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Age of Mass Politics 1871-1914

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Age of Mass Politics 1871-1914 Chapter 22-23 – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Age of Mass Politics 1871-1914


1
Age of Mass Politics 1871-1914
  • Chapter 22-23

2
Overview
  • Ordinary people felt increasing loyalty to their
    governments
  • By 1914 universal male suffrage was the rule
  • Female suffrage emerged after WWI
  • Politicians and parties in national govt
    represented the people more responsibly
  • Increased literacy
  • Governments often led by conservatives who
    manipulated nationalism

3
New Institutions
  • Trade Unions
  • Became fully legal in Britain in 1871 France in
    1884 Germany 1890
  • Minimal political influence
  • Focused on organizing skilled workers and
    improvement of wages and working conditions
  • Later industrial unions for unskilled labor
  • Opposed by employers
  • Long strikes
  • Most of Europe remained non-union
  • But a new form of collective association to
    confront economic difficulties and improve
    security

4
New Institutions
  • Democracy and Political Parties
  • Broad based electoral systems by late 19th
    century (except Russia)
  • Britain voting reform act in 1867 and 1884
  • Germany and Bismarck universal male suffrage in
    1871
  • French Chamber of Deputies democratically elected
  • Meant government could no longer ignore workers
    and unhappy citizens
  • Organization of Political Parties
  • Vied for members

5
German Empire 1871-1914
  • Government structure
  • Federal union of Prussia and 24 smaller German
    states
  • Kaiser Wilhelm I held ultimate power
  • Otto von Bismarck served as chancellor
  • Bicameral legislature Reichstag
  • Bundestag
  • Bundesrat
  • Multi-party system
  • Conservatives represented the Junkers of Prussia
  • Center Party (Catholic)
  • Social Democratic Party
  • Middle-class left out of politics during this era

6
German Empire 1871-1914
  • Germany under Bismarck
  • Integrated political and economic structure
  • Unified monetary system
  • Established Imperial Bank
  • Developed universal German civil and criminal
    codes
  • Established compulsory military service
  • Kulturkampf (Struggle for civilization)
  • Bismarck sought to limit influence of Catholic
    Center Party strong in the south (most northern
    German states were Protestant)
  • Bismarck instituted a set of sweeping reforms to
    minimize threat from the left

7
Germany Social Democrats and Revisionism
  • German Social Democratic Party (SDP) 1875
  • Policy of permanent hostility to non-socialist
    governments
  • Organizational success kept Marxism alive
  • Founding fathers Ferdinand Lasalle (reform),
    Wilhelm Liebknecht, and August Bebel (revolution)
  • Bismarck and the SPD
  • 12 years of persecution anti-socialist
    legislation
  • Legislation proved counter productive
  • Social welfare legislation
  • 1883 health insurance measure
  • 1884 accident insurance
  • 1889 retirement and disability pensions
  • Paternalistic and conservative alternative to
    socialism
  • Social security program first industrial nation
    to have this kind of program

8
Germany Social Democrats and Revisionism
  • William II
  • Emperor William II allowed antisocialist
    legislation to expire
  • Opposed Bismarcks move to outlaw the SPD
  • Forced him to resign to gain support of workers
  • Socialists next move
  • Erfurt Program predicted doom of capitalism and
    necessity of socialist ownership of the means of
    production
  • Intended to use reform not revolution
  • Immediate task was to improve lives of workers
    rather than overthrow government
  • SPD worked within the system became largest
    party in the Reichstag by 1912

9
Third French Republic
  • Established in 1875
  • Largely dominated by the bourgeoisie
  • Constitution provided for a republic
  • Chamber of Deputies (elected)
  • President was weak
  • Senate indirectly elected
  • Republican party
  • Led by Leon Gambetta
  • Established parliamentary supremacy
  • Reforms
  • Legalized trade unions
  • Established secular education
  • Multi-party system ever-shifting political
    coalitions
  • Challenge from conservatives
  • Boulanger Crisis (1887-1889)
  • Panama scandal (1892)
  • Dreyfus Affair (1894)

10
France Opportunism Rejected
  • Less united socialist party
  • Two major factions
  • Jaurès
  • Socialists should cooperate with middle-class
    Radical ministries
  • Guesde
  • Could not support bourgeois cabinet
  • Dryfuss Affair
  • 1899 in effort to unite supporters of Dryfuss,
    Prime Minister Renè Waldeck-Rousseau appointed
    socialist Alexander Millerand to cabinet
  • French labor movement uninterested in parties and
    socialism
  • Main labor union Confédération Générale du
    Travail 1895
  • Rival to socialist parties embraced doctrine of
    Georges Sorel in Reflections on Violence (1908)
  • General strike as tool to unite workers and gain
    them power
  • Increase in strikes met with military suppression
  • Ultimately Juarès gained seats in Chamber of
    Deputies from 1905 to 1914
  • Third Republic enjoyed vast support of the French
    People

11
Great Britain
  • 1850-1865 realignment of political parties
  • Lord Palmerston (1784-1865)
  • Whig prime minister and dominant political figure
  • Tory Party transformed to Conservative Party
  • Benjamin Disraeli (1804-1881)
  • Whig party transformed to Liberal Party
  • William Gladstone (1809-1898)
  • Other major contributor John Bright
  • Democratic expansion under Disraeli and Gladstone

12
Great Britain
  • Benjamin Disraeli
  • Argued for aggressive foreign policy, expansion
    of British Empire, and reluctant support of
    democratic reforms
  • Influenced by John Stuart Mill
  • Reform Bill of 1867
  • leap in the dark
  • Appeal to working people
  • Expanded Reform Bill of 1832
  • Redistributed seats for more even representation
    in House of Commons
  • Almost universal suffrage (males over 21)
  • Reduced govt regulation of trade unions in 1875
  • Created regulations for improved sanitation

13
Great Britain
  • William Gladstone
  • Most important liberal figure in 19th century
    England
  • Supported Irish Home Rule, fiscal policy, free
    trade, extension of democratic principles,
    opposed imperialism
  • Abolished compulsory taxes to support Church of
    England
  • Australian Ballot Act 1872
  • secret ballot
  • Civil service reform 1870
  • Competitive examination for govt positions
  • Reform Act of 1884 (Representation of the People
    Act)
  • Votes for agricultural workers

14
Great Britain
  • Fabianism and Early Welfare Programs
  • New Unionism
  • Trade unions grew
  • Supported Liberal Party candidates
  • Organized unskilled laborers
  • The Labour Party 1901
  • 1906 sent 29 members to Parliament
  • Still a rise in strikes as unions become more
    militant
  • More government intervention
  • The Fabian Society
  • Most influential socialist group in England
  • Took its name from Q. Fabius Maximus, Roman
    general
  • Gradualistic approach to reform
  • Leading members Sidney and Beatrice Webb, H.G.
    Wells, Graham Wallas, and George Bernard Shaw
  • Wanted to educate public to socialist reform
    gas-and-water socialism

15
Great Britain
  • British government, Liberal and Conservative
    parties responded slowly
  • 1903 Joseph Chamberlain
  • finance social reform through higher import
    duties
  • Split the conservative party
  • Liberal Reforms
  • 1906-1908 restored the protection of labor unions
  • Right to strike
  • 1909 broad program of social legislation
  • Established labor exchanges, regulated certain
    trades and passed National Insurance Act of 1911
  • Unemployment benefits and health care
  • Compulsory school attendance
  • Conflict between House of Commons and House of
    Lords
  • Over financing new programs
  • Increased tax on wealthy to help fund the welfare
    state
  • Parliament Act of 1911
  • Most significant legislation of Liberal party
    rule
  • allowed Commons to override veto of Lords
  • State was taking expanded role in lives of
    citizens
  • Representation of the People Act 1918
  • Women over 30 gained suffrage
  • Property qualifications completely eliminated

16
Womens Rights and Suffrage in England
  • Initially sought to amend marriage and property
    laws
  • By 1890s, womens rights activists realized that
    suffrage was the key to remedying other problems
  • Suffragettes came largely from middle class
  • Benefitted from education
  • Free time to become activists
  • Working-class women and socialists worked
    independently

17
Womens Rights and Suffrage in England
  • Millicent Garrett Fawcett (1847-1929)
  • Leader of National Union of Womens Suffrage
    Societies (NUWSS)
  • Fought for suffrage and helped grow the movement
  • Knighted in 1924
  • Emmeline Pankhurst
  • Leader of militant suffragettes
  • Along with her daughter, founded the Womens
    social and Political Union (WSPU)
  • 1907 began violent activities such as destroying
    railroad stations, works of art and store
    windows, and chaining themselves to gate in front
    of Parliament
  • Organized parades and demonstrations
  • Arrested for their activities
  • Representation of the People Act 1918
  • Result of womens critical contributions to the
    war effort vote for women over 30
  • Reform Act of 1928
  • Suffrage for women over 21

18
The Irish Question
  • Young Ireland movement 1848
  • Ulster (Protestant counties in northern Ireland)
  • Opposed Irish Home Rule
  • Raised 100,000 armed volunteers by 1913
  • Supported by British public opinion
  • 1914 Irish Home Rule Act passed
  • 1916 Easter Rebellion
  • 1922 Ireland gained independence
  • Northern Ireland remained part of British Empire

19
The Eastern Question 1870s
  • The Ottoman Empire
  • The Sick Man of Europe
  • Constant state of crisis in the Balkans
  • Question of who would control the region
  • Russia or Austro-Hungarian Empire
  • Pan-Slavism
  • Idea of uniting all Slave in Europe under one
    govt (Russia)
  • Britain refused to accept Russian control and
    sent Royal Navy to help Turks
  • jingoism
  • Bismarck offered to mediate crisis

20
The Eastern Question 1870s
  • Congress of Berlin 1878
  • Russia gained little despite defeating the Turks
  • Provisions
  • Recognition of Romania, Serbia, and Montenegro as
    independent states
  • Establishment of autonomous principality of
    Bulgaria
  • Austrian acquisition of Bosnia and Herzegovina
  • Transfer of Cyprus to Great Britain
  • Close to Suez Canal
  • Rise in hostility from Russia toward Germany
  • New system of alliances formed

21
Socialist Movements
  • Negative response to industrialism and
    nationalism
  • Rise of socialist party
  • Problems were transnational unite working class
    internationally
  • Main goal advancer the cause of the proletariat
    throughout Europe
  • Reform or Revolution?
  • Shaped socialist thought, party programs and
    political behavior, and influenced the larger
    political arena

22
Karl Marx and the First International
  • 1864 foundation of first International Working
    Mens Association (known as the First
    International)
  • Marx was principal organizer
  • Socialists, anarchists, and Polish nationalists
  • Marx approved reform efforts
  • In private he criticized reform activity
  • Paris Commune
  • Marx called a genuine proletarian uprising
  • Promoted anti-socialist legislation and sentiment
  • First International moved headquarters to U.S. in
    1873 and was disbanded in 1876

23
Karl Marx and the First International
  • Marxism emerged as the most important strand of
    socialism
  • Scientific characteristic made it appealing
  • Deeply impressed German socialists most powerful
    party in Europe
  • Also involved the influence of non-Marxist
    socialists in Great Britain

24
Revisionism
  • Workers gained right to vote and participate
    politically
  • Attention to elections rather than revolutions
  • Standard of living rose
  • Government acceptance of labor unions
  • Focus on bread-and-butter issues
  • Wages, hours, working conditions
  • Genuine collective bargaining
  • Eduard Bernstein Evolutionary Socialism 1899
  • Most prominent socialist revisionist
  • Argued Marxs predictions of ever-greater poverty
    for workers and concentration of wealth in fewer
    hands was proven false

25
Anarchists
  • Spin off from mainstream socialist movement
  • Sought to destroy centralized state
  • Mikhail Bakunin
  • Russian nobleman, leading anarchist
  • Strongest in Spain and Italy
  • Political assassinations
  • Alexander II of Russia 1881
  • King Umberto I of Italy 1900
  • President William McKinley of U.S. 1901

26
Russia
  • Defeat in Crimean War marked turning point
  • Lacked sizable middle class
  • Had to modernize or would remain vulnerable
    militarily and economically
  • Alexander II (1855-1881)
  • Perhaps most liberal ruler prior to 20th century
  • Serfdom had slowed modernization
  • Emancipation Act 1861
  • Peasants no longer dependent on lord free to
    move and change occupations could enter
    contracts and own property
  • Mirs
  • Communes which were highly regulated
  • Collective ownership and responsibility
  • Zemstvos
  • Established 1864 assemblies that administered
    local areas
  • Significant step to popular participation
  • Other reforms
  • Judiciary improved
  • Censorship relaxed (but not removed)
  • Education liberalized

27
Russia
  • Railroad construction
  • Between 1860 and 1880 mileage grew from 1,250 to
    15,500
  • Enabled export of grain and ability to earn
    profits for further industrialization
  • Stimulated domestic manufacturing
  • Strengthened Russias military

28
Russia
  • Critics
  • Alexander turned increasingly traditional in
    values
  • Radical populist movement emerged sought utopian
    agrarian order
  • Intelligensia
  • Nihilism
  • Alexander II assassinated in 1881 by radicals

29
Russia
  • Alexander III (1881-1894)
  • Autocracy, Orthodoxy, and Russification
    (nationalism)
  • Encouraged anti-semitism (pogroms)
  • Theodor Herzl 1897
  • Launched the Zionist movement
  • Fought to establish a Jewish state in Palestine

30
Russia
  • Nicholas II
  • Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905)
  • Revolution of 1905
  • Poor economy and strains of war led peasants and
    middle class to demand reforms
  • Bloody Sunday, Jan 1905
  • 200,000 worker/peasants marched peacefully to
    Winter Palace
  • Czar not in town
  • Army fired on marchers
  • General Strike paralyzed Russia czar was forced
    to make concessions
  • Duma Assembly created as an advisory body to
    Czar
  • Granted freedom of speech, assembly, and press
  • Czar retained absolute veto
  • Revolutionaries divided Duma had no real
    influence
  • Propertied classes benefited at expense of
    workers, peasants, and national minorities
  • Mild economic recover 1907-1914
  • Peter Stolypin pushed agrarian reforms
  • Gregorii Rasputin caused widespread doubts about
    czars ability to lead
  • Poor showing in WWI led directly to Russian
    Revolution
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