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Title: Overview

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  • Major advances in the learning sciences over past
    several decades
  • Powerful interactive learning environments are
    building on these developments
  • Defining and tackling the challenges of scaleup
    and sustainability
  • How advances in computing and communications are
    creating exciting opportunities to address needs
  • An emerging nexus of technology advances,
    learning sciences and educational policy

Revolutionary advances in sciences of learning
  • National Academy of Sciences How People Learn
  • The nature of expertise
  • Development of concepts and reasoning abilities
  • New pedagogies for deep learning of complex
  • Roles of teacher learning
  • New assessment approaches for higher standards
  • Powerful roles for effective use of technologies

Aspects of the sciences of learning
  • The knowledge-intensive nature of expertise
  • Expertise is not simply general abilities nor use
    of general strategies
  • Experts extensive knowledge affects what they
    notice and how they organize, represent, and
    interpret information in their environments
  • Expert knowledge organized in large coherent
  • Experts notice features and meaningful
    information patterns unnoticed by novices
  • Expert knowledge reflects contexts of
    application--it is not reducible to isolated
  • Expert knowledge does not guarantee pedagogical

The importance of representational competencies
for expertise
  • Expertise often involves the skillful creation,
    use, and interpretation of symbolic expressions
    (written language, mathematical equations,
    graphs, technical diagrams, proofs, computer
  • Experts have greater meta-representational
    proficiencies than novicesknowing which
    representational forms are most suitable for
    asking and answering specific kinds of questions
  • Experts have facile understanding of the mappings
    between different representational forms (e.g.,
    algebraic functions to graphs or numerical
  • Experts are able to assemble arguments, designs,
    theories, and other complex artefacts that are
    subject to challenge and testing in a community
    of peers

The development of concepts and reasoning
  • Young children rapidly come to make sense of
    number, language, and causality
  • In their efforts to make sense of the world,
    children form robust conceptions that may
    conflict with the formal knowledge that is later
    taught (e.g., intuitive physics)
  • The development of metacognition is a crucial
    aspect of acquiring expertise and becomes a
    strategic competency for learning
  • Knowledge about ones knowledge and its limits
  • Control knowledge about thinking and learning
    planning, monitoring, and revising ones efforts

Contextual and cultural influences on learning
  • Participation in social practices is a crucial
    form of learning outside school and in school
  • The broad diversity of social practices in
    different cultural contexts creates special
    challenges for engaging students prior knowledge
    in school
  • Learning is promoted by social norms that value a
    search for understanding
  • Learning is assisted by the family and social
    environment in which activities provide
    opportunity for learning through participation

From learning sciences theory to learning
environment design
  • Not a simple translation
  • Physics constrains but does not dictate bridge
    design (Herbert Simon)
  • The field of the learning sciences is raising
    important questions and inquiries
  • Rethinking what is taught
  • Rethinking how it is taught for understanding
  • Reframing how learning is appropriately assessed
  • Powerful examples of Interactive Learning
    Environments (ILEs) that build on our
    understandings from the sciences of learning
  • SimCalcs MathWorlds
  • The Knowledge Integration Environment
  • WorldWatcher Scientific visualizations for
    global investigations
  • Cognitive tutoring systems

SimCalc Democratizing access to the Mathematics
of Change
  • Enable all students to develop full
    understanding and practical skills with the
    Mathematics of Change and Variation, including
    fundamental concepts of calculus
  • As early as Grades 5-8against a backdrop of
    10 taking High School Calculus, 1.5 taking AP
  • Collaborators
  • Jim Kaput (U. Mass, Dartmouth)
  • Jeremy Roschelle (SRI International)
  • Ricardo Nemirovsky (TERC)
  • Rutgers-Newark Syracuse San Diego USI
  • How can technologies and engaging learning
    activities change the experiential nature of the
    Mathematics of Change and Variation by tapping
    more deeply into students cognitive, linguistic,
    and kinesthetic resources?

Target Age Who Learning sciences Questi
SimCalc Co-evolution of technology and MCV
Source Kaput, NCTM 2000
The New Big 3 for Learning the Mathematics of
Change and Variation
SimCalc Co-evolution of MCV curriculum and
  • Curriculum With technology use in activities of
    predicting, comparing, designing, build on
    student experiences with
  • physical change (motions, seasons, aging, growth,
  • symbolic change (smaller numbers, steeper curves)
  • Advanced topics
  • Connections between variable rates and
  • Velocity, acceleration, limits
  • Contextualizes other mathematical topics such as
  • Slope, rate,ratio, proportion
  • Areas of geometric figures

Example of a SimCalc activity
SimCalc outcomes
  • Technology linkages between experiential
    phenomena and mathematical representations become
    conceptually linked in students mathematical
  • After a three-month supplementary course in MCV
    using MathWorlds, students from the most troubled
    high school in Newark NJ achieved near-ceiling
    effects on assessment items that challenge
    university calculus students
  • Testing low-SES school mainstream Grade 6-10
    students indicated higher levels of performance
    after MCV coursework than high-SES Gr 11-12
    students taught traditional calculus. They.
  • Relate slope of position graph to speed of a
    motion and to the corresponding velocity graph
  • Infer total distance covered, given by velocity
    graph, demonstrating accumulation of area under a

Now and Future SimCalc
  • MathWorlds implementation in Java (Roschelle, SRI
  • Incorporation of Java MathWorlds in ESCOT project
    testbed of interoperable middle school math
  • TERCs LBM (Line Becomes Motion)
  • To incorporate kinesthetic experience, students
    use mathematical functions created on a computer
    to control physical devices (like motorized
  • MathWorlds commercially available in Flash ROM on
    TI-83Plus graphing calculators (Fall 99) and PCs
    (Key Curriculum Press, Fall 2000)
  • Massive teacher development with NJ and Mass SSIs
    and San Diego USI T-Cubed workshops run by TI

KIE Knowledge Integration Environment
  • To promote coherent knowledge integration in
    science learning that is reflectively and
    critically used (versus unconnected facts and
  • Middle to high school sciences
  • Marcia Linn, Jim Slotta, et al (UC Berkeley) and
    diverse scientist partners and organizations
  • Expertise involves connected ideas and models
    used for reasoning.
  • Do learners develop more integrated understanding
    and models when they engage in meaningful
    collaborative projects using technologies that
    support key cognitive and social aspects of
    scientific inquiry and make thinking visible?

Target Age Who Learning sciences issues
KIE Technology
  • KIE is a client-side front-end to the World-Wide
    Web where student project activities are
    supported by
  • SenseMaker software that scaffolds thinking
    and the organization of critically-considered
    evidence in scientific argument
  • KIE Project units
  • An associated KIE Evidence Database
  • Mildred the Cow Guide a provider of reflect
    process prompts (what to do next and how)
  • SpeakEasy net forum for project participants to
    share issues
  • Written reflections and class discussions

KIE Curriculum
  • Student teams work with and/or create scientific
    evidence in three kinds of supplementary units (2
    days to 2 weeks long)
  • Theory comparison projects (e.g., dinosaur
    extinction, life on Mars)
  • Design projects (e.g., an energy-efficient home
    in the desert using scientific principles)
  • Critique project (e.g., science tabloid claims on
    energy conversion)
  • Scientist partners (e,g., NASA Ames)
  • Post web evidence for pre-college science
  • Suggest debates, critiques, or design projects
    for learners
  • Mentor students using personal web pages

KIE Outcomes
  • Students can be effectively encouraged to
    integrate their knowledge through simple prompts
    for reflection on their ideas (Mildred the Cow)
  • Students can develop well-formulated scientific
  • Net-based discussions enable more students to
    voice their ideas about the science, especially
  • Major improvements in integrated understanding of
    project topics such as light, heat, temperature,
    and sound

KIE Now and Future
  • Many of KIEs nearly 20 projects have been
  • KIE has become WISE (Web-Based Integrated Science
  • and has spawned Project SCOPE
  • Science Controversies On-Line Partnerships in
  • New NSF-funded effort (UC Berkeley, SCIENCE
    magazine, U. Washington)
  • Will develop controversy communities of
    scientists and science learners, focusing on
    controversies that concern leading research
    scientists and also connect to citizen interests,
  • World-wide control of malaria
  • Evidence for life on mars
  • Deformed frogs (environmental chemical or

WorldWatcher Scientific visualizations for
global inquiry
  • Students at all grade levels and in every domain
    of science should have the opportunity to use
    scientific inquiry and develop the ability to
    think and act in ways associated with inquiry
  • (National Science Education Standards, National
    Research Council, 1996, p. 105)
  • Using visual reasoning for pattern perception in
    inquiries involving complex data sets
  • CoVis and later WorldWatcher global warming
    curriculum as examples
  • Who Daniel Edelson (Northwestern U), Roy Pea,
    Douglas Gordin (now at SRI International)
  • The multi-agency GLOBE Project coordinated by NSF
    provides another example

A visualization of temperature data for the
Northern Hemisphere displayed by Transform, a
powerful, general-purpose visualization
environment widely used by scientific researchers
A visualization window from the WorldWatcher
software displaying surface temperature for
January 1987.
The interface to the library of energy balance
data in the WorldWatcher global warming curriculum
A tenth grade students hand-drawn visualization
of global temperature for July (Edelson, Gordin,
Pea, J. Learning Sciences, 1999.
Questions about visualization
  • For what domains are visualizations particularly
    crucial for promoting understanding?
  • How does the use of these visualizations
    influence mental imagery and reasoning in problem
    solving both while using and when without access
    to the computer-generated visualizations?
  • How do how these representations ease the tasks
    of understanding and using knowledge about the
    conceptual systems they depict?
  • We need an empirical science of representational
    design for understanding complexity, not only
    capturing and displaying it.

Intelligent tutoring environments
  • Better and more efficient learning of
    well-structured domains algebra I, geometry,
    algebra II, college algebra
  • Middle school to remedial college
  • Pittsburgh Advanced Cognitive Tutor Center
    (Koedinger, Anderson, Corbett) new NSF research
    center (CIRCLE)
  • Cognitive Tutors conjoin a research base from
    cognitive psychology (ACT-R) and artificial
    intelligence with curriculum content in
    mathematics from math educators
  • Key tenets of theory
  • Learning by doing, not listening or watching
  • Production rules represent performance knowledge
  • Units are modular, so isolate skills, concepts,
  • Units are context-specific, so address when as
    well as how
  • In search of 2-sigma effect where human tutors
    excel over classroom instruction by two standard
    deviations (Bloom, 1984)

Target Age Who Learning sciences questions
What cognitive tutors do
  • Provide a cognitive model that incorporates
    different strategies and typical student
  • Provide model tracing that follows a student
    through their individual approach to a problem
  • Uses knowledge tracing to assess student
    knowledge growth through graded levels of
    competence, and adaptively select activities for
    learning (just-in-time assistance in reasoning)
  • PUMP algebra tutor provides 1 standard deviation
  • Results after 3 years of replicated studies of
    urban school use in Pittsburgh and Milwaukee
    indicate increases of 15-25 on standardized
    tests (SAT subtest, Iowa) and 50-100 better on
    problem solving and representation use measures.
  • Students highly motivated, reduce embarrassment,
    and succeed
  • Teachers are able to shift their attention and
    support to struggling students

The view from research to practice
  • Too much like Saul Steinbergs famous New Yorker
    poster of Manhattan...Everyone knows about the
    advances in the learning sciences
  • Really?
  • These advances are too rarely reflected in
    educational practices.

Linear flow model
The usual means of knowledge transfer through
dissemination has rarely worked for bringing
research to bear broadly on practice
Source 1999 NAS report on Bridging Learning
Research and Educational Practices
Reciprocity-of-influence model
Source 1999 NAS report on Bridging Learning
Research and Educational Practices
Defining the challenges of scaleup and
  • Most studies with designs of interactive learning
    environments informed by the sciences of learning
  • Small-scale efforts
  • Not sustained
  • Common problem of lethal mutation of
  • Cultural and linguistic diversity of school
  • Importance of attention to standards,
    accountability, assessment at a local level
  • Teacher professional development
  • Marketplace issues from prototypes to
    sustainable products and services with needed

Scaling of innovations
  • The successes of learning technology innovations
    are typically accompanied by researcher hothouse
  • Common problem of lethal mutation of
    innovations (Ann Brown)
  • Why? Teachers are designers!
  • Teachers continue to design curricula in their
    classroom uses and local adaptations (four phases
    of curricula)
  • Need to localize for success rarely supported by
    teachers understanding of the design rationale
    for why the innovation has its features and
  • Cultural and linguistic diversity of school

Standards, accountability, assessment
  • Curriculum practices are strongly driven by
    systems of accountability and assessment
  • Standards provide an important common language
    for expected outcomes
  • Educators need usable and compelling forms of
    assessment in tandem with innovative curricula
    and technologies for learning
  • Performance and portfolio assessments are making
    headway as more meaningful guides to progress

Teacher professional development
  • Teacher Professional Development (TPD) is a
    critical component of all education reform
  • Formal TPD approaches (e.g., summer institutes,
    collaboratives) can offer motivating,
    collaborative learning experiences but find it
    hard to
  • scale to large numbers
  • sustain collaboration back at teachers home
  • provide cost- and time-effective support through
    the change process
  • tailor content to local school, district
  • build infrastructure for sustainable TPD (and
    reform) systems
  • Difficulties confirmed in evaluation of NSFs SSI
    TPD work

Evaluation of NSFs SSI TPD efforts
  • Most states provided limited TPD time and the
    SSIs typically supplemented formal TPD activities
    with less than 1 week a year
  • No SSI had resources to reach all teachers
    needing TPDonly a minority
  • Follow-up procedures require many opportunities
    for assistance, feedback, and reflection in
    coaching, meeting with others involved in the
    process or other connections with colleagues
  • Intros of new practices require time for
    discussion, questioning, risk-free practice,
    sharing and reflection, revision
  • Interaction with colleagues very important, since
    teachers often work in isolation and lack
    opportunities to observe others, share their
    expertise and experience, or practice new
  • Good TPD helps build learning communities within,
    among, and beyond schools
  • (Source Corcoran, Shields and Zucker, SRI
    International, March 1998)

The research-commerce culture divide
  • Marketplace issues from prototypes to products
    and services with necessary support
  • Two cultures different audiences, purposes,
  • The divide may narrow as.
  • Research greets complexities of practice
  • Grant agencies seek scale and sustainability
  • Companies seek innovations and to leverage
    external research
  • New models for public-private partnerships will
    need to evolve (beyond technology transfer)

Tackling the challenges of scaleup and
  • A design research orientation
  • With partnership models that can work in bringing
    together necessary expertise and realism to
    scaleable learning improvements
  • With networked improvement communities that seek
    to augment collective intelligence for some
    purpose and develop sustainable solutions

A Design Research Focus
  • Design research
  • Challenges the traditional basic-applied science
  • Embraces situational complexity and works to
    manage it through to solutions, and reflect them
    as cases
  • Learning engineering Iterative design over
    multiple generations of a research-guided
    intervention to improve learning

The need for partnership models
  • Tackling design research toward scaleable models
  • Brief examples
  • SCOPE Science Controversies On-Line
    Partnerships in Education (UC Berkeley and
    SCIENCE magazine)
  • LeTUS design circles of middle school science
    teachers, curriculum and assessment experts,
    learning researchers, technology developers
    (Northwestern and Chicago Schools U. Michigan
    and Detroit Schools)

Networked improvement communities
  • Communities that seek to augment collective
    intelligence for some purpose using the net
  • ESCOT integration teams
  • TAPPED IN and ongoing teacher professional
  • CILT and industry alliance program
  • Infrastructure is coming together for schools,

  • ESCOT is a digital library of linkable component
    tools and a community of teachers, researchers
    developers creating, improving, and testing these
    technologies in real classrooms with real
  • Principal Investigators Jeremy Roschelle, Roy
    Pea, Chris Digiano, Jim Kaput

Towards a digital library of re-usable components
for middle-school mathematics
  • Best of class graphs, tables, calculators,
    dynamic geometry, simulations, 100 or so core
  • Enable plug and play, mix and match
  • Linked multiple representations and other core
    educational features
  • Key ESCOT Partners
  • SRI International
  • Key Curriculum Press (Geometers Sketchpad)
  • The Show Me Center, University of Missouri
  • Swarthmore (MathForum),
  • University of Colorado, Boulder (AgentSheets)
  • University of Massachusetts, Dartmouth (SimCalc)

ESCOT Integration Teams put components together
  • Teacher Pedagogical Design
  • Developer Component Design
  • Web facilitator Web Design ( teamwork)

Its the right time
  • Java a common platform
  • XML integration glue
  • Web coordinate distributed work
  • Standards (e.g IMS)
  • Labelling for search (metadata)
  • Plug play, mix match
  • Linked representations

  • Web-based teacher professional development (TPD)
    environment designed with easy-to-understand
    virtual conference center metaphor (social
    computing research)
  • Multi-user, chat, and shared Web browsing
  • Supports use of assessment and curriculum
    development tools
  • Significant growth and demand
  • Over 3,400 registered users, 14 partnership
    organizations (as unmarketed RD)
  • Technical plans for enabling large-scale
  • Strong brand identity and evangelists
  • NY Times How to get the most from computers in
    the classroom
  • Highlighted in US Dept of Educations What
  • Working with LA Unified and state of Kentucky in
    major reform plans
  • Funding by National Science Foundation private
    foundations, tenants, and corporate sponsorship
    (Sun Microsystems)

(No Transcript)
Introducing CILT
  • Roy Pea (SRI), Marcia Linn (UC Berkeley), John
    Bransford (Vanderbilt), Barbara Means (SRI), Bob
    Tinker (Concord Consortium)

Center for Innovative Learning Technologies
  • A distributed center for advancing LT RD
  • To serve as a national resource for stimulating
    research on innovative, technology-enabled
    solutions to critical problems in K-14 learning
    in science, mathematics, engineering and
  • Open structure with annual workshops for
    harvesting knowledge and leveraging diverse
  • Working on theme teams of high-priority led by
    2-3 senior researchers and a post-doctoral
  • Visualization and Modeling
  • Ubiquitous Computing
  • Community Tools
  • Assessments for Learning

CILTs Industry Alliance Program
  • How we are working on the research-commerce
    divide through industry alliances
  • Intels senior partnership with CILT community
  • Texas Instruments and hand-held learning
  • Palm Computer sponsorship of CILT educational
    software design competition

Some closing observations...
Underlying dynamics of forces in the
technological landscape
  • Moores Law
  • Microprocessing capability doubles every year or
    at least every 18 months
  • Metcalfes Law
  • The value of a network is the square of the
    number of nodes connected to that network

Supply chain efficiencies and virtual companies
are revamping global business and will affect
every life sector (PITAC 98 Report) Fast PCs
and information appliances, fat pipes, digital
Presidents Information Technology Advisory
Committee Report to the President (August 98)
  • Vision of Transforming the Way We Learn
  • Any individual can participate in on-line
    education programs regardless of geographic
    location, age, physical limitation, or personal
    schedule. Everyone can access repositories of
    educational materials, easily recalling past
    lessons, updating skills, or selecting from among
    different teaching methods in order to discover
    the most effective style for that individual.
    Educational programs can be customized to each
    individuals needs, so that our information
    revolution reaches everyone and no one gets left

Its not enough of a Grand Challenge
  • Enabling this vision requires re-inventing
    learning substantively, not only the HOW and WHEN
    of learning
  • We will do better at re-inventing learning if we
    heed the PITAC visions of transforming the ways
  • Communicate
  • Deal with information (I/O)
  • Work
  • Design and build things
  • Conduct research
  • Deal with the environment
  • Do commerce
  • Each of these areas in society is spawning new
    literacies and required skills for an informed
    and proficient citizen.
  • Keeping education apace of the needed learning
    curve is the Grand Challenge

Looking forward, computational media will...
  • Because of their use in research and society,
    continue to create new content, in mathematics
    and science such as complexity theory, neural
    nets, emergence
  • Allow broad accessibility of powerful ideas, and
    alter the age level and sequencing of curriculum
    we will need to invent to meet the demands of a
    new knowledge age
  • Thus require partnership model research and
    development at the edges of content-coming-to-be
    collaborative innovations and empirical
    investigations of co-evolving subject matter,
    technology and appropriate curriculum
  • Such research by definition will be at the
    interstices of the disciplinary areas by which
    the National Science Foundation is organized

Lets work together to rise to this Grand
Challenge for learning and its affiliated
atCILT.org and SRI.com/Policy/CTL!!
Large research challenges
  • Infomating the physical environment for learning
    with ubiquitous computing and transmitting
    (Spohrers WorldBoard concept extending web URLs
    to geo-located things-in-the-world)
  • Developing Bayesian and other machine learning
    approaches to user-profiling of sufficient power
    that they may infer a learners interests and
    abilities from their net-based interactons, and
    offer up relevant resources to learn
  • Pervasive knowledge integration environments with
    rich and age-appropriate metadata cataloging of
    web resources for inquiries to develop
    high-standards learning
  • Lifelong digital portfolios of learning

Facing the challenge
We predict that educational portals providing
a gateway to the Internet, the worlds greatest
library, will emerge in K-12, postsecondary and
corporate training markets. The Book of
Knowledge Investing in the growing education and
training industry. M. Moe, K. Bailey, R. Lau.
Merrill-Lynch In-Depth Report, April 9, 1999.
Research in context of learning portals is needed
  • To grow connected learning communities based
  • Quality (from research and experience)
  • Cooperation (we share information to help one
    another learn)
  • Collaboration (learning together)
  • Communication
  • To accelerate distributed learning.
  • Effective use of better standards-based learning
    resources and assessments
  • Teacher professional development
  • Effective student use of the Internet for
  • School-home connections
  • To bring customers-providers together more

Emerging Learning Solutions
  • Concept Service provision via web-based network
    from any device

K-12 Portals as leverage point for investment
  • As in
  • Sun Microsystems WebTone
  • Microsofts Digital Nervous System
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