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a road, a way, the path of a ship at sea - a sense of direction. ... Share common patterns with baboons, chickens, lions? Leadership is not a personal quality. ... – PowerPoint PPT presentation

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Title: Leadership

  • There is nothing more difficult to take in hand,
    more perilous to conduct, or more uncertain in
    its success, than to take the lead in the
    introduction of a new order of things.
  • Machiavelli

Management" versus Leadership
  • 'Leadership'
  • a road, a way, the path of a ship at sea - a
    sense of direction.
  • 'Management' (Latin manus) - a hand, handling a
    sword, a ship, a horse.
  • 19thC corporatism and industrialisation -
    managerial agents
  • What do managers and leaders do? (Zaleznik 1977)
  • Managers focus attention energy on
  • how things get done
  • their role in events that occur or in a
    decision-making process.
  • Leaders more concerned with
  • ideas
  • relating to others in more intuitive, empathetic
  • what events and decisions mean to people

Classical management
  • Managers
  • plan, organise, direct, control resources to
    achieve objectives.
  • follow formal policies, rules procedural
    regulations of their employing organisation
    (administration gt management?)
  • handle and physically direct resources
  • money, materials, machinery, equipment, space,
  • information and technology
  • use of time
  • people
  • Telling people what to do and how to do it more
    than vision and giving a sense of direction?

Leadership 'messages'
  • Managers have 'subordinates' and communicate
  • enable others to understand information,
    instructions or ideas
  • seek order and control
  • Leaders have followers. They
  • envision, influence, inspire.
  • tolerate, promote creativity and imagination
  • Bring order from chaos
  • influence people towards objectives and desire
    to achieve
  • gain voluntary commitment over compliance
  • win hearts and minds

Bennis (1989)
  • Managers
  • Administer and copy
  • Maintain
  • Focus on systems structure
  • Rely on control
  • Short-range view - bottom line
  • Ask how and when
  • Accept the status quo
  • Classic good soldier
  • Do things right
  • Leaders
  • Innovation and originality
  • Develop
  • Focus on people
  • Inspire trust
  • Long-range view - the horizon
  • Ask what and why
  • Challenge the status quo
  • Own person
  • Do the right things

'the liberation of talent rather than restraint
by rule Leaders aim at 'winning hearts and
minds'. Mere managers aim at optimising the use
of 'resources'. (Peters Austin, 1985).
Leadership organisational effectiveness
  • Common-sense research link between manager-
    leadership behaviour subordinate performance.
  • belief that business success has much to do with
  • management development programmes emphasise
    manager and leadership style.
  • Can leadership and problem-solving skills really
    be developed from
  • simulated experienced in a field (outward bound
  • assessment centre activity (workshop-like
    selection development)?
  • coaching and mentoring
  • going on a leadership course?
  • Reading a book, watching the TV?
  • Playing rugby or football?

Practitioners, academia and recipes
  • a mix of traditional and behavioural science
  • few analytical studies of leadership offer much
    to the practical manager (Adair)
  • academic doubts
  • textbooks tend to
  • Report 'theories'
  • Some query the validity of particular approaches
  • Imply prescriptions
  • An industry selling
  • prescriptive 'leadership development' and
    interpersonal skills packages motivating,
    listening, participative problem solving,
    assertiveness and transforming skills

Leadership behaviour effect on performance.
  • Change involving 'people' is associated with
  • What competencies can be meaningfully described
    as 'leadership'?
  • Managers politicians generalise - 'we know it
    when we see it'.
  • Correlate the skills and success of particular
  • Mayo and Hawthorne experiments (Roethlisberger
    Dickson, 1939)
  • 'permissive' leadership behaviour leads to
    greater output
  • Kurt Lewin (1939)
  • Autocratic, Laissez faire, Democratic leader
    styles the behaviour/performance of youth
  • language 'model' linking styles --gt
    subordinate performance

Unitary (vs. pluralistic) frame of reference
  • Unitary
  • One set of values, beliefs, commitments
  • Shared understanding commitment to objectives
  • One source of leadership
  • Team members - All pulling in the same direction
  • Potential for harmony is assumed if leader
    communicates well
  • Disagreements è the result of misunderstanding
  • Dissidents "rabble" hypothesis

Alan Fox Research Paper to Donovan Commission
Change the people in post
  • Selection and job change can profoundly effect
    organisational effectiveness. Peters and
    Waterman (1982)
  • ' Hewlett-Packard Way' 'MbWA (Management by
    walk about)
  • Pascale Athos (1982) compare 'styles' and
  • compared the styles and management practices of
  • founder of Matsushita (National Panasonic)
  • American CEOs
  • 'good' and 'bad' leadership styles
  • Konosuke Matsushita E. Carlson - United
    Airlines ('good')
  • Harold Geneen at ITT (short-term effective,
    long-term bad).
  • Margaret Thatcher vs. Tony Blair?

How do different 'styles' affect an organisation?
  • wide ranging question
  • open to question
  • difficult to research - what are the variables?
  • difficult to
  • separate fact from fiction
  • attribute cause and effect in different contexts
    and organisational settings over time
  • ambiguity of measures of organisational
  • gap between perception of practitioners and
    behavioural scientists

Typology of leadership theory
  • Sometimes misleading to group as 'schools'.
    Nuances in original works
  • Yet three variables to leadership situations
  • leader
  • followers
  • context/situation in which L/F find themselves

Leadership traits approach
  • everyday wisdom on common traits.
  • can anyone agree?
  • do some 'qualities' indicate potential
    differentiate the 'effective from the
  • Wide range of trait descriptors variety of
    'leaders' (heroes and villains) - difficult to
    agree on one list

Cartwright and Zander (1968)
  • Effective leaders are often
  • more intelligent, dependable, responsible, active
    and participative socially
  • with higher socioecon. status
  • act more often in different ways, or the same way
    to different degrees in some activities?
  • give out ask for more information
  • make more frequent interpretations of events

Nature over nurture Leadership is learned,
although I cannot explain entirely how ... The
ability to lead and inspire others is .. more
instinctual than premeditated and acquired
somehow through the experiences of one's everyday
life . the nature quality of that leadership
comes out of innate character
personality Harold Geneen ITT
psychometric tests for assessment and selection.
  • Think of three managers you have known. List the
    qualities of those you rate as being more
    effective managers
  • Do a separate list for three less effective ones.
  • What factors, or qualities, recur on each list?
  • Select four leaders from national or
    organisational life and list their qualities.
    Which ones keep recurring?
  • What factors match those for your effective

Limitations of 'traits' approach
  • when leaders behave towards followers in
    different ways, how much is cause, how much is
  • non-leaders often possess the same traits as
  • Impossible to compile a list of universal traits.
  • Bird 1940 identified 79 different traits from
    'the literature'. Only 5 common to gt 4 studies
  • Conclusion?
  • Consider the situation that leadership occurs in.

The group dynamics (group process) approach
  • leadership as a function of organisation not the
  • small task groups not whole organisation
  • three common functional behaviours
  • accomplish the task
  • social emotional needs of group
  • social emotional needs of individual members.
  • failure in one affects the other two (performance
  • Leader contributions?
  • Structuring - integrating
  • Calming, supporting
  • Controlling
  • But one 'leader' may not necessarily perform all
  • roles from 'trouble-shooters' to 'counsellors' -
    Belbin roles
  • 'Cometh the hour, cometh the man'.

Adair Action-centred leadership
  • functional emphasis based on task situation and
    socio-emotional needs
  • Aware of group processes, people in group,
    nuances of behaviour, interpersonal skills

Task functions
Group maintenance
Individual needs
Vertical Dyad Linkage (VDL) Model (Danserau 1975)
  • Leader may use different style for member
  • Social exchange - leader-member relationships
  • Group a set of vertical linkages
  • Two sub-groups of relationships
  • In-group members
  • For the leader - reliable, effort, initiative,
    open, trust and confidence, autonomy
  • Out-group members
  • Calculative, do contract only, distant, tension
  • Leadership - a negotiated VDL role

Anthony Jay (1975) - Propositions
  • Cohesive groups or teams working as a social
    unit (a 'ten group') achieve more than
    individuals in isolation. Based on
  • Anecdotal, experiential evidence
  • analogy with primitive tribes animal behaviour
    Morris (1967, 1969), Ardrey (1961, 1967, 1970).
  • Share common patterns with baboons, chickens,
  • Leadership is not a personal quality.
  • Some have innate tendency and drive for
    high-status dominance but this is one factor only
  • become leader only in relation to specific group
  • group leader emerges because the group thinks
    that he/she can best help the group

Critique of Group Dynamics approach
  • If leadership behaviour is situationally and
    group related what happens when the situation or
    group changes?
  • Does the organisation function sub-optimally?
  • But
  • we comprehend how leaders may relate to followers
  • ignores wider organisational demands on leader
    and group.

The leadership style approach
  • Hawthorne experiments origin
  • Leader 'style' affects morale and output.
  • Relay Assembly room - increased output caused by
    'permissive' management of researchers
  • Bank Wiring room - links management style and
    employee attitudes and behaviour
  • Kurt Lewin et al 1939 - adult leaders in boys'
    hobby club
  • Autocratic, laissez faire, democratic leaders and
    follower behaviour
  • Democratic style reflects dominant social values
  • Impetus for further study - Michigan and Ohio

Ohio State studies (two factor-theory)
Flieshman 1953 Stogdill (1948, 1956)
  • two (independent) L-dimensions
  • initiating structure (task centred)
  • consideration (interpersonal relationships)
  • "measure" perceptions style preferences in
    various settings ---gt inventories development
  • effectiveness reflects
  • task completion
  • member satisfaction
  • High task supervisors - productive but high
    turnover, lower morale
  • High consideration supervisors - high morale, low
  • Over-generalised conclusions
  • ideal leader high on initiation
  • participative styles preferred

Ohio State findings - balancing initiation
  • crews superiors rate aircraft commanders by
  • technical competence
  • effectiveness in working with other crew members
  • performance under stress
  • conformity to standard operating procedures
  • overall effectiveness as crew members
  • Crews senior officers differed in perception of
    commander styles effectiveness
  • Superiors judge leader competence in terms of
  • formal traditional standards
  • high initiating low or indifferent
  • Subordinates give less significance to
    initiating. High satisfaction under
    'considerate' commanders (seen as more

Linking Pin (Likert)
  • Effective leaders fulfil group needs functions
    in a situation
  • Frustration, low productivity, absentees
    turnover if formal-L cant perform all these.
  • Formal tasks.
  • instrumental competencies motives
  • technical know-how, innovation, sense of
    achievement, concern for quality customer care
  • Affiliation
  • interaction, support expressive needs
  • Weak formal-L. Informal alternative emerges
  • If L-behaviour best fits group situation, what if
    this changes?
  • Can formal leader adapt?
  • will group, dept, nation (led by alternative)
    perform optimally?

Critique of Ohio State Studies
  • Did not use peer group evaluation by commanders
    or non-evaluative measures of performance.
  • output measures can often be favourably affected
    in the short term by authoritarian leadership.
  • Usual problems of social research
  • Hawthorne effect
  • Abstracted empiricism
  • likelihood that a change in performance is
    related to more than one variable

Michigan Leadership Studies
Managerial Grid
  • programmes for changing style org. culture
  • 'proprietary' approaches to assessment training
  • Diagnosis and treatment
  • Blake - Mouton Managerial Grid (1968)
  • Extended with contingency focus
  • Tannenbaum 1958
  • Reddin (1970)
  • Hersey Blanchard (1977)

9.9. the ideal one-best style
Concern for people
Concern for production
Tannenbaum-Schmidt Continuum
use of authority by leader
decision making action freedom for followers
Continuum based on situational factors value
system, wants, confidence, willingness.
  • Review your experiences of working under
    different leadership styles. Advantages
    disadvantages of a shift to a more
    'participative' style?
  • What departments in your organisation appear to
    operate with different 'leadership cultures'?
    Account for the differences.

Critique of style theories
  • Universality of the style approach?
  • Ambiguous evidence for usefulness of ' style'
  • Style changes often assoc. with changes in org.
    structure other mgt competencies .
  • Fiedler (1967) questions whether participative,
    considerate styles are better than trad.
    authoritarian or directive.
  • Ineffective L-training - weak transfer of
    behaviour change from directive to participative.
  • Organisational work pressures - own other
    people's expectations.

Contingency approach - Fiedler (1967)
  • Defines L-effectiveness as behaviour that ---gt
    high task performance by group. Depends on
  • preferred style of leader
  • group situation as much as leader
  • contextual variables
  • Quality of L-member relations
  • Work structure (high to low)
  • Leader position power
  • Respected leaders have personal power. No need to
    use position power (authority)
  • High structure? non- compliance? Easy
    intervention. Unstructured, hard measure? Cannot
    easily enforce. Less power
  • extent of formal authority over rewards and
    sanctions Power is not just dependent
    leader-follower relationships.

Fielder development prescription
  • Measure preferred style
  • least preferred co-worker LPC instrument
  • 8 scales e.g. cooperative-uncooperative,
    friendly-unfriendly, supportive-hostile
  • High LPC - relationships oriented
  • Low LPC - task oriented
  • - External circumstances affect L ability to
  • - Change leader (personality?) to fit situation
    or restructure to reflect strengths?
  • Re-structure the work - How?
  • position power - depending on L. assessment, give
    subordinates near-equal 'rank' (experts) or
    assign several ranks below
  • Loosen or tighten communication and
  • leader-member relations - leader can be similar
    or dissimilar to members (social, educational or
    ethnic background, values or attitudes)
  • A history of harmony or conflict? Assign a leader
    whose style fits group
  • Fiedler and Garcia 1987 pp 49-55
  • See Chapter 13 Rollinson

Fiedler leader-members, task structures,
position power
Implications and critique of Fielder
  • If Fielder is right
  • dont try to change people arrange task power
    to fit situation
  • select leaders identify preferred styles.
    Diagnose situation and change it for - best fit
    leader-match concept
  • But
  • can a manager really choose a style, change
    'personality' and a virtuoso with different
  • Leadership training targets this. Are they
    training pigs to fly?
  • LPC scores may indicate attitudes or personality
    but not actual behaviour
  • Task performance is sole criterion for evaluating
    effectiveness (neglects follower satisfaction)
  • L-processes are more sophisticated than this
    theory. Mixed evidence on validity - other
    variables ignored
  • However
  • a deeper study which breaks the 'one-best-style'
    view and addresses contextual variables

Exam Questions
  • Evaluate the significance of Fiedler's 'social
    engineering' approach to the development of
    thinking on leadership and manager development
  • Evaluate how the Fiedler 'contingency and social
    engineering approach' to leadership could work
    in any organisation known to you.

Reddin's 3-D model (a style-contingency approach)
  • Is Blake - Mouton (1968) 9.9 style ideal?
  • style is more/less effective in situation

Situational leadership model (Hersey Blanchard
1977, 1982)
  • A contingency approach with follower maturity as
    critical situational variable for
  • two major dimensions
  • task style
  • relationship style
  • Four styles
  • telling, selling, participating, delegating.
  • follower maturity
  • degree of achievement motivation
  • willingness to take on responsibility
  • education or experience
  • Theoretically weak
  • no proper rationale for the hypothesised
  • Maturity - an over-simplified factor - lacks
    empirical support (Yukl, 1981 Graeff, 1983
    Blank et al, 1990).

Path-goal theory (contingency approach)
  • Main idea
  • Effective-L smooths subordinates' path goals
    using appropriate style, contingent on
    situational variables
  • differs from Fiedler
  • various styles - directive, supportive,
    participative and achievement-oriented - can be
    used by the same leader in different situations
  • influence subordinates' perceptions of the
    situational factors
  • motivate by focusing on payoffs
  • coaching and direction
  • clarifying goals and expectancies
  • reducing frustrations/barriers.
  • the research is not conclusive
  • House Mitchell 1974
  • Based on expectancy theory of motivation

Problems with contingency theories
  • what causes what in real life?
  • As with style theories, it is difficult to
    understand why there should be a favourable
    climate towards the leader in some groups.
  • It could be argued that 'permissive' leadership
    is the result, rather than the cause, of group

Social learning theory and leadership
  • a model for continuous interaction between the
    environment (macro variables subordinates and
    the leader's behaviour, perceptions and
  • leader subordinates/followers have negotiable,
    interactive relationship
  • They learn how they can modify or influence each
    other's behaviour by giving or holding back
    desired rewards
  • Davis and Luthans, 1980
  • Sims and Lorenzi, The New Leadership Paradigm,
    Sage, 1992

Why the persistent search ?
  • exercising effective-L is becoming more and more
  • economic shifts Pacific Rim and China etc.
  • political change South Africa, Soviet Union,
    Italy, Japan and Europe
  • less natural goodwill and traditional deference
    towards leaders
  • Many skills and techniques of today's senior
    executives are being superseded.
  • Competition changing markets, products,
    technologies and expectations dictate
    adaptability and innovation in strategic decision
    making, marketing, organisation - and leadership

Are successful leaders redefining their role?
  • projecting a particular ethos and culture
  • powerful vision of where their companies or their
    societies are heading.
  • E.g. Prime Minister Dr Mahathir Mohamed's vision
    of Malaysia in the year 2020
  • former Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew's vision of
    Singapore as The Switzerland of the East by 1999.
  • What does this imply for leadership behaviour?
  • Managers and senior executives who are successful
    leaders will not only respond to change
    positively but also actively create change.
  • Leaders with a particular drive, a desire to
    bring order out of chaos, or, if something is too
    cosy, to create chaos in order to bring change.

Transformational leadership theory
  • Context? late-20thC national global pol-econ.
  • Contributors Downton (1973), Burns (1978), Bass
    (1985), Bennis Nanus (1985), Tichy Devanna
  • Bass surveyed 70 execs"In your careers, who
    transformed you in Burns' terms (raised
    awareness, move up Maslow hierarchy . to
    transcend self-interest).
  • Answer usually an organisational superior.
  • fresh thinking?
  • transformational leader creates conditions for
    followers to want to achieve results and to
    fulfil themselves.
  • bridges small group studies leadership by
    movers and shakers who transform organisations

From Laissez faire to Transactional
  • Laissez-faire not really leaders at all, avoid
    intervention, weak follow up, passivity,
    potential for confusion
  • Transactional leaders
  • Management by exception
  • Passive set standards/objectives, wait for,
    react to, reluctant intervention. Status quo
  • Active standards/objectives, monitor, correct,
    look for error,
  • enforce rules/procedures. Low initiative and
  • constructive transactions, contingent rewards
  • agree standards/objectives, feedback, rewards
    for achievement.
  • outcome performance that meets expectations.
  • simplified in One-Minute Manager (Blanchard
    Johnson 1982)
  • Airport business library

Transactional leadership in perspective
  • Mixed evidence - it may be desirable, even
    necessary. Contingent rewards underpin PRP
  • laissez-faire and transactional in directive,
    consultative, participative delegative styles
  • directive Mgt by Exception
  • 'These are the rules and this is how you've
    broken them'.
  • participative Mgt by exception
  • 'Let's work out together the rules to identify
  • Weaknesses
  • Carrot/stick rewards, emphasis on plans, targets,
    systems, controls
  • management gt leadership
  • fails to develop, motivate, bring to full
    potential (Bass)

The transformational leader (Basss four 'I's)
  • promotes
  • follower desire for achievement
  • teams, esprit de corps, autonomy, synergy,
    belief, value
  • Four 'I's.
  • lndividualised consideration (IC)
  • Intellectual stimulation (IS)
  • Inspirational motivation (IM)
  • ldealised influence (charisma) (II)

Individualised consideration and Intellectual
  • IC
  • identifying individuals' needs abilities,
    opportunities to learn, delegating, coaching and
    giving developmental feedback. Spend time with
    individuals e.g. mentoring.
  • IS
  • question status quo, encourage imagination,
    creativity, logical thinking and intuition.
  • unorthodoxy in character, symbolise innovation.
  • Compare UK motorcycles Swiss watch market to

Inspirational motivation ldealised influence
  • Inspirational motivation
  • clear vision, problems as opportunities, language
  • I had a dream ...
  • Ask not what America can do for you. Ask what
    you can do..
  • go the extra mile. Iacocca at Chrysler.
  • ldealised influence
  • Confident in communicating a virtuous vision
  • the buck stops here'. Purpose, persistence,
    trust, accomplishment over failure. Respected for
    personal ability
  • Leadership .. the priceless gift you earn from
    those who work for you. I have to earn the right
    to that gift, and continuously re-earn (it).
  • John Harvey-Jones (ICI)
  • Gandhi, Luther King, Thatcher, Blair
  • Hitler, Jim Jones

Bass's model
  • Learn TL!!
  • Avolio-Bass training package
  • Encouraging TL will
  • project confidence, commitment competence
  • attract quality staff to the mission challenge
  • develop people more fully to respond better to
    competition change

Motorola's six-sigma programme.
  • Transformational leadership application
  • defect-free parts within six standard deviations
  • concepts, symbols and vision for world-class
  • IS, IM, IC in promoting awareness,
    responsibility and self-monitoring.

Is transformational leadership cross-cultural?
  • exporting participative management or Theory Y
    from the USA to authoritarian cultures is like
    'preaching Jeffersonian democracy to managers who
    believe in the divine right of kings'.
  • Haire, Ghiselli and Porter 1966
  • Leadership - a universal phenomenon?
  • context and culture influences
  • Bass presents evidence from studies in Italy,
    Sweden, Canada, New Zealand, India, Japan and
  • suggests that the model needs only fine-tuning
    across cultures

Motivated in spite of leader? Do we really need
  • 1970s dissatisfaction with leadership theory and
    research in explaining effect on motivation
  • 'Substitutes' theory of leadership (Kerr
    Jermier 1978)
  • Are there substitutes for leadership making
    L-behaviour unnecessary e.g.
  • 'Professional', competent people do not need
    'leadership' to perform well and to be motivated.
    Depends on
  • the individuals, the work, the organisation and
    its structure, feedback, intrinsic job
    satisfaction, group cohesion, weak authority or
    remoteness of the leader
  • Replace/counteract leader behaviour in
    determining member performance and satisfaction.
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