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The romance' of leadership is still debated in organisational theory ... compare 1960s UK motorcycles & Swiss watch market to Yamaha and Seiko. Chris Jarvis ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership

  • There is nothing more difficult to take in hand,
    more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in
    its success, than to take the lead in the
    introduction of a new order of things.
  • Machiavelli 1513

  • The romance of leadership is still debated in
    organisational theory analysis
  • 'Is there any evidence for a systematic
    relationship between leadership styles and
    organisational performance? Jaffee, 200186
  • Subtext (p87)
  • A means of generating stories about how kinds
    of power influence can be exerted
  • but the role of leadership in organisations is
    concerned with exerting control over meanings
    interpretations of important groups
  • its effectiveness is as a political tool
  • Meindl et al 1985, cited in Jaffee, 2001

A source of political control and influence
  • An more negative argument within organisational
    sociological tradition
  • concerned with how leadership can influence how a
    situation is defined
  • challenges managerial psychology views i.e
    leadership as an element of group and
    organisational functioning (seen by some as
    managerialist ideology)

Leadership Conceptual and practical dilemmas
  • Leadership
  • best understood in high profile, public figure
  • often associated with male attributes, which may
    limit its definitions and therefore, what happens
    in reality
  • may create problems for women put into leadership
  • we dont like the bad ones (Hitler, Maxwell)
  • we feel its absence (leaderless group,
    directionless organisation)

Psychological view of what is a leader - Kelly,
  • Nominators may make selections of leaders
    differently, depending upon their understanding
    of what the situation demands (originality
    defence of group devotion to duty, etc.)
  • Leader
  • one who performs a variety of jobs popularly
    recognised as "leadership" jobs (socially
  • needs to understand his/her role in group social
  • selectors anticipate role that they expect to be
  • Dynamic, socio-psychological interplay between
    followers leadership (e.g. political parties)

Authority and Leadership
  • Max Webereffective exercise of authority
    requires the authority figure to possess
    legitimacy, thru. charisma, reputation, lineage
    or exceptional credentials.
  • Katz Kahn (1966)occupying a formal position of
    authority is not enough must possess qualities
    to motivate energise others.
  • Henry Mintzberg (1973) All managers adopt a
    leader role as one of their roles - to integrate
    individual goals/needs organisational

Four approaches to leadership
  • Trait theories Brynman 1996 reviewed literature
    to elicit essential e.g. physique, height,
    intelligence, sociability, assertiveness - no
  • Leadership functions and stylesTannenbaum et al
    1961, Likert 1961 Adair, 1965 e.g. task leaders
    vs. social leaders participative or exploitative
  • Contingency or situational leadership concerned
    with relationships between traits/styles the
    situation or context (Fieldler 1967 Hersey,
    Blanchard Johnson, 1998)
  • "New Leadership" ..... Transformationalcreate
    organisational climate/culture that motivates
    stimulates continuous learning, quality self
    initiative e.g. transformational leadership
    (Bass, 1997)

Management versus Leadership
  • 'Leadership'
  • a road, a way, steering a ship at sea, giving a
    sense of direction.
  • 'Management' (Latin manus) - a hand
  • 19thC corporatism industrialisation -
    managerial agents
  • Managers and Leaders are they different?
    (Zaleznik 1977 HBR)
  • management leadership - related but different

Bennis (1989)
  • Managers
  • administer, copy, maintain
  • focus on systems structure
  • rely on control
  • short-range view - bottom line
  • ask how when
  • accept the status quo
  • classic good soldier
  • do things right
  • Leaders
  • innovation originality
  • develop
  • focus on people inspire trust
  • long-range view - the horizon
  • ask what why
  • challenge the status quo
  • are their own person
  • do the right things

What is the purpose and effect of this type of
listing/comparison? What is the status of this
as theory?
'the liberation of talent rather than restraint
by rule Leaders aim at 'winning hearts and
minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use
of 'resources'. (Peters Austin, 1985).
Maintaining or losing leadership
  • Followers have expectations (e.g. Kelly 1991)
  • socio-emotional competence especially group
    reflection (West 1997)
  • task competence (Fincham Rhodes 1999)
  • Gap may exist between actual perceived
    competence influences willingness of followers
    to comply - Price Garland, 1981
  • Idiosyncratic credit permission to deviate from
    group norms - maintaining credit is crucial to
    surviving in leadership position, Hollander, 1958

Classical management functions
  • Fayol
  • plan, organise, direct, control resources to
    achieve objectives.
  • Generate follow
  • policies, rules procedures (admin. gt mgt?)
  • seek order control.
  • handle direct resources
  • money, materials, equip't, space, facilities,
  • information technology
  • use of time
  • people
  • Have 'subordinates' and communicate
  • enable others to understand information,
    instructions or ideas
  • Telling people what to do how to do it gt vision
    giving a sense of direction?

Leadership organisational effectiveness
  • Common-sense research link between mgr-leader
    behaviour subordinate performance.
  • belief that business success has much to do with
  • mgt devel. programmes emphasise mgr/leadership
  • Can leadership skills really be developed?
  • simulated field experience (outward bound)?
  • assessment centre (workshop selection devel)?
  • coaching mentoring
  • going on a leadership course?
  • meditation?
  • reading a book, watching the TV?
  • playing team games e.g. rugby, hockey?
  • Drake's Drum?

Academic practitioner recipes
  • a mix of traditional behavioural science
  • few analytical studies of leadership offer much
    to the practical manager (Adair)
  • academic doubts. Textbooks tend to
  • report 'theories' few query the validity of each
  • the imply prescriptions ? industry selling
  • Elixirs, recipes, 'leadership development'
    packages interpersonal skills, motivating,
    listening, participative problem solving,
    assertiveness transforming skills

Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference
  • One set of values, beliefs, commitments
  • Shared understanding commitment to objectives
  • One source of leadership
  • Team members - All pulling in the same direction
  • Potential for harmony is assumed if leader
    communicates well
  • Disagreements ? the result of misunderstanding
  • Dissidents "rabble" hypothesis

Alan Fox Research Paper to Donovan Commission
How do different 'styles' affect an organisation?
  • wide ranging open to question
  • difficult to research - what are the variables?
  • difficult to
  • separate fact from fiction
  • attribute cause effect in different contexts
    organisational settings over time
  • ambiguity of measures of organisational
  • gap between perception of practitioners
    behavioural scientists

  • What figures in your life do you regard as
  • What are the characteristics that they possess?
    List the qualities. Which ones keep recurring?
  • In your view, do organisations need leaders? If
    not, what would be the consequences (good or bad)
    of an absence of leaders in organisations?

Leadership traits approach
  • Bird 1940, Brynman 1996 identified traits from
    'the literature'. Few common to all studies
  • everyday wisdom on common traits
  • wide range of trait descriptors variety of
    'leaders' (heroes and villains) - difficult to
    agree on one list
  • when leaders behave towards followers in
    different ways, how much is cause, how much is
  • do some 'qualities' indicate potential
    differentiate the 'effective from the
  • non-leaders often possess the same traits as
  • Conclusion?
  • Consider followers situation that L. occurs in.

The leadership style approaches
  • Mayo Hawthorne experiments (Roethlisberger
    Dickson, 1939)
  • 'permissive', sensitive leadership behaviour ?
    more output
  • Relay Assembly room - increased output influenced
    by 'permissive' management of researchers
  • Bank Wiring room - links management style,
    employee attitudes and behaviour
  • Kurt Lewin (1939) - adult leaders in boys' hobby
  • autocratic, laissez faire, democratic leader
    styles the behaviour/performance of youth
  • language model linking "styles" ? subordinate
  • Democratic style reflects dominant social values
  • Impetus for further study - Michigan Ohio State

Ohio State studies (two factor theories)
  • two (independent) L - dimensions
  • initiating structure (task centred)
  • consideration (interpersonal relationships)
  • "measure" perception style preferences
  • in various settings ? inventories development
  • Effectiveness reflects
  • task completion
  • member satisfaction

Flieshman 1953 Stogdill (1948, 1956)
  • Supervisors
  • High task - productive but high turnover, lower
  • High consideration - high morale, low
  • Over-generalised conclusions
  • Ideal L high on initiation consideration.
  • Participative styles preferred

Critique of Ohio Studies
  • output measures can often be favourably affected
    in the short term by authoritarian leadership.
  • The problems of social research
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Abstracted empiricism
  • likelihood that a change in performance is
    related to more than one variable

Michigan Leadership Studies
Managerial Grid
  • programmes for changing style org. culture
  • 'proprietary' approaches to assessment training
  • diagnosis treatment
  • Blake - Moulton Managerial Grid (1968)
  • Extended with contingency focus
  • Tannenbaum (1958)
  • Reddin (1970)
  • Hersey Blanchard (1977)

9.9. the ideal one-best style
Concern for production
Critique of style theories
  • Universality of the style?
  • weak evidence for usefulness of 'style' theories
  • Style changes often assoc. with changes in org.
    structure other mgt competencies .
  • Fiedler (1967) - Are participative, considerate
    styles really better than trad. authoritarian
    or directive?
  • Ineffective L-training - weak transfer of
    behaviour change from directive to participative

Group dynamic/process approach
  • Leadership determined by
  • group setting not the individual or the whole
  • common functional behaviours
  • a. task
  • b. socio-emotional needs of group (c)
  • failure in one affects the other two (performance
  • Leader contributions?
  • Structuring - integrating - calming - supporting
    - controlling
  • one 'leader' may not necessarily perform all
  • roles from 'trouble-shooters' to 'counsellors'
  • Drake's Drum again - 'Cometh the hour, cometh the

Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum
use of authority by leader
decision making action freedom for followers
Position on continuum based on situational
factors value system, wants, confidence,
Adair Action-centred leadership
Simple model useful for junior mgt
training functional situational emphasis on
task situation socio-emotional needs Aware of
group processes, people in group, nuances of
behaviour, interpersonal skills
Critique of Group Dynamics approach
  • If leadership behaviour is situationally group
    related what happens when the situation or group
  • Does the organisation function sub-optimally?
  • ignores wider organisational demands on leader
  • Yet
  • we comprehend how leaders may relate to followers

Reddin 3-D (style-contingency approach)
Situational leadership (Hersey Blanchard 1977
  • contingency approach
  • follower maturity a critical situational variable
  • two dimensions
  • task style
  • relationship style
  • Four styles
  • telling, selling, participating, delegating.
  • follower maturity
  • degree of achievement motivation
  • willingness to take on responsibility
  • education or experience

Problems with contingency theories?
  • what causes what - in real life?
  • as with style theories, difficult to understand
    why there should be a favourable view of the
    leader in some groups.
  • 'permissive' leadership the consequence gt the
    cause of group effectiveness.

Social learning theory and leadership
  • a model for continuous interaction between the
    environment (macro variables subordinates) and
    leader's behaviour, perception and cognition.
  • leader subordinates/followers
  • have negotiable, interactive relationship
  • learn to modify or influence each other's
    behaviour by giving or holding back desired
  • Davis and Luthans, 1980
  • Sims Lorenzi, 1992, The New Leadership
    Paradigm, Sage

Why the search for the Grail ?
  • exercising effective-L is more more difficult
  • economic shifts Pacific Rim and China etc.
  • political change South Africa, CIS, Italy, Japan
  • big transnational firms
  • less goodwill traditional deference towards
  • Many skills techniques of today's senior execs
    are being superseded. Which ones?
  • Competition changing markets, products,
    technologies expectations dictate adaptability
    and innovation in strategic decision making,
    marketing, organisation - leadership

Transformational leadership theory
  • Context? late-20thC national global pol-econ.
  • Contributors Downton (1973), Burns (1978), Bass
    (1985), Bennis Nanus (1985), Tichy Devanna
  • Bass surveyed 70 execs"In your careers, who
    transformed you in Burns' terms (raised
    awareness, move up Maslow hierarchy . to
    transcend self-interest etc).
  • Answer usually an organisational superior.

From Laissez faire to Transactional
  • Laissez-faire
  • not really leaders at all, avoid intervention,
    weak follow up, passivity, potential for
  • Transactional leaders
  • management by exception
  • passive set standards/objectives, wait for,
    react to, reluctant intervention. Status quo
  • active standards/objectives, monitor, correct,
    look for error, enforce rules/procedures. Low
    initiative risk-taking
  • constructive transactions, contingent rewards
  • agree standards/objectives, feedback, PR rewards
  • outcome performance that meets expectations.
  • Simplified in One-Min. Manager (Blanchard
    Johnson 1982). Airport business books

Transactional leadership
  • Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even
    necessary. Contingent rewards underpin PRP - do
  • Laissez-faire transactional in directive,
    consultative, participative delegative styles
  • directive Mgt by Exception'These are the rules
    and this is how you've broken them'.
  • participative Mgt by ExceptionLet's work
    together to identify mistakes'
  • Weaknesses
  • Carrot/stick rewards, emphasis on plans, targets,
    systems, controls
  • management gt leadership
  • fails to develop, motivate, bring to full
    potential (Bass)

The transformational leader (Basss four 'I's)
  • promotes
  • follower desire for achievement
  • teams, esprit de corps, autonomy, synergy,
    belief, value
  • Four 'I's.
  • lndividualised consideration (IC)
  • Intellectual stimulation (IS)
  • Inspirational motivation (IM)
  • ldealised influence (charisma) (II)

Individualised consideration Intellectual
  • IC
  • identifying individuals' needs abilities, opps.
    to learn, delegating, coaching giving
    developmental feedback. Spend time with
    individuals e.g. mentoring.
  • IS
  • question status quo, encourage imagination,
    creativity, logical thinking intuition.
  • unorthodoxy in character, symbolise innovation.
  • compare 1960s UK motorcycles Swiss watch market
    to Yamaha and Seiko

Inspirational motivation ldealised influence
  • IM
  • Clear vision, problems as opportunities, language
  • I had a dream ...
  • Ask not what America can do for you. Ask what
    you can do..
  • Go the extra mile. Iacocca at Chrysler.
  • II
  • Confident in communicating a virtuous vision
  • The buck stops here'. Purpose, persistence,
    trust, accomplish gt failure. Respected for
    personal ability

Leadership .. the priceless gift you earn from
those who work for you. I have to earn the right
to that gift, and continuously re-earn
(it). John Harvey-Jones (ICI)
  • Gandhi, Luther King, Thatcher, Blair
  • Hitler, Jim Jones

Bass's model
Is transformational leadership cross-cultural?
  • exporting participative management or Theory Y
    from the USA to authoritarian cultures is like
    'preaching Jeffersonian democracy to managers who
    believe in the divine right of kings'.
  • Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 1966
  • Leadership - a universal phenomenon?
  • context culture influences
  • Bass presents evidence from studies in Italy,
    Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, India, Japan
  • suggests that the model needs only fine-tuning
    across cultures ??

Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need
  • 1970s dissatisfaction with leadership theory
    research in explaining effect on motivation
  • 'Substitutes' theory of leadership (Kerr
    Jermier 1978)
  • Are there substitutes making L-behaviour
    unnecessary e.g.
  • 'Professional', competent people do not need
    'leadership' to perform well to be motivated.
    Depends on
  • the individuals, the work, the organisation its
    structure, feedback, intrinsic job satisfaction,
    group cohesion, weak authority or remoteness of
    the leader

Exam Question
  • Review alternative leadership theories and
    analyse their value in terms of
  • (a) guiding decisions in selecting managers to
    run modern organisations
  • (b) giving pointers to individuals in developing
    skills and abilities that, in a range of
    situations, may further their career aspirations.
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