families and defined as property of the Sultan
  • The Janissaries were subject to strict rules,
    limiting their freedom and demanding higher moral
    standards than usual in the society.
  • In the first couple of centuries, they were
    forced to celibacy, but this would later change.
  • The janissaries were not allowed to grow beard,
    which was the sign of a free man.
  • They were even denied contact with the normal
    society in the areas were they were stationed.
  • Through their training, they were learned to put
    their allegiance to the bey/sultan.
  • Studied literature, law, calligraphy, theology,
    and languages
  • despite strict rules, they enjoyed high living
    standards and a social status which intended to
    give logic and force to their loyalty.
  • over time, the Janissaries were so successful
    that they grew into one of the strongest power
    institutions in the empire.
  • They could exercise this strength to influence
    the policy and to defend their own interests.
  • Under Suleyman they began to marry and people
    within the empire could apply to become a

Other religions were tolerated
  • Jizah
  • Tax on the dhimmi
  • Millet system
  • Allowed many different nationalities to coexist
    within the growing Ottoman Empire
  • Eventually caused rift within the empire in the
    1800s resulting in the Tanzimat Reforms which
    ceased to recognize the system

  • They have taken me from my home although they
    allow me to convert to Islam I am away from my
  • I wield great power as my cohorts have become
    ministers but he is allowing others in the
    bureaucracy to make decisions including those
    women in the harem
  • He spends too much time writing and building and
    needs to fight his wars
  • I wish he would allow me to grow a beard

Enlightened Monarchs
  • Catherine the Great
  • Joseph II of Austria (HRE)
  • Frederick II (Frederick the Great) (1740 1786)

  • Romanovs begin with Michael
  • Evolution of concept of Russia begins in Kievan
    Rus to Duchy of Muscovy and Muscovites occupation
    of Mongolians known in Russia as the Golden Horde
  • Ivan III and Ivan IV drive out the Mongolians
  • Time of Troubles results in the selection of
    Michael Romanov

Growth of the Russian Empire Ancient Slavic
Centers 800s - 1200s http//
Catherine the Great r. 1762-1796
  • Expanded territories
  • Alaska
  • Parts of Siberia
  • Pacific coast of North America as far south as
  • Poland (180,000 sq mi)
  • Crimea
  • Turkish Wars involved over 3 million peasants and
    lasted for 10 years

Catherine Great or Not
  • Supported the arts, literature, and theater
  • Hermitage and required French to be spoken at her
  • Voltaire and ideas of the Enlightenment
  • Ideas were not enacted
  • Extended serfdom increasing numbers and later
  • Edict and pogroms
  • Pogrom - from the Russian word meaning "to wreak
    havoc," a pogrom is an organized attack, often a
    massacre, against a minority group
  • Russia saw a progressive intensification of
    serfdom while the West was relaxing this
    institution in favor of other labor systems.
  • Further Westernized the nobility who began to
    speak French at court
  • Acquired vast new territories
  • Won control of the southern Crimea region which
    provided a warm water port
  • Acquired Polish territory in the east to provide
    greater European ties
  • Moved Eastward all the way to the Pacific
  • 1773 - Yemelyan Pugachev led a Cossack rebellion
    against the monarchy that also developed into a
    revolt against serf owners. Romanov troops
    crushed the revolt in 1774, and Catherine
    strengthened the oppressive serf laws
  • Created the Pale of the Settlement (already
    expelled from Russia in 1742 now part as
    Partition of Poland)

Religious Intolerance
  • From 1791 until 1915, the Jews living in Eastern
    Europe were confined by the Czars of Russia --
    starting with Catherine the Great -- to an area
    known as the "Pale of Settlement" (meaning
    "borders of settlement").
  • The Pale consisted of 25 provinces that included
    Ukraine, Lithuania, Belorussia, Crimea, and part
    of Poland (which had been partitioned between
    Russia, Prussia, and Austria in 1772).
  • Jews were specifically expelled from Moscow and
    St. Petersburg and forced into the Pale.

Enlightened Despot
  • In 1767 Catherine summoned an assembly to draft a
    new code of laws for Russia and gave detailed
    instructions to the members about the principles
    they should apply.
  • The proposed code never went into effect.
  • The code drips with "enlightend language"
  • What is the true End of Monarchy? Not to deprive
    People of their natural Liberty but to correct
    their Actions, in order to attain the supreme
  • This Equality requires Institutions so well
    adapted, as to prevent the Rich from oppressing
    those who are not so wealthy as themselves, and
    converting all the Charges and Employments
    intrusted to them as Magistrates only, to their
    own private Emolument....
  • the reality of government in Russia was rather
  • The tsarist government combined a real monopoly
    of formal politics by a central administration,
    but over noble-owned estates the power of the
    government was nonexistent.

From Decree on Serfs (1767)
  • The Governing Senate. . . has deemed it necessary
    to make known gt that the landlords' serfs and
    peasants . . . owe their landlords proper
    submission and absolute obedience in all matters,
    according to the laws r that have been enacted
    from time immemorial by the autocratic
    forefathers of Her Imperial Majesty and which
    have not been repealed, and which provide that
    all persons who dare to incite serfs and peasants
    to disobey their landlords shall be arrested and
    taken to the nearest government office, there to
    be punished forthwith as disturbers of the public
    tranquillity, according to the laws and without
    leniency. And should it so happen that even after
    the publication of the present decree of Her
    Imperial Majesty any serfs and peasants should
    cease to give the proper obedience to their
    landlords . . . and should make bold to submit
    unlawful petitions complaining of their
    landlords, and especially to petition Her
    Imperial Majesty personally, then both those who
    make the complaints and those who write up the
    petitions shall be punished by the knout and
    forthwith deported to Nerchinsk to penal
    servitude for life and shall be counted as part
    of the quota of recruits which their landlords
    must furnish to the army. And in order that
    people everywhere may know of the present decree,
    it shall be read in all the churches on Sundays
    and holy days for one month after it is received
    and therafter once every year during the great
    church festivals, lest anyone pretend ignorance.
  • From A Source Book for Russian History, G.
    Vernadsky, trans. (New Haven Yale University
    Press, 1972), Vol. 2, pp. 453-454.

Political and Economic Administration
  • massively reorganized local governments in 1775,
    but, unlike the Prussians, she created a civil
    bureaucracy, not of all ranks of society, but of
    the nobility.
  • She was, after all, intensely aware of her
    precarious hold on power she had gotten this
    power through a palace coup by the nobility.
  • Her most dramatic reforms came in the economic
  • set about eliminating trade barriers such as
    taxes and tariffs, and worked hard to build up
    the Russian middle class.
  • issued charters granting or outlining all the
    rights available to individual towns in an effort
    to spur productivity and the growth of wealth.

Growth of Russia
Joseph II r. 1765 1790HRE
  • Abolished serfdom
  • Eliminated the death penalty
  • Established a principle of equality before the
    law for all people
  • Enacted religious reforms

Religious reforms
  • Joseph also sought to bring the Catholic church
    under his control.
  • First, he made it illegal for any clergy to
    communicate directly to the pope or the Vatican.
  • He shut down over six hundred monasteries and
    convents and claimed monastic lands for himself.
  • He also shut down all the seminaries and replaced
    them with his own in these new seminaries,
    prospective priests would be taught to obey him
    rather than the pope.
  • These policies effectively ended any influence
    that the Catholic church had over Austrian

  • In 1781, he declared the Toleration Patent, which
    declared that all Lutherans, Greek Orthodox, and
    Calvinist churches could freely worship without
    official harassment.
  • These separate denominations were also allowed to