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Web Services


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Title: Web Services

Web Services
  • Distribution paradigm between hype and revolution

Walter Kriha
  • Web Services were the most overhyped topic in
    2001. Then came SOA, then Cloud Computing. One
    goal of this session is to discuss the pattern of
    disruptive technology and see if and how it
    applies to Web Services.
  • Another goal is to discover strength and
    weaknesses of xml based distribution technology
    and as we do so also learn how such technology
    can be evaluated properly. We will meet a lot of
    false arguments about distributed systems.
  • And finally we will use our distributed systems
    design knowledge from the last session and try to
    apply it to applications built with Web Services
    what style of application works best? What fits
    into the Web Services paradigm? Does old
    distributed system knowledge still apply?

Part of our job is to evaluate new technology,
e.g. for project use. As with every new
technology its value and application are unclear
and even old computing hands can be wrong. So
dont hesitate to voice your opinion!
  • The concept of disruptive technology
  • What are Web Services?
  • SOAP and the performance discussion
  • A way to describe messages Web Services
    Description Language
  • How to find Web Services Universal Discovery and
    Description Interface
  • Web Services and the ilities Reliability,
    Security, Transactions etc.
  • Web Service applications
  • Trends and possibilities
  • Discusion Are Web Services disruptive? Is it a
    Peer-to-peer technology?

Successfull companies and Innovators Dilemma
  • Listen to customers
  • Invest aggressively in technologies that give
    those customers what they say they want
  • Seek higher margins (e.g go after the most
    wealthy customers with the hardest problems)
  • Target larger markets
  • (from Christensen, page 263ff.)

This behavior of successfull companies is well
known. On their way to success these companies
restructure themselves to better achieve the
goals from above they invest only in the high
margin area, they develop an internal cost
structure that matches the high-margin market
they are after. Clayton Christensen shows that it
is exactly this behavior that makes successfull
companies miss disruptive technology
Disk Drive Product Features and Competition
time axis of product evolution
Most product display a similiar evolution from
technical possibility over improvements
(convenience) and feature overload (think about
hi-fi products!) to battling over price only.
This is the reason why most companies try to go
upmarket where higher prices are paid for more
complex products.
Commoditization of IT?
First, regardless of whatever definition you use
to describe cloud computing (a fairly hopeless
task in my view), the term merely identifies an
underlying shift of I.T. from a product to a
service based economy. It's a consequence of -
Certain I.T. activities becoming suitable for
service provision through volume operations (i.e.
those activities are well defined and
ubiquitous The existence of mature enough
technology to support this (Popek et al wrote the
book on virtualisation back in 1974) -A change in
business attitude towards I.T. (Carr and others,
namely Strassmann, pointed out that much of I.T.
is simply seen as a cost of doing business.) -
The concept of utility computing provision (i.e.
the provision of suitable I.T. resources much
like other utility providers, as forecast by
McCarthy back in the 1960's.) Take away any of
these elements and cloud computing wouldn't
represent the upheaval and the disruption that it
does today. From Simon Wendleys blog
Disruptive Technology (1)
  • Is simpler and cheaper and lower performing
  • Promises lower margins, not higher profits
  • Leading firms most profitable customers generally
    cant use and dont want them
  • are first commercialized in emerging or
    insignificant markets
  • (from Christensen, page 267)

It is hard to find a market or application for
something that is a looser in all known
applications or markets. Our Peer-to-peer group
noticed how hard it is to find usefull
applications for a disruptive technology. Imagine
you are a developer who wants to convince a well
established manager of a successfull company to
invest into a disruptive technology and you have
to acknowledge the things from above! Imagine you
are an employee of a database company and youve
invented the www. Do you think your manager would
be excited about some network database where
you cant find things deterministically? And the
reliability issues etc....
Disruptive Technology (2)
  • needs new markets to shine
  • needs new people and organization it wont grow
    in old structures
  • Starts weak but has potential
  • It does most things worse than established
    technology but it can do SOME things those cant
    or do badly.

This characterization is surprisingly close to
how Thomas Kuhn explained progress in science
(The structure of scientific revolutions). He
clearly showed that old theories literally die
out with their teachers and that there is a large
piece of believe both in old and new theories.
What are Web Services?
A Web service is a software component that
represents a business function (or a business
service) and can be accessed by another
application (a client, a server or another Web
service) over public networks using generally
available ubiquitous protocols and transports
(i.e. SOAP over http). (http//www3.gartner.com/I
nit by M.Pezzini, April 2001)
  • The core definition usually comprises
  • simple requests
  • public networks/Internet
  • http transport
  • XML message format
  • business function

WWW from GUI driven to B2B
ltFORM action"http//stockservice.com/getquote"
method"post"gt ltPgtltLABEL
forvalor"gtvalor lt/LABELgt
ltINPUT type"text" idvalor"gtltBRgt ltINPUT
type"submit" value"Send"gt lt/FORMgt
stock server
stockservice valorIBM
html document with IBM44.56
The concept of a web service is extremely simple
use XML to create requests and responses and send
them using http. This allows machines to
communicate with each others, e.g. to perform
supply chain management or other business to
business processing. XML-RPC by David Winer
(userland.com) was one of the earliest standard
proposals. Companies have used this technology
internally for quite a while.
Web Services Components
single sign on services Hailstorm/liberty
global registry
Digital Signatures
Universal Description, Discovery, Integration
Web Service Description Language WSDL (XML)
Request format SOAP (XML)
Transport layer http(s), smtp, httpr
XML is the standard format used in Web Services.
On top of standard transport mechanisms are
requests formatted using the SOAP XML schema.
Clients learn about service providers by browsing
the UDDI registry. Services are described in a
special description language, again a XML schema.
The Web Services Architecture
UDDI registry
look for service in UDDI registry
publish services in registry
retrieve provider location and WSDL service
bind and send request via SOAP/http or other
transport to provider
create request from WSDL description
This type of architecture is called
service-oriented. It uses a broker for service
advertisement and lookup. Requester and provider
bind dynamically with respect to transport (http,
smtp etc.) (Raghavan N. Srinivas, Web services
hits the Java scene part 1, http//www.javaworld.c
Request Transport in Web Services
Currently http or https are mostly used for Web
Services. But asynchronous messaging is also
supported e.g. through SMTP. Both transports have
deficits with respect to reliability. IBM has
introduced a proposal for HTTPR, a reliable
asynchronous message protocol.
more information on HTTPR ibm developerworks
Web Services A primer for HTTPR. It has some
excellent diagrams on the relation between
transactional safety and resource allocation in
asynchronous protocols. Shows why asynchronous
protocols potentially scale better.
Request Format of Web Services SOAP
ltsEnvelope xmlnss"http//schemas.xmlsoap.org/s
oap/envelope/" xmlnsxsi"http//www.w3.org/1999
/XMLSchema-instance" xmlnsxsd"http//www.w3.org
/1999/XMLSchema"gt ltsBodygt
ltmsayHello xmlnsm'urnExample1'gt
ltname xsitype'xsdstring'gtJameslt/namegt
lt/msayHellogt lt/sBodygt lt/sEnvelopegt
ltsEnvelope xmlnss"http//www.w3.org/2001/06/so
ap-envelope" xmlnsxsi"http//www.w3.org/1999/XML
XMLSchema"gt ltsBodygt
ltnsayHelloResponse xmlnsn"urnExample1"gt
ltreturn xsitype"xsdstring"gt
Hello James lt/returngt
lt/nsayHelloResponsegt lt/sBodygt
SOAP is essentially an RPC protocol with XML. It
provides elements for type marshalling and RPC
semantics. A header element contains
meta-information but is optional. See Snell
et.al. Programming Web Services... for details.
Find a complete SOAP implementation at apache.org
SOAP performance aspects (1)
Object to XML conversion
XML Parsing and construction of objects
transport of XML stream over http
XML stream
XML stream
The use of a non-binary transport format has
created heated discussions about performance
issues. Bad coding techniques (too many objects
created), XML misunderstandings (e.g. to use
validating parser without need) and wrong parsers
(e.g DOM instead of SAX) have created a lot of
confusion. Lately it looks like XML encoded
messages can come close to the performance of
binary formats like IIOP.
SOAP performance aspects (2)
effect of size on transport
marshaling time
de- marshaling time
Internet transport time
Object to XML conversion
XML Parsing and construction of objects
transport of XML stream over http
XML stream
XML stream
The only way to find an answer on possible
performance problems is to measure the effect of
individual processing steps or transport times on
the overall request time. It became clear that
the internet transport time with lacking QOS has
far greater effects on overall request time than
the size and interpretation effort of a textual
format. In other words it is NOT the XML that is
problematic, it is the public network (Internet)
that takes a toll on request/response protocols.
(watch Amdahls law in action)
loose coupling with XML
  • all Web-services APIs are expressed in XML and
    therefore completely programming language
  • XML messages are self-describing and can be
    validated on the receiver side if a schema is
  • XML messages can be read by humans and machines.
  • No pre-compiles stubs and skeletons are required

These properties of XML, together with the use of
http as transport have given web services the
touch of simplicity. But beware Changes in XML
schemas WILL surprise receivers, the question of
semantics is still open (see UDDI later)!
Web Services and Firewalls
CORBA port
SOAP request
Web Service Application Server
http port
SOAP request
SOAP request
RMI port
Object server
Web server
The firewall friendliness of Web Services has
been touted all along. But firewalls were
introduced for a reason to block protocolls that
cannot be tracked and filtered properly perhaps
because the necessary infrastructure was never
developed perhaps because the protocols were
not intended for the Internet like CORBA and RMI.
But Web Services make no sense without such an
Web Services Description Language (WSDL) is the
metadata language of Web Services. It defines how
service providers and requesters understand Web
Services. When exposing back-ends as Web
Services, WSDL defines and exposes components and
lists all the data types, operations, and
parameters used by that service. WSDL provides
all the information that a client application
needs to build a valid SOAP invocation that in
turn is mapped by the Web Services platform onto
back-end enterprise logic. (after P.J.Murray, Web
Services and CORBA, CapeClear)
WSDL The IDL of Web Services
lt?xml version"1.0"?gt ltdefinitions
name"StockQuote" ltschena
... lttypesgtltschema targetNamespace"http//e
xample.com/stockquote.xsd" ... ltelement
ltcomplexTypegt ltallgt ltelement
name"tickerSymbol" type"string"/gt lt/allgt
lt/elementgtlt/schemagt lt/typesgt ltmessage
ltpart name"body" element"xsd1TradePriceReques
t"/gtlt/messagegt ltportType name"StockQuotePortTy
pe"gt ltoperation
ltinput message"tnsGetLastTradePriceInput"/gt
ltoutput message"tnsGetLastTr
adePriceOutput"/gt lt/operationgt lt/portTypegt
ltbinding name"StockQuoteSoapBinding"
.. ltoperation name"GetLastTradePrice"gt
.. lt/bindinggt ltservice name"StockQuoteService
"gt ltdocumentationgtMy first
ltport name"StockQuotePort" binding"tnsStockQuot
eBinding"gt ltsoapaddress
lt/portgt lt/servicegt lt/definitionsgt
WSDL Elements
  • Types a container for data type definitions
    using some type system (such as XSD).
  • Message an abstract, typed definition of the
    data being communicated.
  • Operation an abstract description of an action
    supported by the service.
  • Port Typean abstract set of operations supported
    by one or more endpoints.
  • Binding a concrete protocol and data format
    specification for a particular port type.
  • Port a single endpoint defined as a combination
    of a binding and a network address.
  • Service a collection of related endpoints.

A WSDL document defines services as collections
of network endpoints, or ports. In WSDL, the
abstract definition of endpoints and messages is
separated from their concrete network deployment
or data format bindings. This allows the reuse of
abstract definitions messages, which are
abstract descriptions of the data being
exchanged, and port types which are abstract
collections of operations. The concrete protocol
and data format specifications for a particular
port type constitutes a reusable binding.
Dynamic Binding in WSDL
Binding A
Binding B
Port A
Port B
WSDL allows the specification of a service with
operations on a logical level. The physical
binding to host, transport etc. happens in a
binding declaration. Clients negotiate the
binding to be used with a provider.
Service Discovery (1) UDDI
UDDI registry with find and publish API
Yellow pages business categorization, type and
White pages information about companies (loc.,
contact etc.)
Green pages meta information about services and
their qualities
most distributed services use some kind of
central registry for service lookup. The
Universal Description, Discovery and Integration
registry plays this role in web services.
Especially the green pages property has led some
people to proclaim automatic service matching by
service requesters browsing the meta-information
contained there. For the difficulties behind
ontologies and automated discovery see Steve
Vinoski, Web Services and Dynamic Discovery on
Service Discovery (2) UDDI content
ltbusinessEntitygtname, contact, location etc.
lttModelgtmeta info on service
specification of a service
All content in UDDI is expressed in XML. Besides
the obvious elements for companies and services a
number of meta-information elements like tModel
exist. A core feature of UDDI is the expectation
that requester and provider do a dynamic bind
where they agree on service and transport
characteristics. A local registry can be
downloaded from www.alphaworks.ibm.com
UDDI Organizational Alternatives
UDDI registry
UDDI registry
provider/ index
UDDI index
provider/ index
federation is possible between registries
provider/ index
provider/ index
Several indexes are created
providers register services in central registry
UDDI index
create request from WSDL description
Different levels of economic control and threats
are behind each model. Technically each of them
is possible.
Common Business Processes ebXML
implement purchase process according to
ebXML registry
company A
retrieve specification
  • Standard Purchase Business Process Specification
  • Operations
  • Parameters
  • Flow

register own purchase service
use company As purchase service
company B
find service from company A
Without standard schemas for services every
company will implement their business processes
differently. Clients will have to deal with many
different interfaces for the same type of
service. ebXML is a global electronic business
standard and defines a framework for defining,
finding and using standard business process
services. see www.oasis-open.org
Transactional Web Applications
Lock seat 5
The travel agency needs to reserve a flight, book
a car and a hotel room for a traveller.
Travel Agency
Rental cars
lock car 24
hotel reservation
lock room 47
The 2-phase commit protocol does distributed
transactions. But it does not really fit to the
web world because it requires resource managers
to lock resources. On the un-reliable medium
internet this should be avoided. SOAP does not
yet specify a transactional service. OASIS is
working on Business Transaction Processing to
support Web Services Transactions. IBM is
proposing a model using tentative reservation
to overcome the locking problem.
Web Services Application Types
Information Aggregation
stock server
hotel reservation
Business Transaction
The web has always been an information space as
well as a transaction space. Web services allow
both kinds of exchanges more document centric
information aggregation and more transaction
oriented service requests.
Web Services Example Applications
  • The ubiquitous Stock Quote Example
  • A zip code lookup service from US Postal
  • Weather reports lookup etc.
  • Single-sign-on services passport (hailstorm),
    liberty alliance

Up to now most web services applications are
technical showcases and cover only very simple
types of requests. This may be because things
like security and transactions have not been
solved yet. Right now SSL is used to secure
message transport. But work is on the way to
include digital signatures in SOAP messages.
Trends and Future developments
web services gateway (firewall?)
A hosting service provides metering for providers
(accounting, authorization etc.)
Hosting Service
web service
web service
The implementation of common services through web
services will be an interesting case. Will
performance and reliability suffer? What are the
business models behind such a technology?
Security and privacy issues?
Reliable Messaging
Application layer
Application layer
persistent messages
persistent messages
SOAP msg. with message ID, sequence number and
QOS tag
message ordering
request and ack.
MUST send ack!!!
Reliable B2B messages need guaranteed delivery
(ack enforced), duplicate removal (message ID)
and message ordering (sequence numbers). SOAP and
http do NOT provide those qualities. Further QOS
extensions could be time to hold messages,
number of retries etc. Proxies are considered
Secure Messages
SOAP envelope
Application layer
Application layer
Digital Signatures XMLDsig
Digital Encryption XMLEnc
WS-Security goes from channel based security to
message (object) based security. Individual
messages can be signed and encrypted. WSDL can
advertise the QOS expected/provided by a
receiver. End-to-end security is possible across
intermediates. See my internet security lecture
for details on WS-Security, security policies and
expressions (SAML, WS-Policy), WS-SecureConversati
on and WS-Trust. The idea of the Virtual
Organization overlay structures over existing
real organizations is one of the driving factors
Coordination and Transactions
  • A generic coordination service providing
    coordination tpyes, context and protocol (e.g.
    atomic transactions, business activities
  • A transaction service which covers traditional
    TAs and conversational Business Activities.

Loosely coupled services which last a long time
cannot use regular locking or do a complete
rollback if something fails. Business Activities
comprise several low-leval atomic TAs but make
progress even in case of individual task
Transaction Models
  • nested tasks
  • long running
  • loosely coupled business activity
  • compensating tasks and activities
  • errors order cancellation etc.
  • not nested
  • short
  • tightly coupled business task
  • rollback in case of error
  • errors system crash

Complete rollback is too expensive for long
running business activities. Intermediate results
must be visible early compensating acting try
to undo tasks in case of business errors.
A Coordinator
forward Context
Transaction Starter
register indirectly
register with Coordinator
create Context
Coordinator (subordinate)
Activation works like a factory method to create
a new Coordination Context. This context is
forwarded to participants which register through
it either directly with the first coordinator or
with their own coordinator which registers itself
as a sub-coordinator. Protocol and type of
coordination are contained in context.
Phase Zero Protocol
Resource Manager
register for phase 0
holds cached data
phase 0
write cached date
phase 0 OK
prepare (begin two phase commit
To allow for caching by intermediates
ws-transaction defines an additional phase called
phase zero BEFORE the usual two phase commit
protocol starts. Reason is that most resource
managers cannot handle change requests after 2pc
has started. This feature is not undisputed
see Roger Sessions objectwatch newsletter on this
Stateful Web Services
wsdl resource property description
endpoint reference including resource property
get/set operations, notification
registration, lifecycle (create/destroy)
endpoint with get/set methods
Stateful architectures like computational grids
need the concept of a resource. WS-Resource adds
this via meta-data descriptions contained in the
WSDL and WS-Adressing schemas. An identifier is
used to communicate state information between
requestors and endpoints. On top of WS-Resource
advanced notification requests can be built. See
The WS-Resource Framework (Czaikowski, Ferguson
Virtual Organizations
VOs need to be created ad-hoc using a common
technology for communication and security. The
best know grid project globus (www.gobus.org) now
switched to a web services approach for
interoperability reasons. (diagram taken from
Security for Grids (Von Welch et. al.)
GUI re-use Web Services for Remote Portals
WSRP Consumer
WSRP Producer
WSRP Service
WSRP Service
WSRP Service
Aggregated HTML, WML, VoiceXML, ... over HTTP
Mark-Up Fragments Transferred via SOAP
  • Portals can aggregate presentation from many WSRP
  • WSRP services can be aware of portal context
  • User profile from portal
  • Desired locale and markup-type
  • Users device type

from OASIS WSRP Technical Committee, April 2002
(see resources)
Interesting Projects
  • Use Web Services to provide a common service
    layer for logging, auditing, user profiles in a
    multi-language intranet.
  • Use Web Services Component Model to create
    components for integration in portals. See
    oasis-open for proposals from Epicentric, IBM
    (Web Services Experience Language)
  • Computational Grids are now using Web Services to
    express communications, security and resources
    (see www.globus.org )
  • Create automated workflows for B2B. BPEL4WS and
    other standards try to automate business
    processes using Web Services. This goes along
    with better semantics through Web Ontology
    Language, RDF etc.

Yes, both projects might be used in intranets
first. But companies face the same integration
problems internally as the experience in the B2B
Best Practice for Promoting Scalable Web Services
  • 1. Stay away from using XML messaging to do
    fine-grained RPC. For example, stay away from a
    service which returns the square root of a
    number. Stay away from a service that returns a
    stock quote (this is the classic-cited example of
    a Web service).
  • 2. Conversely, use course-grained RPC. XML web
    services usually have to be defined at a coarser
    granularity than ordinary software objects. That
    is, use Web services that "do a lot of work, and
    return a lot of information".
  • 3. When the transport may be slow and/or
    unreliable, or the processing is complex and/or
    long-running, consider an asynchronous messaging
  • 4. Always take the overall system performance
    into account. Don't optimize until you know where
    the bottlenecks are, i.e., don't assume that
    XML's "bloat" or HTTP's limitations are a problem
    until they are demonstrated in your application.
  • 5. Take the frequency of the messaging into
    account. A high rate of requests might suggest
    that you load (replicate) some of the data and
    processing back to the client. The client
    occassionally connects to synch-up with the
    server, and get the lastest data.
  • 6. Aggregation using replication. There will be
    Web services which serve to aggregate data from
    other Web services. One approach is to perform
    the aggregation on demand - the services which
    supply the data are invoked in real time, the
    data is aggregated, and returned to a requesting
    client. Alternatively, all the data from the
    supplier services may be retrieved during
    off-hours in one large, course-grained
    transaction. Thus, the aggregation is performed
    in real-time (rather than trying to retrieve the
    supplier data in real-time). The later is
    recommended whereever possible.

this is the result of an interesting discussion
at xml-dev. Do you agree?
Other Web Services Architectural Models
  • Representational State Transfer Architecture
    (REST), SOA and Policies are models beyond mere
    messaging. Diagram taken from Web Services
    Architecture (w3c)

RESTful Web against the RPC Model
  • The WEB is based on representation of resources
    using URIs, Web Services create private,
    non-standard ways of information access
  • The envelope paradigm does not add any value over
    the generic http get/put/post
  • RPC mechanisms are not suitable for the WEB. Some
    extensions to get/put/post might be necessary
    though (going in the direction of tuple-space

This is a hot topic currently ask yourself
whenever you think about building a web services
could it be done with just an http get or post?
REST btw. stands for Representational State
Transer Architecture, a term coined by Roy
Fielding, the father of http. see resources on
REST. But in later versions Web Services have
been extended through a document centric model as
RESTful Web CRUD like Message Semantics
GET -gt Read (idempotent, does not change server
state) POST gt Create resource on the server PUT
-gt Update Resorce on the server DELETE -gt Delete
Resource on server
Is this separation of updates and reads something
new? Not by far. Bertrand Meyer of OO fame calls
this a core principle of sound software design
and made it a requirement for his Eiffel
programming language. He calls it command-query
separation principle Commands do not return a
result queries may not change the state in
other words they satisfy referential
transparency B. Meyer, Software Architecture
Object Oriented Versus Functional Meyer
RESTful Web Features
  • Four strands that make a servive RESTful
  • explicit use of http protocol in a CRUD like
  • stateless design between client and server
  • meaningful URIs which represent objects and
    their relationships in the form of directory
    entries (mostly parent/child or general/specific
    entity relations)
  • use of XML or JSON as a transfer format and use
    of content negotiation with mime types

All state change is reflected by a change in
representation. Resources are manipulated through
a very simple and uniform interface (CRUD like)
and through the exchange of representations. This
is how the WWW works. A subset of Web Services
are REST-compliant. From A.Rodriguez, see
Policies Making Services More Intelligent
  • Intermediates acting as trust-centers, proxies
    etc. What does a service allow?
  • Advanced collaboration between businesses. What
    does a business require?
  • Virtual organizations on top of physical
    organizations. What are the rules for

Complex business relations, frequently ad-hoc and
fast established, need ways to express the
constraints for each partner, transaction etc.
This covers security policies just like
reliability and availability expectations which
are generally subsumed under the QOS term.
For advanced services architecture and security
technology for ad-hoc end-to-end services see the
lectures on SOA and Web Services Security
Resources (1)
  • Clayton M. Christensen, The Innovators Dilemma.
    Shows how disruptive technology can turn
    successfull companies into loosers. Explaines why
    companies find it so hard to embrace new
    technology. This book has been so successfull
    that nowadays every discussion of new and badly
    understood technology uses the term disruptive.
  • www.webservices.org The Web Services Portal. It
    covers most Vendor products and has good overview
  • xml-dev mailing list for XML developers. High
    traffic site. Had a good discussion on XML-RPC
    performance lately
  • Security for Web services, Raghavan Srinivas,

Resources (2)
  • Programming Web Services with SOAP, J.Snell
    et.al., OReilly 2002.
  • www.oasis-open.org , Portal for ebXML and other
    XML schema definitions. Work on business
    transactions over web-services.
  • Global XML Web Services Architecture, Microsoft
    paper October 2001, www.gotdotnet.com (.net
    portal for web services)
  • Michael Stal, Web Services im Überblick,
    Objectspectrum 7/8 2001
  • www.uddi.org, portal for UDDI.

Resources (3)
  • The IBM UDDI registry http//www.ibm.com/services
  • Microsoft's UDDI registry http//uddi.microsoft.
  • Andre Tost, UDDI4J lets Java do the walking. Good
    introduction to the concepts behind UDDI
  • Steve Vinoski, Web Services and Dynamic
    Discovery, Article on webservices.org about the
    real difficulties with ontologies and automatic
    understanding. Yes, Steve is one of the fathers
    of CORBA and IONAs chief architect.
  • P.J.Murray, Web Services and CORBA, CapeClear.
    Good explanation of the mapping problems when
    exposing CORBA services via Web Services.

Resources (4)
  • Dave Winer et.al., A busy developers guide to
    SOAP1.1, from www.soapware.org, bare bone
    explanation of the most important features. Does
    not cover SOAP with attachements etc.
  • Web Services for Remote Portals (WSRP),
    http//www.oasis-open.org/committees/wsrp/ , a
    new approach to re-use services WITH their GUI.
    Headed by Thomas Schaeck, IBM Böblingen
  • the RESTwiki on http//conveyor.com/RESTwiki/moin.
  • Principled Design of a modern Web Architecture,
    R. Fielding, http//www.cs.virginia.edu/cs650/ass
  • Alex Rodriguez , RESTful Web services The
    basics, IBM , 06 Nov 2008 http//www.ibm.com/devel

Resources (5)
  • James McCarthy, Reap the benefits of document
    style Web services http//www-106.ibm.com/develope
    rworks/library/ws-docstyle.html?n-ws-6202 . A
    nice explanation of document style web services
    and when to use them. E.g. if there is NO
    pre-existing rpc-service you might be better of
    designing your communication in document style
    right away. Better for asynchronous processing as
    well. And coarse grained which is better in many
    cases of dist-sys as we have learned.
  • The WS-Resource Framework V1.0, Czaikowski,
    Ferguson et.al. describes the addition of statful
    resources to web services by using meta-data and
    identifiers. Read the grid papers to understand
    the need for it.
  • Security for Grid Services, Von Welch et.al.
    Describes the security needs of virtual
  • Martin Brown, Building a grid using Web Services
    standards Part1-6. www.ibm.com/developerworks
    Shows a distributed movie serving application
    built with web services. Looks a bit like
    napsters design. Shows how similar p2p and grid
    applications really are.
  • REST in Rails http//www.b-simple.de/documents
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