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Enlightenment (Age of Reason)

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Title: Enlightenment (Age of Reason)


1
Enlightenment (Age of Reason)
  • The 18th century philosophical movement of
    intellectuals who were greatly impressed with the
    achievements of the Scientific Revolution.
  • This movement occurred in Europe from about 1650
    until 1800 and it advocated the use of reason and
    individualism instead of tradition and
    established doctrine.

2
Issac Newton (1642-1727)
  • English mathematician and physicist who is
    remembered for developing calculus, the law of
    gravitation, and his three laws of motion.

Isaac Newton
3
Issac Newton (1642-1727)
  • Co-inventor of calculus. Discovered the law of
    Universal Gravitation. Newton's 3 laws of motion.
    Corpuscular theory of light. Law of cooling.
    Professor, Theologian, Alchemist, Warden of the
    Mint. Newton was a premature child and was very
    small at birth. His father had died before
    Newton's birth, and, when he was 3 years old, his
    mother remarried and left him in the care of his
    grandmother. He was somewhat sickly as a child,
    and since he could not join the other children in
    games he kept himself amused by building
    mechanical toys such as wooden clocks and
    sundials and a mouse-powered flour mill. He read
    a great deal and kept a journal of observations.
    Newton began his schooling in the village schools
    and later was sent to Grantham Grammar School
    where he became the top boy in the school. At
    Grantham he lodged with the local apothecary and
    eventually became engaged to the apothecary's
    stepdaughter, Miss Storey, before he went off to
    Cambridge University at the age of 19. But Newton
    became engrossed in his studies, the romance
    cooled and Miss Storey married someone else. It
    is said he kept a warm memory of this love, but
    Newton had no other recorded 'sweethearts' and
    never married. In 1661, Newton entered Trinity
    College, Cambridge as a student who earned his
    expenses by doing menial work. Not much is known
    of his college days, but his account book seems
    normal enough -- it mentions several tavern bills
    and two losses at cards. He received his B.A.
    degree in 1664, the year that the bubonic plague
    was sweeping Europe. The colleges closed for what
    turned out to be two years, so Newton returned to
    Woolsthorpe to think. Up until then Newton had
    been somewhat precocious and had been a
    successful student, but he had done nothing
    really outstanding. Now things started to happen.
    His two years at Woolsthorpe represent the
    greatest recorded achievement of a human
    intellect in a short period. In these two years,
    this 'kid' extended the binomial theorem,
    invented calculus, discovered the law of
    universal gravitation and had enough time left
    over to experimentally prove that white light is
    composed of all colors. Then he had his 25th
    birthday. If Newton had communicated these
    results and then died, his reputation would be
    almost a great as it is today. He lived for
    another 60 years and made a few additional
    contributions to the pool of knowledge, but, at
    most, these later results would have earned him a
    footnote in history. In two years he invented the
    calculus which would quickly grow into the
    largest and most important field in mathematics
    and which would first have a tremendous impact on
    physics and astronomy and more recently on fields
    of biology, economics, business and even
    political science. At the same time he discovered
    the law of universal gravitation which explains,
    on a large scale, how the universe operates.
    When the plague subsided and the schools reopened
    in 1667, Newton returned to Trinity College as a
    Fellow (professor), and 2 years later Dr. Isaac
    Barrow, Newton's teacher, resigned so Newton
    could become Lucasian Professor of Mathematics.
    He was now 26, and from here on it was mostly
    downhill, at least intellectually. Newton
    lectured on optics and calculus and physics he
    built telescopes and observed Jupiter's moons,
    and calculated orbits. But these areas became
    secondary interests. His heart was really in
    alchemy ("lead into gold," the forerunner of
    chemistry) and theology and the spiritual
    universe. He attempted to reconcile the dates of
    the Old Testament with historical dates, became
    very involved with astrology and attempted to
    contact departed "souls." In hindsight, it is
    easy to dismiss all of this as nonsense, but
    these were serious attempts of a serious man to
    understand the entire universe. It is
    unfortunate, however, that Newton devoted so
    little of the rest of his life to mathematics and
    physics. The few times he did return to these
    areas, he proved that he had not lost his genius.
    Newton's great discoveries in physics were
    finally published in 1687 as Philosophiae
    Naturalis Principia Mathematica (usually just
    called the Principia). By the late 1690s, the
    followers of Newton and Leibniz were involved in
    very heated nationalistic arguments over priority
    in the invention of calculus, and these arguments
    raged for over a century. Mostly, Newton and
    Leibniz remained above the squabbling, and the
    consensus is that each made the discoveries
    independently. Newton was the first to make the
    discoveries but he waited 20 years to publish
    them. Leibniz did not delay as long and published
    his results first. As a result of this squabble,
    British mathematicians ignored the fruitful
    developments in mathematics on the continent and
    stagnated for almost a century. In developing
    the calculus, Newton used the method of
    "fluxions" (from the Latin "flow") functions
    flowed and he considered their "rate of flow." He
    routinely dealt with "infinitesimal" (infinitely
    small quantities) and used dots above the
    variable functions to denote derivatives. The
    notations we use in calculus are primarily due to
    the other inventor of calculus, Leibniz. Newton
    and Leibniz both used an intuitive idea of
    "limit," but neither seemed to have a precise
    definition of it. Newton served in Parliament
    twice. He was elected President of the Royal
    Society and held that position for 24 years. In
    1696 he was appointed Warden of the Mint and put
    in charge of the system of coinage in the British
    Empire. In 1705 he was knighted by Queen Anne.
    Except for a few periods of severe insomnia and a
    persecution mania (perhaps due to overwork or
    mercury poisoning from his work at the Mint),
    Newton's health was excellent until the last 3
    years of his life. He died in his sleep at the
    age of 85, and was buried with full national
    honors in West Minster Abbey.

4
Principia (1687)
  • Book written by Issac Newton in which he laid out
    in mathematical terms the principles of time,
    force, and motion that have guided the
    development of modern physical science.

5
John Locke (1632-1704)
  • English philosopher who used the ideas of natural
    laws as it applied to government.
  • He stated people were reasonable and moral, and
    that they would arrive at a cooperative and
    workable form of government.
  • He also argued that people were molded by the
    experiences that came through their senses form
    the surrounding world.

John Locke
6
John Locke (1632-1704)
  • John Locke was born in Wrington in Somerset
    County. He attended Oxford University. In 1666,
    he met Anthony Ashley Cooper, who later became
    the first Earl of Shaftesbury. The two men
    became close friends. In 1679, the earl became
    involved in plots against the king, and suspicion
    also fell on Locke. The philosopher decided to
    leave England. In 1683, he moved to the
    Netherlands, where he met Prince William and
    Princess Mary of Orange. William and Mary became
    the rulers of England in 1689, and Locke returned
    to England as a court favorite. Until his death,
    he wrote widely on such subjects as educational
    reform, freedom of the press, and religious
    tolerance.
  • Locke's major work was An Essay Concerning Human
    Understanding (1690). It describes his theory of
    how the mind functions in learning about the
    world. Locke argued against the doctrine of
    innate ideas, which stated that ideas were part
    of the mind at birth and not learned or acquired
    later from outside sources. Locke claimed that
    all ideas were placed in the mind by experience.
    He declared that there were two kinds of
    experience, outer and inner. Outer experience
    was acquired through the senses of sight, taste,
    hearing, smell, and touch, which provide
    information about the external world. Inner
    experience was acquired by thinking about the
    mental processes involved in sifting these data,
    which furnished information about the mind.
    Locke believed that the universe contained three
    kinds of things--minds, various types of bodies,
    and God. Bodies had two kinds of properties.
    One kind was mathematically measurable, such as
    length and weight, and existed in the bodies
    themselves. The second kind was qualitative,
    such as sound and color. These properties were
    not in the bodies themselves but were simply
    powers that bodies had to produce ideas of colors
    and sounds in the mind. According to Locke, a
    good life was a life of pleasure. Pleasure and
    pain were simple ideas that accompanied nearly
    all human experiences. Ethical action involved
    determining which act in a given situation would
    produce the greatest pleasure--and then
    performing that act. Locke also believed that
    God had established divine law. This law could
    be discovered by reason, and to disobey it was
    morally wrong. Locke thought that divine law and
    the pleasure principle were compatible. Locke
    believed that people by nature had certain rights
    and duties. These rights included liberty, life,
    and ownership of property. By liberty, Locke
    meant political equality. The task of any state
    was to protect people's rights. States
    inconvenience people in various ways. Therefore,
    the justification for a state's existence had to
    be found in its ability to protect human rights
    better than individuals could on their own.
    Locke declared that if a government did not
    adequately protect the rights of its citizens,
    they had the right to find other rulers.

7
An Essay Concerning Human Understanding (1690)
  • Book written by John Locke which describes his
    theory of how the mind functions in learning
    about the world.
  • Locke argued against the doctrine of innate
    ideas, which stated that ideas were part of the
    mind at birth and not learned or acquired later
    from outside sources. Locke claimed that all
    ideas were placed in the mind by experience.

8
Two Treaties of Government (1690)
  • Book written by John Locke where he believed that
    people by nature had certain rights and duties.
  • These rights included liberty, life, and
    ownership of property. By liberty, Locke meant
    political equality. The task of any state was to
    protect people's rights. States inconvenience
    people in various ways. Therefore, the
    justification for a state's existence had to be
    found in its ability to protect human rights
    better than individuals could on their own.
    Locke declared that if a government did not
    adequately protect the rights of its citizens,
    they had the right to find other rulers.

9
Philosophe
  • French for philosopher it applied to all
    intellectuals like writers, journalists,
    economists, and social reformers, during the
    Enlightenment.

10
Philosophe
  • The philosophes were a group of French
    philosophers during the Age of Reason, a
    historical period that extended from the late
    1600's to the late 1700's. The group included
    such great philosophers as the Marquis de
    Condorcet, Denis Diderot, Claude Helvetius,
    Jean-Jacques Rousseau, and Voltaire. Generally,
    the philosophes believed in the ideal of
    progress. They wished to apply science's
    emphasis on reason to the study of people's moral
    and social life. The philosophes believed that
    knowledge could be acquired through experience.
    They wanted to separate moral doctrines from
    religious considerations, because they believed
    that moral problems could be solved
    independently. The philosophes were generally
    anti-Christian, claiming that Christianity was
    basically unreasonable and superstitious.
    Generally, they opposed the political system in
    France and argued for reforms. Thus, they became
    forerunners of, and in some cases participants
    in, the French Revolution--which lasted from 1789
    to 1799.

11
Baron de Montesquieu (Charles-Louis de Secondat)
(1689-1755)
  • He used the scientific method to find the natural
    laws that govern the social and political
    relationships of human beings.
  • He identified three types of government and wrote
    about the separation of powers. His analysis of
    the system of checks and balances through
    separation of powers was his most lasting
    contribution to political thought.
  • The translation of Montesquieus work into
    English made it available to American
    philosophes, which took his principles and worked
    them into the Untied States Constitution.

12
Baron de Montesquieu (Charles-Louis de Secondat)
(1689-1755)
  • Montesquieu believed that laws underlie all
    things--human, natural, and divine. One of
    philosophy's major tasks was to discover these
    laws. It was difficult to study humanity because
    the laws governing human nature were complex.
    Yet Montesquieu believed these laws could be
    found by empirical (experimental) methods of
    investigation (see EMPIRICISM). Knowledge of the
    laws would ease the ills of society and improve
    life. Montesquieu said there were three basic
    types of government--monarchal, republican, and
    despotic. A monarchal government had limited
    power placed in a king or queen. A republican
    government was either an aristocracy or a
    democracy. In an aristocracy, only a few had
    power. In a democracy, all had it. A despotic
    government was controlled by a tyrant, who had
    absolute authority. Montesquieu believed legal
    systems should vary according to the basic type
    of government. Montesquieu supported human
    freedom and opposed tyranny. He believed that
    political liberty involved separating the
    legislative, executive, and judicial powers of
    government. He believed that liberty and respect
    for properly constituted law could exist
    together. Montesquieu, whose real name was
    Charles de Secondat, was born near Bordeaux. He
    inherited the title Baron de la Brede et de
    Montesquieu. He gained fame with his Persian
    Letters (1721), which ridiculed Parisian life and
    many French institutions. He also criticized the
    church and national governments of France.
    Montesquieu was admitted to the French Academy in
    1727. He lived in England from 1729 to 1731 and
    came to admire the British political system.

13
The Spirit of the Laws (1748)
  • The major work written by Baron de Montesquieu.

Baron de Montesquieu
14
Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) (1694-1778)
  • An author and philosopher who is known as the
    greatest figure of the Englightenment, and the
    best known of the philosophes.
  • He was a defender of free speech and wrote books
    and essays that were satires.
  • I disapprove of what you say, but I will defend
    to the death your right to say it.

Voltaire
15
Voltaire (Francois-Marie Arouet) (1694-1778)
  • Voltaire was the pen name of Francois Marie
    Arouet, a French author and philosopher.
    Voltaire's clear style, sparkling wit, keen
    intelligence, and strong sense of justice made
    him one of France's most famous writers. Candide
    (1759), Voltaire's best-known work, is a
    brilliant philosophical tale that has been
    translated into more than 100 languages. On the
    surface, the work describes the adventures of an
    inexperienced young man as he wanders around the
    world. Philosophically, Candide is recognized as
    a complex inquiry into the nature of good and
    evil. Voltaire, the son of a lawyer, was born in
    Paris. He received an excellent education at a
    Jesuit school. He showed little inclination to
    study law, and his schooling ended at the age of
    16. He soon joined a group of sophisticated
    aristocrats who had little reverence for anything
    except wit, pleasure, and literary talent. Paris
    society sought Voltaire's company because of his
    cleverness, his remarkable ability to write
    verses, and his gift for making people laugh.
    There are several theories about the origin of
    Voltaire's pen name, which he adopted in 1718.
    The most widely accepted one is that Voltaire
    comes from an imperfect arrangement of the
    letters making up the French equivalent of Arouet
    the Younger.
  • In 1717, Voltaire was imprisoned in the Bastille
    for satirical verses that he may or may not have
    written ridiculing the government. During his 11
    months in prison, he finished his tragedy Oedipe.
    The success of the play in 1718 made Voltaire
    the greatest French playwright of his time. He
    maintained this reputation--with more than 50
    plays--for the rest of his life. While in
    prison, Voltaire also worked on La Henriade, an
    epic poem about King Henry IV. This poem, written
    in the style of the Aeneid by the Roman poet
    Virgil, was published in 1723. Voltaire became
    independently wealthy in his early 30's through
    an inheritance and wise investments. He was also
    a celebrity who had three plays performed in 1725
    to help celebrate the wedding of King Louis XV.
    Royal pensions and other honors followed. But
    all this success ended abruptly in 1726 when the
    Chevalier de Rohan, a powerful young nobleman,
    scornfully asked "What is your name anyway?
    Monsieur de Voltaire or Monsieur Arouet?" His
    question implied that Voltaire was claiming to be
    a nobleman while he was in fact of common origin.
    Voltaire supposedly replied that whatever his
    name was, he was bringing it honor, which was
    more than Rohan could say for himself. This
    answer cost Voltaire a beating by Rohan's men.
    Challenged to a duel by Voltaire, Rohan had him
    thrown into the Bastille again. A few days
    later, Voltaire was allowed to choose between
    continued imprisonment and exile. Exile and
    return to France. Voltaire chose exile. From
    1726 to 1729, he lived in England, for him a land
    of political and religious freedom. There, he
    met the writers Alexander Pope and Jonathan Swift
    and was attracted to the ideas of the philosopher
    John Locke and the scientist Sir Isaac Newton.
    It has been said that Voltaire went into exile a
    poet and came back a philosopher.
  • Voltaire returned to France in 1729, and
    published several works. The most important ones
    were History of Charles XII (1731) and his
    best-known play, Zaire (1732). In 1733, his
    Letters Concerning the English Nation appeared in
    England. This book appeared in France the next
    year in an unauthorized edition called
    Philosophical Letters. Voltaire's praise of
    English customs, institutions, and style of
    thought was an indirect criticism of their French
    counterparts. French authorities condemned the
    book, and Voltaire fled from Paris. Voltaire
    found a home with the Marquise du Chatelet, one
    of the most cultured and intelligent women of the
    day. From 1734 to 1749, he lived in her chateau
    at Cirey in Lorraine. During this period, he
    wrote several plays, an essay on metaphysics, two
    works on Sir Isaac Newton, and some poetry. He
    also wrote two notable philosophical tales. One
    of them, Zadig (1747), explores the problem of
    human destiny. The other, Micromegas, was
    started at Cirey and was published in 1752. In
    it, Voltaire used giant visitors from a distant
    star and from the planet Saturn to discuss the
    relative insignificance of human pretensions in
    answering religious questions. In this work,
    Voltaire also encouraged the use of human reason
    for the development of science.
  • Following Madame du Chatelet's death in 1749,
    Voltaire accepted the invitation of Frederick the
    Great to settle in Berlin. After three years of
    living under the social and intellectual tyranny
    of the "Philosopher King," as Voltaire called
    him, Voltaire settled in Switzerland. He lived
    near Geneva in a chateau that he named Les
    Delices (The Delights). It is now the Voltaire
    Institute and Museum. A severe earthquake in
    Portugal in 1755 inspired Voltaire to write an
    important philosophical poem, The Lisbon
    Disaster. This work was published with his Poem
    on Natural Law in 1756. In 1759, Voltaire
    purchased an estate called Ferney on the
    French-Swiss border. He lived there until just
    before his death. In an effort to correct the
    wrongs he saw in the world, Voltaire produced a
    constant flow of books, plays, pamphlets, and
    letters. Ferney soon became the intellectual
    capital of Europe. There Voltaire wrote Candide,
    added to his Philosophical Dictionary, and
    completed his Universal History, also called
    Essay on the Manners and Spirit of Nations
    (1759-1766). He fought religious intolerance and
    aided victims of religious persecution. His
    rallying cry was "ecrasez l'infame" ("Crush the
    evil thing"), referring to religious
    superstition. Voltaire returned to Paris at the
    age of 83 and was enthusiastically received.
    There he saw his last play, Irene (1778), warmly
    applauded. But the excitement of the trip was
    too much for him, and he died in Paris. The
    Roman Catholic Church, because of much criticism
    by Voltaire, refused to allow him to be buried in
    church ground. However, his body was finally
    taken to an abbey in Champagne. In 1791,
    Voltaire's remains were transferred to the
    Pantheon in Paris, where many of France's
    greatest are buried.

16
Candide (1759)
  • Voltaire's best-known work. It is a brilliant
    philosophical tale that has been translated into
    more than 100 languages.
  • On the surface, the work describes the adventures
    of an inexperienced young man as he wanders
    around the world.
  • Philosophically, Candide is recognized as a
    complex inquiry into the nature of good and evil.

17
Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
  • A writer and author whose most famous work
    Encyclopedia (1751-1772) reflected the
    intellectual movement during the Age of Reason
    (Enlightenment).

Denis Diderot
18
Denis Diderot (1713-1784)
  • Diderot strongly supported experimental methods
    in philosophy and science. He believed that
    nature was in a state of constant change and no
    permanently adequate interpretation of it was
    possible. Diderot was also a philosophical
    materialist, believing that thought developed
    from the movements and changes of matter. His
    views on this subject were vague, as were his
    religious opinions. At one time, he was an
    atheist. At another time, Diderot was a deist,
    believing that God existed independently of the
    world and had no interest in it. But he later
    suggested that all of nature was God. Diderot
    was born in Langres, near Chaumont.

19
Encyclopedia (1751-1772)
  • The 28 volume work of Denis Diderot that helped
    to spread Enlightenment ideas throughout Europe.
    It included all known information about the
    sciences, technology, history, government, and
    politics. It also included a number of Diderots
    revolutionary opinions.

20
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
  • A Scottish economist who is known as the Father
    of Modern Economics.
  • He believed that the state should not interfere
    in economic matters.
  • He developed laissez-faire economic theory.

Adam Smith
21
Adam Smith (1723-1790)
  • Adam Smith is generally regarded as the founder
    of modern economics. Smith's major book was The
    Wealth of Nations (1776)(full title An Inquiry
    into the Nature and Causes of the Wealth of
    Nations). It was the first complete work on
    political economy. The book discusses the
    relationship between freedom and order, analyzes
    economic processes, and attacks the British
    mercantile system's limits on free trade. All
    three aspects are woven together to create a
    unified social theory. The book dealt with the
    basic problem of how social order and human
    progress can be possible in a society where
    individuals follow their own self-interests.
    Smith argued that this individualism led to order
    and progress. In order to make money, people
    produce things that other people are willing to
    buy. Buyers spend money for those things that
    they need or want most. When buyers and sellers
    meet in the market, a pattern of production
    develops that results in social harmony. Smith
    said that all this would happen without any
    conscious control or direction, "as if by an
    invisible hand." Smith also believed that
    labor--not land or money--was both the source and
    the final measure of value. He said that wages
    depended on the basic needs of workers, and rent
    on the productivity of land. Profits, he said,
    were the difference between selling prices and
    the cost of labor and rent. Smith said profits
    would be used to expand production. This
    expansion would in turn create more jobs, and the
    national income would grow. Smith believed that
    free trade and a self-regulating economy would
    result in social progress. He criticized the
    British government's tariffs and other limits on
    individual freedom in trade. He preached that
    government need only preserve law and order,
    enforce justice, defend the nation, and provide
    for a few social needs that could not be met
    through the market. Smith's argument for a
    "hands off" government policy toward business,
    along with his analysis of economic forces,
    formed the basic ideas of economic liberalism.
    Smith was born in Kirkcaldy, Scotland. He
    studied at the University of Glasgow and Oxford
    University. In 1751, he became a professor at
    Glasgow. He wrote The Theory of Moral Sentiment
    (1759) there. This philosophical work gained
    Smith an appointment in 1764 as tutor of the
    young duke of Buccleuch. The tutoring took Smith
    to France, where he started writing The Wealth of
    Nations. When Smith returned to England in 1766,
    the duke's stepfather provided Smith with a
    regular income. The money enabled Smith to
    retire from teaching and devote the next 10 years
    of his life to writing. The Wealth of Nations
    went through five editions during Smith's
    lifetime. But it had little major influence on
    economic policy until the early 1800's.

22
The Wealth of Nations (1776)
  • Book written by Adam Smith where he expressed his
    ideas on laissez-faire theory and free trade.

23
Cesare Beccaria (1738-1794)
  • He protested the severe punishments that were
    common for criminals at that time. He argued
    that the only purpose of punishment should be to
    prevent future crime.
  • Beccaria assumed that criminals had free will and
    that pleasure and pain determined their actions.
    He believed crime could be prevented by the
    certainty and speed of punishment, rather than
    its severity.
  • According to Beccaria, everyone who violated a
    specific law should receive the same punishment,
    regardless of age, sex, wealth, or social
    position. In modified form, the principles of
    the classical school are the basis of criminal
    law today in the United States, Canada, and many
    other nations.

Cesare Beccaria
24
On Crimes and Punishments (1764)
  • Essay written by Cesare Beccaria where he argued
    that punishments should not be exercises in
    brutality.

25
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
  • He represents a new generation of philosophes
    that emerged in the 1760s and is the most famous
    philosopher of the later Enlightenment.
  • He believed that emotions, as well as reason,
    were important to human development. He believed
    that it was institutions and society that made
    people evil. He also believed that government
    should get its authority from the people.

Jean-Jacques Rousseau
26
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
  • Jean-Jacques Rousseau was a French philosopher.
    He was the most important writer of the Age of
    Reason, a period of European history that
    extended from the late 1600's to the late 1700's.
    Rousseau's philosophy helped shape the political
    events that led to the French Revolution. His
    works have influenced education, literature, and
    politics. Rousseau was born in Geneva, in what
    is now Switzerland. The Rousseau family was of
    French Protestant origin and had been living in
    Geneva for nearly 200 years. Rousseau's mother
    died as a result of giving birth to him, leaving
    the infant to be raised by his quarrelsome
    father. As the result of a fight in 1722,
    Rousseau's father was forced to flee Geneva. The
    boy's uncle then took responsibility for his
    upbringing. In 1728, Rousseau ran away from
    Geneva and began a life of wandering, trying and
    failing at many jobs. He was continually
    attracted to music. For years, Rousseau was
    undecided between careers in literature or music.
    Shortly after leaving Geneva, at the age of 15,
    Rousseau met Louise de Warens, a well-to-do
    widow. Under her influence, Rousseau joined the
    Roman Catholic Church. Although he was 12 or 13
    years younger than Madame de Warens, Rousseau
    settled down with her near Chambery in the Duchy
    of Savoy. He described the happiness of their
    relationship in his famous autobiography,
    Confessions (written 1765 or 1766-1770, published
    in 1782, 1788). However, the relationship did
    not last and Rousseau eventually left in 1740.
    In 1741 or 1742, Rousseau was in Paris seeking
    fame and fortune and hoping to establish himself
    in a musical career. His hope lay in a new
    system of musical notation that he had invented.
    He presented the project to the Academy of
    Sciences, but it aroused little interest. In
    Paris, Rousseau became friends with the
    philosophes, a group of famous writers and
    philosophers of the time. He gained the
    patronage of well-known financiers. Through
    their sponsorship, he served in Venice as
    secretary to the French ambassador in 1743 and
    1744. The turning point in Rousseau's life came
    in 1749, when he read about a contest sponsored
    by the Academy of Dijon. The academy was
    offering a prize for the best essay on the
    question Whether the revival of activity in the
    sciences and arts was contributing to moral
    purification. As he read about the contest,
    Rousseau realized the course his life would take.
    He would oppose the existing social structure,
    spending the rest of his life indicating new
    directions for social development. Rousseau
    submitted an essay to the academy. His
    "Discourse on the Sciences and the Arts" (1750 or
    1751) attacked the arts and sciences for
    corrupting humanity. He won the prize and the
    fame he had so long desired. When Rousseau
    converted to Catholicism, he lost his citizenship
    in Geneva. To regain his citizenship, he
    reconverted to Protestantism in 1754. In 1757,
    he quarreled with the philosophes, feeling they
    were persecuting him. Rousseau's last works are
    marked by emotional distress and guilt. They
    reflect his attempt to overcome a deep sense of
    inadequacy and to find an identity in a world
    that seemed to have rejected him. In three
    Dialogues, also called Rousseau, Judge of
    Jean-Jacques (written 1772-1776, published 1782),
    Rousseau tried to answer charges by his critics
    and those he believed were persecuting him. His
    final work was the beautiful and serene Reveries
    of the Solitary Stroller (written 1776-1778,
    published 1782). Rousseau also wrote poetry and
    plays in both verse and prose. His musical works
    include many essays on music, an influential
    opera called The Village Soothsayer (1752), a
    highly respected Dictionary of Music (1767), and
    a collection of folk songs entitled The
    Consolation of My Life's Miseries (1781). In
    addition, he wrote on botany, an interest he
    cherished, especially during the last years of
    his life. Rousseau criticized society in several
    essays. For example, in "Discourse on the Origin
    and Foundations of Inequality" (1755), he
    attacked society and private property as causes
    of inequality and oppression. The New Heloise
    (1761) is both a romantic novel and a work that
    strongly criticizes the false codes of morality
    Rousseau saw in society. In The Social Contract
    (1762), a landmark in the history of political
    science, Rousseau gave his views concerning
    government and the rights of citizens. In the
    novel Emile (1762),

27
Jean-Jacques Rousseau (1712-1778)
  • Rousseau stated that children should be taught
    with patience and understanding. Rousseau
    recommended that the teacher appeal to the
    child's interests, and discouraged strict
    discipline and tiresome lessons. However, he
    also felt that children's thoughts and behavior
    should be controlled. Rousseau believed that
    people are not social beings by nature. He
    stated that people, living in a natural
    condition, isolated and without language, are
    kind and without motive or impulse to hurt one
    another. However, once they live together in
    society, people become evil. Society corrupts
    individuals by bringing out their inclination
    toward aggression and selfishness. Rousseau did
    not advise people to return to a natural
    condition. He thought that people could come
    closest to the advantages of that condition in a
    simple agricultural society in which desires
    could be limited, sexual and egotistical drives
    controlled, and energies directed toward
    community life. In his writings, he outlined
    institutions he believed were necessary to
    establish a democracy in which all citizens would
    participate. Rousseau believed that laws should
    express the general will of the people. Any kind
    of government could be considered legitimate,
    provided that social organization was by common
    consent. According to Rousseau, all forms of
    government would eventually tend to decline. The
    degeneration could be restrained only through the
    control of moral standards and the elimination of
    special interest groups. Robespierre and other
    leaders of the French Revolution were influenced
    by Rousseau's ideas on the state. Also, many
    Socialists and some Communists have found
    inspiration in His literary influence. Rousseau
    foreshadowed Romanticism, a movement that
    dominated the arts from the late 1700's to the
    mid-1800's. In both his writings and his
    personal life, Rousseau exemplified the spirit of
    Romanticism by valuing feeling more than reason,
    impulse and spontaneity more than
    self-discipline. Rousseau introduced true and
    passionate love to the French novel, popularized
    descriptions of nature, and created a lyrical and
    eloquent prose style. His Confessions created a
    fashion for intimate autobiographies.

28
Discourse on the Origins of the Inequality of
Mankind (1755)
  • Essay written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau where he
    argued that people formed governments and laws to
    protect their private property, but the
    government relationship enslaved them.

29
The Social Contract (1762)
  • The work, written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau, where
    he presented the idea of a social contract in
    which members of society agree to be governed by
    the general will, which represents what is best
    for society as a whole.
  • It is a landmark in the history of political
    science Rousseau gave his views concerning
    government and the rights of citizens.

30
Social Contract
  • The concept, proposed by Jean-Jacques Rousseau,
    that an entire society agrees to be governed by
    its general will, and all individuals should be
    forced to abide by the general will since it
    represents what is best for the entire community.
  • It is an implicit agreement among people that
    results in the organization of society
    individual surrenders liberty in return for
    protection.

31
Emile (1762)
  • Novel written by Jean-Jacques Rousseau where he
    argued that education should nurture, not
    restrict, childrens natural instincts.
  • He stated that children should be taught with
    patience and understanding.
  • Rousseau recommended that the teacher appeal to
    the child's interests, and discouraged strict
    discipline and tiresome lessons. However, he
    also felt that children's thoughts and behavior
    should be controlled.

32
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
  • She was a British author who is considered the
    founder of the European and American movement for
    womens rights.
  • She argued that women were as rational as men and
    as capable of being responsible free citizens.

Mary Wollstonecraft
33
Mary Wollstonecraft (1759-1797)
  • Mary Wollstonecraft was a British author who was
    best known for her book A Vindication of the
    Rights of Woman (1792). This book was one of the
    first to claim that women should have equality
    with men. Wollstonecraft said that men
    considered women morally and mentally inferior to
    themselves. She argued that women could live
    happy, creative lives if they had better
    educational opportunities. She based her book on
    the democratic principles of the French
    Revolution (1789-1799) and on her own
    experiences. Wollstonecraft was born in London.
    She educated herself by studying books at home.
    For a brief period, she and her sisters ran a
    school. From this experience, she wrote Thoughts
    on the Education of Daughters (1787). In this
    pamphlet, she criticized the cruel treatment of
    young girls that was common at the time. She
    also wrote other essays as well as stories and
    translations. In 1797, Wollstonecraft married
    William Godwin, a British political reformer.
    Their daughter, Mary Wollstonecraft Shelley,
    wrote the famous horror novel Frankenstein (1818).

Mary Wollstonecraft
34
A Vindication of the Rights of Women (1792)
  • Book written by Mary Wollstonecraft.
  • She identified two problems with the beliefs of
    many Enlightenment thinkers. Those who argued
    men should rule women also argued against
    government based on the arbitrary power of kings.
    Power of men over women was equally wrong. She
    also argued that because women are rational
    beings, they should have the same rights as
    menin educational, economic, and political life.

35
  • The Enlightenment ideas were most known among the
    urban upper class. They spread among the
    literate elite. Literacy and the availability of
    books were increasing greatly during the 18th
    century. Many titles were aimed at the new,
    middle-class reading public, which included women
    and urban artisans. 
  • Magazines for the general public developed during
    this time. The daily newspaper did as well. The
    first was printed in London in 1702.

36
Salons
  • The elegant drawing rooms of great urban houses
    where, in the 18th century, writers, artists,
    artistocrats, government officials, and wealthy
    middle-class people gathered to discuss the ideas
    of the philosophes, helping to spread the ideas
    of the Enlightenment.
  • One of the most famous was at the home of
    Marie-Thérése de Geoffrin in Paris.

37
  • Most of the philosophes attacked the Christian
    churches, but most Europeans of the time were
    devout believers. The desire of ordinary
    Protestants for a greater depth of religious
    experience led to new religious movements.

38
John Wesley (1703-1791)
  • He was the founder of Methodism.
  • He had a mystical experience in which the gift
    of Gods grace assured him of salvation. He
    became a missionary to bring the glad tidings
    of salvation.
  • He preached to masses in open fields in England
    an appealed most to the lower classes. His
    sermons often caused people to have conversion
    experiences.
  • After Wesleys death, Methodism became a separate
    Protestant group.

John Wesley
39
John Wesley (1703-1791)
  • John Wesley was a clergyman of the Church of
    England, was a founder of Methodism. He was the
    foremost leader in England of the Evangelical
    Revival, a movement in Protestant Christianity
    during the 1700's that emphasized personal faith
    and practical good works. In carrying out his
    evangelical mission, Wesley traveled about
    250,000 miles (400,000 kilometers) and preached
    over 40,000 sermons, often as many as 4 in a day.
    His concern for the poor led him to provide loan
    funds, establish homes for widows and orphans,
    extend ministries to prisons and the armed
    forces, and open free medical dispensaries.
    Early years. Wesley was born in Epworth in
    Lincolnshire. He was the 15th of 19 children
    born to Susanna Wesley and her husband, Samuel,
    an Anglican clergyman. Both parents were firmly
    committed to the Church of England, yet came from
    Nonconformist families who had separated from the
    Church of England. This background gave the
    young Wesley a deep sense of two traditions in
    English religious thought. One was the
    importance of the organized church, with its
    rules and teachings. The other was the vitality
    of Puritan inward religion, with its focus on a
    direct relationship with God. Wesley was
    admitted to Christ Church College at Oxford
    University in 1720 and was ordained a priest in
    the Church of England in 1728. He returned to
    Oxford in 1729 as a fellow of Lincoln College.
    There he became spiritual adviser to some
    students, including his brother Charles, who
    gathered in small groups to help each other with
    study, devotions, and practical good works. They
    were ridiculed by other students as "The Holy
    Club" and "Bible Moths," but the nickname that
    prevailed was "Methodists." Their practice of
    accountability in small groups for the spiritual
    life of all their members became the basic
    structure of the later Methodist movement. While
    Wesley was a missionary to Georgia from 1735 to
    1737, he was influenced by the Moravians, a
    German church that stressed personal faith and
    disciplined Christian living. Its influence on
    Wesley led to a spiritual crisis that was not
    resolved until he returned to England. In London
    on May 24, 1738, he attended a small religious
    meeting. There, according to his Journal, his
    heart was "strangely warmed" as he experienced
    the inward assurance of faith that so impressed
    him about the Moravians. Leadership of the
    Methodist societies. Wesley increasingly assumed
    a leadership role in the Evangelical Revival. In
    1739, at the invitation of George Whitefield,
    another prominent evangelist, he began to preach
    in the open air. For a number of years, he was
    joined in this activity by his brother Charles.
    Their "field preaching" became characteristic of
    Methodism, drawing large crowds. Those who
    responded to their message joined societies
    patterned on the religious societies of the
    Church of England dating back to the late 1600's.
    Wesley's genius lay in organizing the Methodist
    societies into a movement. In 1743, he drew up a
    set of General Rules, which required members to
    attend weekly "class meetings." At the meetings,
    each member was asked to give an account of his
    or her discipleship according to well-defined
    guidelines. Wesley gave considerable
    responsibility to the leaders of these classes,
    who became a crucial link in the authority he
    exercised over the movement. Wesley also adopted
    lay (unordained) preachers as his assistants and
    helpers, and in 1744 he started an annual
    conference to consult on matters of doctrine and
    practice. The minutes of these conferences,
    along with Wesley's Letters and detailed Journal,
    are perhaps the fullest record of any religious
    movement. They were published as part of a
    34-volume edition of The Works of John Wesley
    (1976-...). Wesley's evangelical message created
    controversy. It was opposed by many Anglican
    clergy as religiously fanatical and politically
    disruptive. The Calvinist wing of the
    Evangelical Revival criticized it as being too
    universal and putting too much emphasis on good
    works. Wesley wanted Methodism to remain a
    reforming movement within the Church of England,
    and resisted separation from the church
    throughout his life. The issue was forced,
    however, by the need to provide for those who
    belonged to Methodist societies in the newly
    founded United States. In 1784, Wesley ordained
    Methodist preachers for North America, a step
    that led to the formation of the Methodist
    Episcopal Church, and then of the Methodist
    Church worldwide.

40
Rococo
  • An artistic style that replaced baroque in the
    1730s it was highly secular, emphasizing grace,
    charm, and gentle action.

41
Rococo
  • An artistic style that replaced baroque in the
    1730s it was highly secular, emphasizing grace,
    charm, and gentle action.

42
Rococo
  • Rococo is a style of art that flourished in
    western Europe from about 1700 to 1780. The term
    comes from a French word for a fanciful rock or
    shell design. It implies a refined, elegant
    feeling and style. Rococo found its fullest
    expression in France, where the leading
    representatives were the painters Francois
    Boucher, Jean Honore Fragonard, and Antoine
    Watteau. They worked primarily for royal and
    aristocratic clients. Their paintings differed
    greatly in style and subject matter from those of
    the preceding baroque period. A typical baroque
    painting was created on a heroic and grand scale,
    and usually presented Christian religious
    subjects. Rococo paintings were intimate in
    scale and delicate in manner. They often
    portrayed scenes from classical mythology.
    Rococo artists also created a new category of
    painting called the fete galante. Their
    paintings showed gatherings of elegantly dressed
    figures in parks and gardens. Outside France,
    there were other artists during this period who
    worked in a bright, lively style characteristic
    of rococo. They included Giovanni Battista
    Tiepolo in Italy and Thomas Gainsborough in
    England. The ornate and decorative style of
    rococo was also applied to architecture,
    furniture, porcelain, tapestries, and opera and
    theater scenery. In architecture, rococo reached
    its greatest splendor in the palaces,
    monasteries, and churches of southern Germany and
    Austria.

43
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685-1760)
  • A German born composer who was a great organist
    and composer of the baroque music of the early
    18th century. He is famous for Mass in B Minor.

Johann Sebastian Bach
44
George Frederick Handel (1685-1759)
  • He was a German-born composer of baroque music
    who is known today mainly through his musical
    compositions called oratorios. His most famous
    work was Messiah.

George Frederick Handel
45
Franz Joseph Haydn (1732-1809)
  • He was an Austrian composer. He ranks among the
    most important composers to lead the development
    of instrumental and vocal music during the middle
    and late 1700's in the classical style.
  • Many of his compositions helped set standards for
    musical style and taste in the late 1700's.
  • His most famous works is The Creation and The
    Seasons.

Franz Joseph Haydn
46
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (1756-1791)
  • He was an Austrian composer, is considered one of
    the greatest and most creative musical geniuses
    of all time. With Franz Joseph Haydn, he was one
    of the leading composers of the classical style
    of the late 1700's.
  • Mozart died before his 36th birthday, but he
    still left more than 600 works.
  • His three greatest operas were The Mariage of
    Figaro, Don Giovanni, and The Magic Flute.

Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart
47
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