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Restorative justice: Journey to Belonging


Formal Conferences. Jigsaw of Just Schools (Hopkins, 2004) Restorative enquiry ... Class Conferences (when whole class is being affected by conflict) ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Restorative justice: Journey to Belonging

Restorative justice Journey to Belonging
  • Brenda Morrison
  • Center for Restorative Justice,
  • Simon Fraser University

Restorative justice A river
  • It is good to have an end
  • to journey towards,
  • But it is the journey that matters
  • in the end.
  • Ursula Le Guin

Status and School Violence(National Research
Council, 2003)
  • One message that comes through loud and clear in
    the deadly school rampage cases is that
    adolescents are intensely concerned about their
    social standing in their school and among their
    peers. For some, their concern is so great that
    threats to their status are treated as threats to
    their very lives and status as something to be
    defended at all costs (p. 336)

The Council recommends that
  • Young people need some places where they feel
    valued and powerful and needed this is part of
    the journey from childhood to adulthood. .
    Holding spaces and pathways open for them may be
    an important way of preventing violence (p.

Decline of Social Capital (Putnam)
Longitudinal Study of Adolescent Health
  • Independent of race, ethnicity, family
    structure and poverty status, adolescents who are
    connected to their parents, to their families,
    and to their school community are healthier than
    those who are not

Connectedness as a protective factor
  • Violent behavior
  • Emotional distress, suicidal ideation and
  • Substance abuse (cigarettes, alcohol and
  • Early sexual activity

Values to guide the journey (Sharpe, 2004)
  • Inclusion
  • Democracy
  • Responsibility
  • Reparation
  • Safety
  • Healing
  • Reintegration

Everyone has a piece of the truth
  • Inclusive solutions are wise solutions. Their
    wisdom emerges from the integration of
    everybodys perspective and needs. These are
    solutions whose range and vision is expanded to
    take advantage of the truth held not only by the
    quick, the articulate, the most powerful and
    influential, but also of the truth held the
    slower thinkers, the shy, the disenfranchised and
    the weak (Kaner et al, 1996).

Restorative Justice (Zehr, 2002)
  • Who has been hurt?
  • What do they need?
  • Whose obligations and responsibilities are these?
  • Who has a stake in this situation?
  • What is the process that can involve the
    stakeholders in finding a solution?

Restorative Justice Becoming Whole
  • Restitution fix the mistake/repair the harm
  • Resolution keep it from happening again
  • Reconciliation healing begets healing

Victims Positive Effects
  • Restorative Justice (vs court)
  • Apologies Increased (86 vs 16)
  • Vengence Reduced (50 vs 9)
  • Fear Reduced (up to 5X less)
  • Post Traumatic Stress Reduced

Safe Schools Pyramid of Practices
Informal to Formal Restorative PracticesWachtel
and McCold (2001)
  • Affective Statements
  • Affective Questions
  • Small Impromptu Conferences
  • Large Group Circles
  • Formal Conferences

Jigsaw of Just Schools(Hopkins, 2004)
  • Restorative enquiry
  • Restorative discussion in challenging situations
  • Mediation
  • Victim/Offender Mediation
  • Community Conference/Problem Solving Circles
  • Restorative Conferences
  • Family Group Conferences

Multi-layered Conferencing ModelThorsborne
Vineguard (2004)
  • Proactive Conferences
  • (Teaching and Learning)
  • Classroom Conferences
  • Reactive Conferences
  • (Responding to Wrongdoing)
  • Individual conferences
  • Small-group conferences
  • Whole-class conferences
  • Large-group conferences

Integrated Social and Emotional Learning (Blood,
  • Universal
  • Develop social and emotional capacity through
    enhancing accountability, responsibility,
    cooperation and personal potency.
  • Targeted
  • Corridor conferencing, mediation, problem solving
  • Intensive
  • Restorative conferencing

The Massey Way - Synergize
  • Massey High School (New Zealand)
  • Restorative Chat (in classrooms)
  • Restorative Thinking Program (for classroom
  • Class Conferences (when whole class is being
    affected by conflict)
  • Mini Conference (in-school conference)
  • Full Monty (Family/Community conference)

Building the Skill Base Start Early
  • Pre-school InterventionTalk-it-over-chairs
  • Talk through problems in the classroom
  • Develop listening skills
  • Identify and recognize emotions
  • Take responsibility for behavior
  • They are for saying, Sorry, like for messing
    up a project or pushing someone. You have to
    figure out how to be kind

Developing the skill base
  • Primary-school Interventions
  • Active Listening Skills
  • Conflict Resolution Skills
  • Social and Emotional Skills
  • Decision Making Skills (short/long term)
  • Peace Education

Deepen the skill base
  • High School Initiatives
  • Psycho-drama (City at Peace)
  • Integrated curriculum that explores diversity and
    conflict through the arts
  • Compassionate Listening Project
  • Truth and Reconciliation Projects
  • Human Rights Project
  • Booster shots

Building Bridges Affirming partnerships
  • Mackillop Model of Restorative Practice
  • Students At home when I had a fight with my
    sister it really helped
  • Teachers Ive become a better listener. I
    have discovered bigger issues behind the
  • Parents Restorative practice has changed my

Building Bridges Affirming partnerships
  • ROCA Creating places where change can happen
  • A place where young people thrive and lead change
  • A place where newcomer families can gather and
    find support
  • A place that asks hard questions about violence,
    race, schools, community involvement and
  • A place where peace is promoted in our community
    and in our country
  • A place where police, clergy, school
    administrators and elected officials train
    together in Peacemaking Circles
  • A place of safety and celebration
  • A place where young people learn and practice
    leadership skills
  • http//

Building and Affirming your Vision Safe School
  • Villanova College Vincit Veritus -Truth Conquers
  • Building and nurturing of community life
  • Respect, understanding, relationships
  • Partnership between students, teachers and
  • A search for truth within oneself and others
  • A shared approach to decision-making reflecting
    the collaborative and traditions of the Augustine
  • Life-long learning

School Connection The active ingredient
  • Social and emotional development and the
    recognition of the relational nature of learning
    and change are the fundamentals of human
    learning, work and accomplishment. Until this is
    given proper emphasis, we cannot expect to see
    progress in making schools safer, drug-free, with
    fewer students who dont care and want to
    drop-out, or with better tolerance of people who
    are different. (Elias Weissberg, 2000, p. 264)

Social and emotional learning
  • SEL is fundamental to childrens social and
    emotional development, health, and mental
    well-being, ethical development, citizenship,
    motivation to achieve, and academic learning
    (Weissberg, 2004)
  • Statement to U.S. Senate
  • Committee on Health, Education, Labor and

Universal Human Rights
  • Where, after all, do universal human rights
    begin? In small places, close to home so close
    and so small that they can not be seen on any map
    of the world. Yet they are the world of the
    individual person the neighborhood he lives in
    the school or college he attends the factory,
    farm or office where he works. Such are the
    places where every man, woman and child seek
    equal justice, equal opportunity, equal dignity
    without discrimination. Unless these rights have
    meaning there, they have little meaning anywhere.
    Without concerted citizen action to uphold them
    close to home, we shall look in vain for progress
    in the larger world.
  • Eleanor Roosevelt (1884 1962)

Story telling, listening empowerment
  • Storytelling is fundamental for healthy social
    relationships. To feel connected and respected
    we need to tell our own stories and have others
    listen. For others to feel respected and
    connected to us, they need to tell their stories
    and have us listen. Having others listen to your
    story is a function of power in our culture. The
    more power you have, the more people will listen
    respectfully to your story. Consequently,
    listening to someones story is a way of
    empowering them, of validating their intrinsic
    worth as a human being.
  • Kay Pranis (1998)

School District of Philadelphia
  • The School District of Philadelphia School
    Reform Commission Declaration of Education. The
    academic achievement of all students in the
    School District of Philadelphia must improve. We
    believe all children can reach their learning
    potential and that the achievement gap can be
    eliminated. The School Reform Commission is
    responsible for that improvement and is obligated
    to prepare, ensure, and empower all students of
    diverse backgrounds to achieve their full
    intellectual and social potential in order to
    become lifelong learners and productive members
    of society. The Commission commits itself to
    raising student achievement through District-wide
    reforms and restructuring measures. We have done
    much but we have a long way to go. As a
    significant step on the continuing journey, the
    SRC issues this "Declaration of Beliefs and
  • 1.We believe all children can learn at high
    levels. The School District of Philadelphia has
    the responsibility to provide the quality of
    education and a safe environment that allows
    every child to learn at high levels.
  • 2.We believe all children can reach their
    learning potential and that the achievement gap
    can be eliminated.
  • 3.We believe schools have an enormous impact on
    children's lives.
  • 4.We believe the School District of Philadelphia
    can become a high performing organization.
    Sustainable reforms are possible only if parents
    have meaningful choices.
  • 5.We believe that all children should be educated
    in a safe and orderly environment.
  • Success is the only option. 
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