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The Scriptures that Speak of Christ

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Title: The Scriptures that Speak of Christ


1
The Scriptures that Speak of Christ
2
The Scriptures that Speak of Christ
Genesis 11 Revelation 211-5
3
The Scriptures that Speak of Christ
Jesus is the Subject of the Bible John 539
You study the Scriptures diligently because you
think that in them you have eternal life. These
are the very Scriptures that testify about
me We understand Jesus properly if we see Him
in the light of the OT story that He completes
and brings to climax.
4
The Scriptures that Speak of Christ
  • Continuity of the Testaments
  • Consistent content
  • Establish Israel over the nations
  • Bring justice to the earth
  • Gather in and bless the nations (Gentiles)
  • Consistent pattern
  • Gods purpose is increasingly revealed
  • Progressive revelation

5
Jesus Old Testament Story
Christ
Exile
David
Abraham
Matthew 11-17
6
Jesus Old Testament Story
  • The Story Summarized
  • Creation to Abraham
  • Proto-evangelium Gen.11-315/Gen. 315-Rev. 22
  • Separation of Godly line and evil line (Gen.
    3-11)
  • Abraham to David
  • Promise to Abraham nation/curse/nations
  • Israel enslaved and delivered (Exodus)
  • New sense of national identity and purpose (Law)
  • More details on Gods purposes
  • Conquest of the land uneven response (Judges)
  • Kingship demanded God incorporates into plan

7
Jesus Old Testament Story
  • The Story Summarized
  • David to Exile
  • Consolidates Israel in land promised to Abraham
  • Davidic covenant David promised a Son with
    eternal significance (more detail)
  • Solomon extended Israels influence temple
  • Kings oppression/idolatry renewal (prophets
    sent)
  • Schism between nations (Israel and Judah)
  • Both Israel and Judah exiled for disobedience
  • Reversal of promise land, monarchy, Gentile rule

8
Jesus Old Testament Story
  • The Story Summarized
  • Exile to Jesus
  • Miracle Jews survived (Gods redemptive
    intention)
  • Prophets gave them hope and expanded
    understanding of Gods purposes concept of
    Messiah
  • Exile had chastening effect longing for
    deliverance
  • 400 years of silence from Malachi to Jesus

9
Old Testament View of History
Individual Gentiles invited in
Israel Come and See One identity One culture
Restore Israel politically
Gather the nations into worldwide peace
Messiah brings justice
  1. Destroy enemies and restore justice
  2. Establish Israel
  3. Consolidate the nations

10
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11
Jesus Old Testament Story
  • The Story Summarized Matthews 17 verses
  • Creation and the problem
  • The solutions through Abraham, then David
  • Exile and discipline of Israel anticipation for
    Messiah
  • God is sovereign in history
  • God is working through Israel
  • God has an agenda for the nations
  • God is about to bring all to conclusion through
    Jesus

12
Jesus Old Testament Story
  • Summary
  • Biblical wholeness OT is the backstory (Act 1)
    NT climax (Act 2)
  • Jesus was a real Jew and a real human
  • Jesus is the end of the OT and beginning of NT
  • God is the same in OT and NT saved by grace not
    Law
  • Jesus personifies Israels to continue Gods
    purposes
  • No Plan A/plan B
  • NT Church is in continuity (not displacing) OT
    Israel
  • Review

13
The Scriptures that Speak of Christ
  • Purpose of the class
  • Christianity an identity that is rooted in
    Gods purposes participation in past, present,
    future work in Christ (who we are, came from,
    where we are going)
  • Purposes woven into every sentence of OT
  • OT See Jesus Story, Promise, Identity, Mission,
    Values
  • Our identity/participation provides intimacy with
    God

14
The Scriptures that Speak of Christ
Israels Story Israels Promise Israels
Identity Israels Mission Israels Values
Jesus' Story Jesus' Promise Jesus'
Identity Jesus' Mission Jesus' Values
Derive our personal relationship meaning,
identity, intimacy with God
15
The Scriptures that Speak of Christ
Israels Story Israels Promise Israels
Identity Israels Mission Israels Values
Jesus' Story Jesus' Promise Jesus'
Identity Jesus' Mission Jesus' Values
Derive our personal relationship meaning,
identity, intimacy with God
16
The Scriptures that Speak of Christ
Israels Story Israels Promise Israels
Identity Israels Mission Israels Values
Jesus' Story Jesus' Promise Jesus'
Identity Jesus' Mission Jesus' Values
Derive our personal relationship meaning,
identity, intimacy with God
17
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 1. Jesus is the fulfillment of OT story
  • OT God has revealed the journey In Jesus, God
    reveals the journeys end
  • Mt. 1-2 Five OT scenes to make sure we dont
    miss the point Jesus is the promise

18
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 1. Jesus is the fulfillment of OT story
  • Assurance to Joseph (118-25) Fulfill what the
    Lord had spoken by the prophet Isaiah 714
  • Born in Bethlehem (21-12) Written by the
    prophet Micah 52
  • Escape to Egypt and return (213-15) Fulfill
    what the Lord had spoken by the prophet Hosea
    111
  • The murders of Herod (216-18) Fulfilled what
    was spoken by the prophet Jeremiah 3115
  • Settlement in Nazareth (219-23) What was spoken
    by the prophets might be fulfilled

19
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 2. Promise-fulfillment, not prediction-fulfillment
  • Didnt choose most familiar Messianic predictions
  • Those chosen dont make sense as Messianic
    predictions in original context
  • Only Micah 52 (Bethlehem) traditional prediction
  • Isaiah-Immanuel prediction not a Messianic
    prediction (and child named Jesus, not Immanuel)
  • Hosea-Egypt prediction Israel as a nation
  • Jeremiah-Rachel prediction picture of Israels
    Exile
  • Nazareth reference has no clear OT reference
  • Assurance to Joseph (118-25) Fulfill what the
    Lord had spoken by the prophet Isaiah 714
  • Born in Bethlehem (21-12) Written by the
    prophet Micah 52
  • Escape to Egypt and return (213-15) Fulfill
    what the Lord had spoken by the prophet Hosea
    111
  • The murders of Herod (216-18) Fulfilled what
    was spoken by the prophet Jeremiah 3115
  • Settlement in Nazareth (219-23) What was spoken
    by the prophets might be fulfilled

20
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 2. Promise-fulfillment, not prediction-fulfillment
  • Matthew OT has deeper level of meaning than the
    grammatical-historical method of literal
    prediction-fulfillment
  • Grammatical-historical method is a recent Western
    analytical approach to Bible interpretation
  • Popularized in response to Biblical criticism of
    1800s
  • Take the whole and break in parts for analysis
  • Look for original context of the book or passage
  • Look for most straight-forward/literal meaning

21
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 2. Promise-fulfillment, not prediction-fulfillment
  • Not how apostles and prophets read the Bible
  • The whole Story of Christ as the context, making
    any/every OT passage fair game
  • The events of Jesus that shape the meaning of the
    OT (we read backward through Christ)
  • Example Matthew 223 He will be called a
    Nazarene
  • No specific reference in OT
  • Nazarene despised
  • Matthew inferred whole host of OT picture and
    references as fulfillment of promise (prophets)

22
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 3. Jewish emphasis on land (geography)
  • Abrahamic promise built on geography/land
    (promised land)
  • Exodus/conquest complete upon return to land
  • Davids kingdom borders established
  • Exile completed based on return to land
  • Matthew Messiah in geography
  • In Jesus, Israel/Messiahs ministry goes to
    borders of Abrahams promise land and Davids
    kingdom
  • Born in Bethlehem (land of Abrahams promise)
  • Grew in Egypt (like nation, Jesus grew in Egypt)
  • Raised in Nazareth-Galilee (promise to Gentiles)

23
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 3. Jewish emphasis on land (geography)
  • Nazareth Galilee Eastern Gentile land
  • Is. 91-2 and Matt. 41316 Galilee of the
    Gentiles...have seen a great light
  • Universal scope of ministry to Gentiles
  • Visit to Egypt in the West
  • Visit from Magi in the East
  • Jesus is Israels Messiah but for Gentiles as well

24
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 3. Jewish emphasis on land (geography)
  • Jews geography always connected to history
  • History slung like hammock Egypt and Babylon
  • Exodus (Egypt) and Exile (Babylon)
  • Infancy of Jesus is built on foundation of Exodus
    (Egypt) and Exile (Nazareth/Rachels mourning)
  • What God did for Israel (Exodus and Exile), God
    would do for Jesus Messiah
  • Have to get Matthews drift about geography
  • Promise larger intent of care (forest)
  • Prediction grammatical-historical (trees)

25
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 4. Jewish Promise vs. Grammatical-historical
    Prediction
  • Promise not prediction
  • Exodus is Gods response to promise to Abraham
  • Exile return is Gods response to promise to
    Israel
  • Pattern for Gods actions
  • Promise for a greater purpose
  • Send away, then liberating from oppression
  • Return as sign of His faithfulness promise
  • All OT writings (not just OT predictions) point
    to Jesus as keeping the pattern God the
    Promise-Fulfiller

26
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 5. The difference between promise and prediction
  • A promise is deeper than a prediction (predict a
    marriage vs. promising to commit in marriage)
  • Promise is a commitment to a relationship
    prediction requires no relationship
  • A promise is made from one person to another (I
    promise to help you with your homework)
    prediction made about a person (I bet he
    struggles with his homework)

27
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 5. The difference between promise and prediction
  • Promise implies on-going levels of fulfillment
    prediction has no on-going levels
  • Promise has a dynamic quality of ebb and flow in
    relationship Predictions are either true or not
  • E.g. marriage vows are step one of promise next
    week/month/year/season take on new dynamic
    situations

28
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 5. The difference between promise and prediction
  • The relationship with God and Israel is the basis
    for promise
  • Started with Abraham
  • Extended to David
  • Exhibited in Exile
  • Fulfilled in Jesus
  • The predictions of the OT are secondary to the
    promise of relationship between God and Israel

29
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 5. The difference between promise and prediction
  • The promise to Israel was for a greater
    relationship to the Gentile nations
  • Gospel began with Abraham (Gal. 38) The
    Scriptures foresaw that God would justify the
    Gentiles by faith, and announced the gospel in
    advance to Abraham All nations will be blessed
    through you.
  • Continued/fulfilled in Christ (Gal. 314) in
    order that the blessing given to Abraham might
    come to the Gentiles through Christ Jesus so that
    by faith we might receive the promise of the
    Spirit.

30
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 5. The difference between promise and prediction
  • Promise is means of salvation (Gal. 329) If
    you belong to Christ (Messiah) then you are
    Abrahams seed and heirs according to the
    promise
  • Saved by participation in the promise, not the
    fulfillment of a prediction

31
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 5. The difference between promise and prediction
  • Promise requires a response
  • A predication requires no response to God (e.g.
    Cyrus releasing Jews from exile)
  • A promise requires cooperation with God
  • Jews had to take action to return to the land
  • Abraham had to respond with faith and action for
    promise to be fulfilled (father of our faith)
  • Exodus happened because people physically left
    land

32
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 5. The difference between promise and prediction
  • OT pattern God promises empowers by grace
    people respond in faith
  • Idea that OTlaw and NTgrace is misleading
  • God always offers grace first asks for response
  • The means of grace changes
  • Miracles of Exodus
  • Law and prophets for OT Israel
  • Holy Spirit for the Church
  • Review

33
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 6. The pattern for Gods people
  • Godly Jews Law a gift of grace for those saved
    by grace (e.g. Psalm 191-5)
  • Exodus act of Gods grace that saved Israel
  • Law came AFTER salvation
  • Never a way TO salvation, but instruction for
    saved people
  • Law was means of receiving the promise of God
  • Practical value to stay in relationship with God
    and have orderly society in midst of chaos

34
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 6. The pattern for Gods people
  • God initiates and the people respond in faith and
    righteous action
  • True of Israel then true of us today (Heb.
    1019-31)
  • OT is a living book of instruction to us (not
    just book of predictions made/checked off)

35
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 7. Promise vs. Prediction An Example
  • 1895 father promises 5-yr.-old a horse own at 21
  • 1916 the sons birthday comes along
  • Father keeps the intent of the promise (and more)
  • Initial promise made in one historical setting
  • Fulfilled in a different historical setting
  • Kept commitment even though not literally
  • Gods relationship to Israel is maintained as a
    promise
  • Abraham fulfilled in Isaac - but God had more
  • Nation of Israel in Exodus
  • Jesus as seed of Abraham
  • Church - blessing to all nations

36
Jesus Old Testament Promise
Christ
Exile
David
Abraham
Pattern of Promise-fulfillment-fresh promise
fulfillment
37
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 8. Jesus Fullest expression of Gods promise
  • Perfect fulfillment of partial expressions
    (types)
  • Seed of Abraham - and more
  • Passover Lamb and more
  • Son of David and more
  • Jews experienced images to appreciate the
    fulfillment
  • Child has to appreciate horse before motorcar is
    appreciated
  • Israel needed the various images Abraham,
    Exodus, David to appreciate Jesus
  • In Christ all the richness of OT, only
    better/richer

38
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 8. Jesus Fullest expression of Gods promise
    (Tabernacle)

Promise I am the door (Jn. 109) Life as a ransom
(Mk. 1045) Must wash or no part of me
(Jn.138) Light of the world (Jn. 812) Bread of
life (Jn. 648) I pray for them (Jn. 179) Behind
the curtainJesus (Heb. 619) Expiation for sins
(1 Jn. 22) Great High Priest (Heb. 414)
Part Door/gate Brazen altar Laver Lamps Bread Ince
nse Veil Mercy seat Priest
Point One way to God Substitution for
atonement Purification for presence Illumination
from God Sustenance from God Intercession
needed Separation of God/creation Blood needed
for atonement God approached via representative
Review
39
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • 9. The Promise Guaranteed (Old Testament
    Covenants)
  • High points of the promise agreements
    (Covenants)
  • Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, New Covenant
  • Pattern
  • Gods initiative
  • Gods promises
  • Human response invited (but not dependent)
  • Shape of Covenants
  • Scope (who is directly affected)
  • Substance (what is involved)
  • Invitation to respond

40
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • Covenant with Noah
  • Scope All creation
  • Substance
  • God promises not to destroy creation despite
    human depravity
  • God promises to maintain the global environment
    and regularity of nature
  • There will always be enough resources for the
    earth to survive
  • Response Calls on humanity to respect life and
    creation

41
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • Covenant with Abraham
  • Scope All nations
  • Substance
  • Posterity From Abraham a nation for Gods
    purposes
  • Relationship Unique relationship with this
    people
  • Land Geographic space for redemption to occur
  • Response
  • Walk before God/be blameless (compassion/justice)
  • Pass identity to family (circumcision visible
    reminder)
  • God wants the covenant community to emerge

42
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • Covenant with Moses/Israel
  • Scope National
  • Law next phase of unfolding promise (not end)
  • Social-cultural-legal structure to allow Gods
    holy priesthood relate to the other nations
  • Teach who God is
  • Receive people in who want to join
  • Offering sacrifice to show Gods acceptance
  • Demarcating Israel from the way of other nations
  • Missiological nature of Law (Abrahamic covenant
    all peoples on earth will be blessed by you)

43
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • Covenant with Moses/Israel
  • Substance Filling details what was sketched to
    Abraham
  • Redemption of Israel from oppressors
  • A relationship with, and knowledge of Yahweh
  • Promised land
  • Response
  • Total fidelity to Yahweh and no other gods
  • Commitment to the character of Yahweh
  • Royal Law Love God/neighbor (compassion,
    justice)
  • The Law temporary guide until the fullness (Gal.
    324)

44
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • Covenant with David
  • Scope House of David
  • Substance Continuation of the house of David for
    all time
  • With monarchy, new aspect of the Promise revealed
  • Benefitted the whole nation and all the nations
  • Continued commitment to the Mosaic covenant (law,
    sacrifices, feasts, festivals)
  • Demonstrated by Ark to Jerusalem and temple
  • Not new extension of relationship with His
    people
  • Many Psalms that link the monarchy to the land
  • Always a missiological basis (nations)

45
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • Covenant with David
  • Response
  • Same demand for loyalty and obedience to Yahweh
  • Kingly line, leading the people in obedience
  • Glimpse of nation of Israel morphing into the
    King of Israel as representative of the people
    (Kings/Chr.)
  • The King must cooperate with God or God must take
    other measures to bring about right response
    (prophets)

46
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • New Covenant
  • Background
  • Despite times of revival, prophets could see that
    Israel had failed in its commitments
  • Prophets could see there was little hope in the
    current system
  • Prophets began to write about the hope of a new
    and greater covenant
  • Not a breaking of the past, but an extension
    (flowering) of some new inbreaking of God
  • Longing for God to break in dramatic fashion

47
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • New Covenant
  • Scope
  • National Hope is for restoration of post-exhilic
    Israel (see Jer. 34-37 Ez. 37)
  • David will rule over them
  • God will be vindicated
  • Israel will be a light to the Gentile nations
  • Universal Nations will witness the restoration
    of Israel (Isaiah 40-55), so Gentile nations
    integrated into the covenant

48
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • New Covenant
  • Scope
  • Many references to Abrahamic covenant, Davidic
    covenant, Mosaic covenant, leading to Israels
    restoration followed by Gentile inclusion
  • References to Suffering Servant to usher
    renewal
  • Important to expectations at the time of Jesus
  • Substance
  • New relationship to God, like a restored marriage
  • New experience of forgiveness

49
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • New Covenant
  • Scope
  • Many references to Abrahamic covenant, Davidic
    covenant, Mosaic covenant, leading to Israels
    restoration followed by Gentile inclusion
  • References to Suffering Servant to usher
    renewal
  • Important to expectations at the time of Jesus
  • Substance
  • Exile disobedience/judgment break in
    relationship
  • God needed to solve the sin problem for good
  • The Law was inadequate to keep them faithful

50
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • New Covenant
  • Substance
  • Glimpses of a more permanent solution (Jer.
    3124)
  • A new Davidic King
  • A new abundance in nature (crops, safety from
    wild beasts, oppressors, nature)
  • Response Be faithful to God alone (this would be
    a work God does and people respond to by faith)
  • Covenants to Noah, Abraham, Moses, David, New
    (Scope, Substance, Response) All part of One
    Promise

51
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • Conclusion
  • OT promise had three dimensions
  • Restore/exalt Israel
  • Destroy oppressors/bring justice
  • Bring in Gentiles through Israel
  • God has promised to bless the nations He will
    not fail
  • His blessing flows through Israel to Christ to
    the nations
  • He has asked people to join Him in His work (OT
    and NT)
  • All forms of the OT highlight this single theme
    Gods promise to the nations (history, wisdom
    literature, law, poetry)

52
Jesus Old Testament Promise
  • Conclusion
  • The OT book of promise in relationship, not of
    predictions to be fulfilled
  • Jewish emphasis on geography
  • Jesus is the embodiment of the Promise, dwarfing
    all previous covenants (yet fulfilling them all)
  • Restored/exalted Israel Jesus personifies Israel
    and is Vindicated as Lord
  • Destroy oppressors Jesus came to destroy the
    work of the fallen world, flesh, devil
  • Bring in Gentiles through Israel Enter Kingdom
    through person of Jesus (not just nation of
    Israel)

53
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54
Jesus, Israel, and the Church
Individual Gentiles invited in
Judgment against world
Israel Come and See One identity One culture
Church Go and Tell One identity Many cultures
JESUS Personifies Israel
Nations into Israel through Son (Jesus)
  • OT View
  • Destroy enemies/restore justice
  • Exalt Israel
  • Bring in the nations
  • Kingdom Present
  • Devil defeated
  • Jesus exalted
  • Nations invited in
  • Kingdom Future
  • Enemies judged
  • Jesus exalted
  • Nations brought in
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