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Process Overview


Process Overview After a gas well is completed the gas is typically drawn from the well via a self containing portable skid containing a driver, compressor and – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Process Overview

  • Process Overview
  • After a gas well is completed
  • the gas is typically drawn from
  • the well via a self containing
  • portable skid containing a
  • driver, compressor and
  • separation devices. Care
  • needs to be taken to remove
  • the liquids and solids from the
  • gas stream prior and post
  • compression.
  • Process Issues
  • Liquids and Solids from the
  • well can shutdown the
  • compression
  • Dirty Lube Oil leads to high driver and
    compressor maintenance.
  • Coal Fines leads to coating of equipment and
    downstream contamination.
  • Salt Deposits lead to plating our of equipment
  • Dirty Fuel Leads to inefficient driver
  • Liquid slugging can cause shutdown and damage to

  • Process Issues
  • Contaminated inlet gas causes excessive element
    usage and foaming in contactor towers.
  • Contaminated inlet gas causes excessive solvent
  • Contaminated inlet gas make the contactor towers
  • Solvent contamination can cause plating out or
    plugging of the heat exchangers.
  • Poor solvent performance leads to off spec gas
  • Process Overview
  • Gas from production field is
  • collected via inter-connecting
  • pipelines to Dehydration plants
  • where the water is removed
  • and in some cases where H2S
  • and CO2 is removed as well.
  • Keeping the solid and liquid
  • contaminates out of the
  • processing plant is the most
  • important portion of gas
  • gathering.

  • Process Overview
  • Gas Transmission stations are
  • designed to increase the
  • pipeline pressure and move
  • the gas through out the
  • pipeline grid. Stations are
  • normally every 50 to 100 miles
  • along the pipeline and contain
  • drivers (turbines) and
  • compressors plus the support
  • equipment such as separators,
  • filter separators and
  • coalescers. The support
  • equipments purpose is to clean
  • the gas coming into and
  • departing the transmission
  • station.
  • Process Issues
  • Gas contamination fouls compressors
  • Gas Contamination in the fuel gas stream causes
    hot spots in the turbine combustion chamber
    leading to short life.
  • Contaminate in the coolant leads to driver
  • Oil Carryover from the compressor clogs
    downstream equipment
  • Carryover from Glycol Dehydrator causes
    compressor and downstream problems

  • Process Overview
  • Amine Sweetening utilizes solvent
  • to remove H2S and CO2 which are
  • both harmful to the pipeline and
  • equipment.
  • Process Issues
  • Contactor Foaming
  • Heat Exchanger Fouling
  • Heater Tube hot spots
  • Extreme corrosion on heating surfaces
  • Increased maintenance costs
  • Increased solvent usage
  • Formation of heat stable salts
  • Activated carbon fouling
  • Waste disposal increase costs
  • pH fluctuation due to acid gas formation
  • Cyanide Formation
  • Condenser fouling
  • Sulfur recover catalyst damage

  • Process Overview
  • Sulften is a Claus tail gas treating
  • process designed to treat gas with less
  • than 20 CO2.
  • As gas enters the system it is heated to
  • reaction temperature where it becomes
  • hydrolyzed and hydrogenated to covert
  • the SO2 producing H2S and water.
  • Gas is then cooled and passed into the
  • first of two towers to selectively remove
  • the H2S.
  • The sour water from the stripper tower is
  • piped to the sour water stripper and
  • selective solvent is stripped. The
  • absorber gas is almost pure CO2 while
  • the stripper produces almost pure H2S
  • which is sent back to the Claus process
  • for Sulfur recovery.
  • Process Issues
  • Corrosion
  • Iron Sulfides
  • Elemental Sulfur
  • Quench Water Solids
  • Solvent pH
  • Solvent loss downstream
  • NOx levels up
  • Contactor Foaming
  • Solvent contamination in the rich side causes
    most tail gas treating problems.

  • Process Overview
  • Shell Claus Off Gas Treating
  • (SCOT) process is a wet
  • scrubbing process designed to
  • remove sulfur compounds from
  • Sulfur Plant tail gas through
  • amine absorption. The H2S
  • removed is returned to the
  • front end of the Claus unit for
  • sulfur recovery.
  • Protection of the catalyst bed is
  • vital, you should assure that
  • both liquids and solids are
  • removed from the gas stream
  • to prevent premature Catalyst
  • bed decay.
  • Process Issues
  • Amine carryover
  • Cooler Fouling
  • Pipeline corrosion
  • Catalyst Bed Fouling
  • Tower corrosion
  • Compressor life effected

  • Process Overview
  • Large skid mounted engines
  • drive compressors, these
  • engines generate a great deal
  • of heat that needs to be
  • dissipated or it will cause
  • eventual engine failure. This
  • heat is dissipated with the use
  • of coolants, normally ethylene
  • glycol/water or propylene
  • glycol mixture. These coolants
  • become contaminated with
  • oils, solid particulate and other
  • foreign material. These
  • contaminates lead to
  • performance problems and
  • short engine life.
  • Process Issues
  • Short coolant life
  • Pump seal wear
  • Thermostat malfunction
  • Cylinder wear
  • Valve wear

  • Process Overview
  • Over time solid waste in
  • landfills decomposes, during
  • decomposition gas composed
  • of carbon dioxide and methane
  • is produced. Landfill gas has
  • low heating value (500-550
  • BTU) this gas is collected
  • under vacuum through a
  • system of vertical wells
  • sometimes using horizontal
  • headers. After this gas is
  • cleaned it can be used to
  • generate electricity.
  • Process Issues
  • Corrosion
  • Condensation and forming nasty liquid
  • Compressor wear due to liquids and corrosion

  • Process Overview
  • Pipeline gas is seldom treated
  • after the last compressor
  • station therefore gas entering
  • plants can contain a variety of
  • solid and liquid contaminates
  • such as pipeline additives i.e.
  • corrosion inhibitors, odorizers,
  • hydrate inhibitors, and
  • antiscalants.
  • It is vital to remove these
  • contaminates prior to
  • introducing gas to the process
  • heaters.
  • Process Issues
  • Heater Nozzles fouling
  • Compressor wear and maintenance
  • Heater inefficiency

  • Process Overview
  • Generation of power by Natural
  • Gas driven turbines continues
  • to grow worldwide.
  • Most straight turbine
  • generators are known as
  • peakers or are used to power
  • a specific plant that has no
  • practical use for steam.
  • Process Issues
  • Cleanliness of the fuel gas
  • Coolant filtration
  • Lube oil Filtration
  • Air Filtration

  • Process Overview
  • Combined Cycle Electrical
  • Power generation is utilized to
  • capture as much output energy
  • as possible from the energy
  • consumed.
  • Electricity is generated and
  • goes to the power grid while
  • the exhaust gas is directed to a
  • boiler which produces steam.
  • The steam is then used to
  • drive a steam turbine to
  • generate additional electricity
  • which is fed to the power grid
  • as well.
  • Process Issues
  • Fuel Gas Contamination
  • Air Contamination
  • Compressor lube oil contamination
  • Turbine lube oil contamination
  • Steam system make up water contamination

  • Process Overview
  • Coal Fired Power Plants
  • generate more electricity
  • worldwide than any other type
  • of generation system. In this
  • process the coal is pulverized
  • to a powder and conveyed into a boiler
  • along with preheated air where
  • it is burned to generate heat.
  • The boiler contains heat
  • exchanger tubes filled with water.
  • The water in these tubes is
  • converted to steam which is
  • used to drive steam turbines
  • which generate electricity.
  • Process Issues
  • Calcium and Magnesium scaling from poor quality
    make up water
  • Plugging of the high pressure ash wash nozzles
  • Turbine reliability due to lube oil contamination
  • Turbine reliability due to poor quality steam

  • Process Overview
  • Pressure relief, incinerator
  • gases and some off gases are
  • normally flared at most
  • refineries.
  • Process Issues
  • Flame Arrester Failure
  • Burner Tip Fouling
  • Pilot Flame Outs
  • Burner Flame Outs
  • Flash Back Explosions
  • Excessive release of contaminates into the

  • Process Overview
  • Catalytic Reforming utilizes
  • low octane naphtha in the
  • presence of Hydrogen to
  • produce high octane motor
  • fuel blending stock. By-
  • products of this process are
  • Aromatic intermediates
  • Process Issues
  • Process liquid carryover
  • Reactor bed plugging
  • Reactor bed short life
  • Catalyst carryover

  • Process Overview
  • Hydrotreater feedstock's
  • normally contain sulfur, N2,
  • Asphaltines and metals.
  • Quality fuel oil and catalytic
  • cracker feedstock's are
  • produced by removing the
  • contaminants through
  • hydrogen and solid catalyst
  • treatment.
  • Process Issues
  • Reactor Fouling
  • Hydrogen compressor failure/high maintenance
  • Recycled hydrogen contamination

  • Process Overview
  • Hydrocracking is the process
  • which can be used to reduce
  • any petroleum fraction to any
  • product of lower molecular
  • value. During hydrocracking
  • N2, sulfur and O2 are removed
  • from the hydrocarbon resulting
  • in product mixtures of
  • naphthalene's, aromatics and
  • paraffin's
  • Process Issues
  • Catalyst bed fouling
  • Heat Exchanger fouling
  • Reactor Bed damage/plugging
  • Liquid carryover from separators
  • Heat exchanger fouling

  • Process Overview
  • Solid desiccants such as alumina,
  • aluminum or silica gel and
  • molecular sieves are used to
  • absorb moisture from natural gas.
  • Water in the gas is removed prior
  • to the gas being introduced to the
  • desiccant bed. Gas is preheated
  • and introduced into the bed to
  • remove trace moisture, when the
  • bed is saturated a switch to the
  • other bed occurs and the used bed
  • is regenerated.
  • Process Issues
  • Bed fouling from hydrocarbon introduction
  • Bed fouling from solids introduction
  • Amine and glycol contamination
  • Iron sulfides introduction
  • Corrosion inhibitors introduction

  • Process Overview
  • Isomerization process
  • produces catalytically
  • converted straight chain
  • paraffin hydrocarbons into
  • isomers in a hydrogen rich
  • environment. The more
  • complex isomers have a
  • higher octane rating and are
  • used as blending compounds
  • for motor fuels
  • Process Issues
  • Stabilizer internals fouling
  • Scrubber carryover
  • Catalyst Bed Plugging
  • Mol Sieve Bed Plugging