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SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY

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SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY ... Bioethics: organ transplant, reproductive medicine, ES cell research... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS ON SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY


1
SOCIAL DECISION-MAKING PROCESS ON SCIENCE AND
TECHNOLOGY
  • 2/3/2009, NE24 Seminar Class at UC Berkeley
  • Kohta Juraku (The University of Tokyo)

2
Who am I?
  • Project Assistant Professor of Dept. of Nuclear
    Engineering and Management, UT
  • Sociologist of Science and Technology
  • Research interests
  • Public Interests and Science and Technology
  • Social Decision-making Process on Siting of
    Energy Facilities
  • Social Scientific Literacy Education for
    Technical People

3
Todays Talk
  • 3 Key Questions
  • What is Social Decision-making?
  • Why ST propose many problems in Social
    Decision-making?
  • Why should the Process make more participatory?

4
1. What is Social Decision-making?
5
Rethinking Decision-making
  • Example 1 To attend this NE24 class
  • Who make a decision?
  • How to make a decision?
  • What kind of information is need to make a
    decision?
  • How many people are affected by the decision?
  • Is this a Social Decision-making?

6
Rethinking Decision-making
  • Example 2 To buy a new car
  • Who make a decision?
  • How to make a decision?
  • What kind of information is need to make a
    decision?
  • How many people are affected by the decision?
  • Is this a Social Decision-making?

7
Rethinking Decision-making
  • Example 3 Presidential election
  • Who make a decision?
  • How to make a decision?
  • What kind of information is need to make a
    decision?
  • How many people are affected by the decision?
  • Is this a Social Decision-making?

8
Rethinking Decision-making
  • Example 4 National security policy
  • Who make a decision?
  • How to make a decision?
  • What kind of information is need to make a
    decision?
  • How many people are affected by the decision?
  • Is this a Social Decision-making?

9
Rethinking Decision-making
  • Example 5 Brain death organ transplant
  • Who make a decision?
  • How to make a decision?
  • What kind of information is need to make a
    decision?
  • How many people are affected by the decision?
  • Is this a Social Decision-making?

10
What is Social Decision-making?
  • Collective Decision
  • Result of a series of complicated interactions of
    involved actors Decision-making Process
  • Formal Politics is a part of the process
  • Public Interests
  • Decision have effects on everyone in society
  • Path Dependency
  • Possible to change the decision later, but often
    very difficult to do it

11
2. Why ST propose many problems in Social
Decision-making?
12
Changes in Science and Technology
  • Integration of Science and Technology
  • Astounding progress of Technology in 20th century
  • ST become national projects
  • Manhattan Project (1940s)
  • V. Bush(1945) Sciencethe endless frontier
  • Emergence of Military-industrial Complex (1950s-)
  • Space Race (1960s)
  • Human Genome Project (1980s-2000s)

13
Changes in Science and Technology
  • Ethical issues arising from advanced ST
  • Bioethics organ transplant, reproductive
    medicine, ES cell research
  • Conflict against natural environment and/or human
    health
  • Chemical pollution (1960s-)
  • R. Carson (1962) Silent Spring
  • Medicine disaster (1950s-)
  • Major nuclear Accidents (1970s-)
  • Global environment problem (1980s-)
  • Ozone layer depletion (1980s-1990s)
  • Desertification (1980s-)
  • Climate change (2000s)

14
ST becomes public issue
  • Both of Positive and Negative impacts of ST are
    involved with
  • Social Welfare
  • National Policy, National Security
  • Sense of Ethics
  • Global Economy
  • Etc.
  • ST may change society dramatically
  • It means ST now become the Public Issue

15
Decision-making calls for expertise
  • To make the best decision about ST issue
  • Ordinary people never know deeply on ST
  • Even politicians or bureaucrats are also
  • So, we should consult experts
  • Experts are invited to committees to provide
    solution
  • Politics and administration make their decisions,
    referring to their consultation
  • Public are assured by those expertise-based
    decision
  • Emergence of technocracy

16
3. Why should the Process make more
participatory?
17
Science provide the unique solution?
  • An essential assumption of technocracy
  • Science (scientist) show us the unique solution
  • Well, so, can science (scientist) answer these
    questions?
  • Can nuclear fission use for power generation?
  • Do we have sufficient knowledge to develop
    nuclear power station?
  • Is the current safety measures sufficient to
    assure public health?
  • Should we promote nuclear power utilization?

18
Science and Trans-Science
  • A. M. Weinberg (1972) Science and
    Trance-Science
  • Definition of Trans-Scientific issues
    questions which can be asked of science and yet
    which cannot be answered by science
  • 1st question in the previous page scientific
    issue
  • 2nd question maybe scientific issue (somebody
    may argue it is trans-scientific)
  • 3rd and 4th questions trans-scientific issues
  • The essential assumption of technocracy is now
    questioned

19
Society is also changed
  • The needs proposed by society are also changed
  • The diversification of values (in post-modern
    society)
  • Simple utilitarianism is no longer the
    common-sense
  • Rationales are also diversified
  • Public have many experiences on negative effects
    of ST
  • Public changed their views on ST
  • An result of opinion poll in Japan
  • We should subdue the nature 35 (68) ? 5
    (03)
  • We should utilize the nature 40 (68) ? 42
    (03)
  • We should follow the nature 20 (68) ? 45
    (03)

20
Decision-making under uncertainty
  • We have to make decisions involved with ST under
    the very uncertain situation
  • ST can no longer provide the unique solution
  • We cannot depend on technocracy
  • Public opinion doesnt get together easily
  • Simple utilitarianism doesnt function well as
    the HCF
  • But, the progress of ST and change of society
    propose serious questions continuously
  • It means the crisis of legitimacy and rationality
    of decision-making process on ST issues

21
Re-democratization of ST
  • At this point, we need the alternative principle
    of decision-making process on ST issues
  • We public cannot delegate the decision for
    experts
  • They experts should be liberated from too heavy
    burden To answer the trans-scientific question
    by scientific way
  • We should develop the way to promote the public
    participation and to make it effective

22
Methods of Participatory Decision-making
  • Methods of consensus building
  • Consensus Conference
  • Scenario Workshop
  • Future Search
  • Methods of capacity building of public
  • Science Shop
  • Science Café
  • The way of implementation of these methods to
    social decision-making process is the remained
    question for STS (Science, Technology and
    Society) studies

23
An Japanese case as an exercise
  • The site of high-level nuclear waste disposal
    plant is not decided in Japan
  • The organization in charge provides
    participatory and open siting process scheme
  • They dont offer the siting plan to local area.
    They are waiting for the voluntary application
    from local area.
  • This application is for the preliminary
    investigation selection. Not for the siting
    itself.
  • Some areas consider the application. But no area
    applied yet.
  • A mayor submitted the application, but residents
    protested very strongly. He was obliged to resign.

24
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25
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